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Full text of "A dictionary of the Sunda language of Java"

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DICTIONARY 



OF TUE 



SUNDA LANGUAGE. 



3 y 



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DICTIONAET 



OF THK 



SUN DA LANGUAGE 



OF 



JAVA 



BY 



JONATHAN RIOO. 

Member of the Batavian Society of Arts and Soiences. 



Bi'unang guguru ti gunung 
Beunang nanya ti Guriang. 

I have been taught it among the mountain, 

I have enquired after it from the mountain spirit. 



***m&*> 



\i A T A V 1 A 


LANGE & CO 


1802. 


fc.4 



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PREFACE. 



It will be necessary to say a few words regarding the orthography followed in the 
following dictionary, and the sources from which information has been derived in making 
the compilation of the work. 

That system has been adhered to, as nearly as possible, which has been followed by 
Marsden in his Malayan Dictionary and grammar, which is explained in the prefaces to 
those works, and which was originally laid down by Sir William Jones for oriental 
languages. The chief features of which for facility of reference are now here repeated. 

The Vowels have therefore the power which is generally ascribed to them on the 
Continent of Europe. 

A is generally sounded full , as in the French , Italian , Dutch and other languages 
of the Continent of Europe, and as in the English words hard, ballast, hammer; but in 
many words the pronunciation is not broader than in harm, farm, barn, man. Examples 
in the Dutch are balie , hamer , ballast — and band, hand, rand and man. 

In a few cases where the a has an unexpected stress, it has been distinguished by 
a, as in Tabtfng, to draw a distinction with T&beng, which though only slightly differing 
in sound has a different meaning. 

A is not, under any circumstances to be pronounced as in the English words Paper, 
nation, fate, where it usurps the province of the second vowel in every other language 
that employs the Roman alphabet. 

E has been invariably accented 6 or g, which was necessary to avoid confusion. ^ is 
pronoiineed as in the French ete , epe; the English bet, lend, tend, and the first e in 
better, letter, seven — or in the first e of the Dutch words ketel, ketter, beter , and in 
ketting. As 2 in the final e in the English better, harder, and in herd, and in the Dutch 
berde, derde, zerk. 

1 as in the Italian long i, or as the English ee in been, seen, tree, green and e in 
he, she, be, or as in the English pill, still, will. The long English sound of t in wine 
fine, high, is not that of a simple vowel, but of the dipthong ai. Our sound of t is heard 
in the Dutch words bidden, bril, brigade, pil, pilaar , rilling. 

as in English no, so, port, moment, and Dutch boter , bos, bot, pot. 

U is to be sounded as in rule, ruin, obtrude, or with less risk of uncertainty, as the 



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VI PREFACE. 

long ?*, of the Italians and Germans, the oe of the Dutch, the ou of the French, and 
the English oo in the words moon, stoop, soon. Above all it must not be confounded 
with the dipthongal sound of the English w in the words mute, acute, puny. 

Dipthongs are ai , au, en, ox or oy and ay. 

Ai is sounded as the English long i in pike, line, mine; or in the French aile , 
bailie, caillou. It is the same as in the Dutch interjection ai, and as heard in the first 
part of abjert , bajonet. 

An is pronounced like English ow , in how, cow, as jaxih, bau, baur. And as 
Dutch auw in kattio, lauicer. 

En is of very frequent occurrence, but is not heard in Malay. It is also not an 
English sound, but approaches nearest to pewter, lewd, dew, deuteronomy , duke. It 
is a common Dutch sound as heard in peuteren, peul, beuren, beurs, beurt, and in 
French in taillenr , lenr , fleur. 

Oi is not of frequent occurrence and is pronounced as in the English hoist, moist, 
choice, and French goitre, royal. The at and oi often assume the shape of ay and oy in 
the Composition of words when followed by another syllable or letter barai, to pay 4a- 
raya, relations, poi, a day poyok , to jeerat. 

It will be frequently found that two Similar rowels come together, separated by a 
hyphen — to show that they must each have a distinct sound. This cansesan hiatus which 
is of very frequent occurrence in the Sunda, as ba-al , seu-eur, ho-ok, ju>uh, de-et , 
ti-is. 

Consonants. B is pronounced as in English and Dutch bend, bib, babble, Tub or 
bebloed , bek, bang. 

C occurs only in ch which is pronounced as in English church, chance, chest, torch, 
detached. The Dutch language does not contain this sound, and it is consequently repre- 
sented by them by tj , which does not convey the Sound even according to the Dutch use 
of the letters, as j with them has the power of the English y; It rather conveys the force 
of the French letters so applied. It is represented by the German T»ch. 

1) is pronounced as in English did, added, and in Dutch, dak, dood. 

F occurs only rarely in words from the Arabic, when it has generally been conver- 
ted into p, as / is a sound which the Malays, Javanese and Sundaese are unable to pro- 
nounce. Thus fikir to think, becomes pikir , and fasal becomes pasaL 

G is always hard as in game, gay, get, give, go, gun; and never soft as in gesture, 
giant, wage, for which j is uniformly employed. Care must be taken to always sound 
this letter according to the examples here given, as it is by no means the gutteral Dutch 
u in geld, geven, goot, nor the French g in gentil, genou , enre. 

//is the aspirate, and maybe pronounced as in the English words have, hold, high, 
and Dutch hard, having, haver. 

J is a character whose power in the English Alphabet is of great utility in expressing 
all oriental sounds, and is to be pronounced as in jury, justice, jew, also as dg in judge, 
pledge, lodging, and as g in gem, gentry, sage. 



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PREFACE. VII 

Having in the northern languages of Europa the Sound of the English y, the Dutch 
write the words wherein it occurs with dj , which for the reasons above assigned under 
c for tj , rather express a French than an original Dutch Sound. Thus where 1 have 
written janji, the Dutch would write djandji, to give the Sound; or would pronounce 
janji as yanyi, which is often made rediculons by the Malay example of jagah bai-bai 
jangan jatuh, which a Netherlander, fresh from Europe and unacquainted with the Malay 
language invariably pronounces yaga bai-bai yangan yatuh. So also the Dutch call the 
Island which we inhabit yava % which the natives call jawa, to express which according 
to his own indeas of the power of letters, a Hollander would have to write djawa. 

K has a uniform sound as in king, book, kick, kettle, and in Dutch as koning, kok, 
ketel, koken, and as will be observed, 1034 out of the 9308 words in the Dictionary, 
begin with this hard consonant so pronounced. The English c with this power of k has 
not been made use of. — 

L is sounded as in land, loll, lily in English, and as lang , lui, lekker in Dutch. 

M as in man, maim, mummy in English, und meet, meer , mom in Dutch. 

N as in noun, no, linen, nose in English, and as na, naar , nanacht , nee/ in Dutch. 

The combination of letters ng is to be sounded as in sing, ringing, longing in English, 
and zang , bang, tang, boring, hangen in Dutch. A great many words in Sunda begin 
with this ng , the pronunciation of which to a beginner is rather difficult and perhaps can 
only be overcome by a little practice from hearing the natives pronounce it. Thus in 
ngang^ah to gape, the apostrophe after the second tig* shows that the word must be pro- 
prounced ngang-ah, and not ngan-gah. The ng being in reality one letter sound , for which 
no European language perhaps possesses an appropriate letter. The apostrophe ' has been 
inserted wherever doubt was likely to arise as to pronunciation. 

P as in past, pope, pippin in English, and as pak, pal, pap, pot in Dutch. 

Q is not used in this dictionary, but the power of the English Q is represented by 
Jew or kua. 

R sounds as in run, river, burroxo, in English, or rot, rond, boor in Dutch. 

S as in sun, past, suspect in English, and sober, som, simpel in Dutch. 

Sh does not occur in Sunda; the Arabic or Persian words where it ought to occur 
being softened by the elision of the h thus shah , king becomes sah. 

T as in tame, tent, tatter, in English, und teen, toe, tor, tot in Dutch, and never 
sibilant as in patience, nation. The English sound th does not occur in the language. 

V does not occur in any Sunda word. 

W is a very common sound, the same as in English wall, xcest, reward, or in the 
Dutch wakker, wand, wild. 

X does not occur; its sound would be represented by ks, as kraksan, a place in the 
Residency Basuki should never be written kraxan. 

Y is to be sounded as in yam, yet, yore in English, and not as the Dutch y which 
has the power of ai. The Dutch represent this letter by j and jong, jood are by them 
pronounced as yong , yood. 



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V1U PREFACE. 

Z does not occur, and when occurring in Arabic words is replaced by 8, as the holy 
well at Mecca, zamzam is called samsam. 

The great simplicity of the construction of words and sentences forms the chief dif- 
ficulty in the language. The nouns are not declined — the verbs are not conjugated, but 
are modified in meaning by prefixes and suffixes. The most usual prefixes are ka, mi, 
pa, pang, pi, ba, be, sa , se, ta, te, and suffixes an, eun, ken. 

Thus hade is good, hadean, is to make good, to mend; pihadeanhm , is something 
which must be made good or mended, stiuri, to laugh, langhing; piseurian and piseu- 
rianeun something to laugh about, a laughable subject, dua, two, midua, to divide, to 
part in two. kolot , old, pangkolotan, the most old, the oldest, gebug , to strike, pan' 
g%bug, a bludgeon, a stick to strike with, blilidog , the report of a gun or fire works. 
Jil bile dog an, squibs or crackers, lenjo, to look from a far, ietenjoan, a distant view. 
Kayu, wood, kakayon, timber in general, varieties of trees. Verbs are formed from subs- 
tantives and adjectives by prefixing nga, as hidi, a fish spear, ngahidi, to kill fish with 
such a spear. Ii&urap, a fishing net, ngaheurap to take fish with a net. gantang , a 
rice measure, ngagantang , to receive rice by measure. When the word so used in com- 
position is an adjective, it has generally suffixed an, as hade\ good, gahadean, to make 
good, lembong cleared away, ngalembongan, to clear up or put in order a bit of ground 
or a garden. 

To form a plural the Sundas like the Malays duplicate the substantives and say imah- 
imah, houses . jalan-jalan , roads, tuan-tuan, gentlemen, mandor-mandor , heads of villa- 
ges, gunung-gunung , mountains. 

Verbs and adjectives are made plural by a peculiar process of lengthening the word 
in its middle, for which purpose the letter r, and sometimes I, is generally associated with 
a cognate vowel of the word with which it comes in contract , and which R or I and its 
cognate vowel is generally duplicated, unless the consonant E or L already occurs in the 
crude and singular from of the word. Thus kudu hade" a good horse; kuda hararade , 
good horses, hadean, to make good anything, hararadean, to make good severel objects. 
Kayu panjang, a long bit of wood, kayu pararatijang , long logs of wood. Batu panus, 
a hot stone, batu pararanas, hot stones. Jelema path, a dead man, jelema pararaih, 
the people are all dead. Buwah buruk, a rotten fruit, buwah bururuk, the fruit is all 
rotten, long bochor , a leaking tub, long bololochor, the tubs are all leaking. Boro , to 
go to wards (if one person who goes) , bororo , to go to wards in a crowd , several persons 
going towards. Tarik kayu iyo, drag this piece of wood, tararik kayu na, drag those 
logs of wood. 

When the word begins with a vowel, that vowel with r after it, is prefixed to the 
word which has to be made plural, as chai na ekse'l, the rivulet is very scanty, chai na 
di gunung ilii erc/csel amut , the rivulets from those hills have very little water in them. 
gunung-gunung urumgan , the mountains have shot down from urug. 

The initial consonants L and E in adjectives are also frequently duplicated to from a 
plural. This duplicated consonant is then followed by the vowel a, and not by the vowel 



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PREFACE. IX 

which followed it in the crude form of the word, as luhur high gives laluhur, when 
speaking of several. Gunung luhur a high mountain, gunung laluhur, high mountains. 
Bowas, startled gives raroioas; Riktis, rarikie; rugi, rarugi. Thus as if only the con- 
sonant letter was duplicated, which has always the vowel a inherent in it. This duplica- 
tion of the first syllable is of very frequent occurence, and does not always denote a plural , 
but indicates a modification of the original word so as to express a shade of idea. In du- 
plicating the first syllable the inherent a is short, aud is often heard as e, and will be so 
found in the dictionnary, thus badak is a rhinoceros, bUbadak, a funnel shaped bambu 
basket loaded with stones in making dams in rivers , as if it resembled a badak or Rhi- 
noceros, tabtiuh to beat a musical instrument, a drum. Tatabtiuhan, frequently heard as 
UlabHuhan, musical instruments which are struck, as gongs, drums, and the like. 

The short % suffixed to the initial consonant appears often to be made use of, to the 
exclusion of the vowel suffixed to the initial consonant itself of the crude word, thus we 
have chlcho-tlan, derived of cho-il; ttito-ilan from to- el; checho-oan, from cho-o, and 
not cho-cho-elan, toto-elan, chocho-oan. 

When the vowel attached to the initial consonant is u: that vowel also occurs in the 
duplicated word, as guru, a teacher, guguru, to get instruction from a teacher. Gunter, 
a flood , gugunter , to wash away with a stream of water, lurub , a cover , to cover , lu- 
turub, any temporary Shelter. 

The original word of the Sanscrit from which such initial duplicated words are taken , 
does not always exist in Sunda, or even in the cognate Polynesian languages, but is 
nevertheless a Sanscrit word. Thus we have $%eawi, the mustard plant, from sawi, C. 
720, strength, force, with out the latter word sawi being known in Sunda. So also sH- 
sUmon, longing for, but ashamed to ask, abashed, from eamu, c. 710, leave, permission. 
Bebendu and bebendon, disgrace, loss of favour, dishouour, from bandhu, C. 459 what 
is bound bandhura, D. 459 injurious, mischievous. The simple words sawi, samu, aud 
bandhu not being found in the Sunda language, though evidently the etymons from which 
sesauri, sfotimon and sibtidon have been derived. This is remarkable and would seem 
to indicate a greater know ledge originally of the Sanscrit, than we should at first sight 
be* justified in believing. 

Another modification of meaning to an original word is indicated by the syllable um 
inserted in the middle of the word, in the same way as in the plurals, by inserting Ra, 
as above described. Thus we have from turun, tumurun, to come down by degrees. 
Tua, old, and agung , chief become tumagung or tumunggung , one of the titles of Ja- 
vanese nobility. Tumorek, a deuse young jungle, which a man can hardly make his way 
through from torek, deaf. Many more examples will be found in going through the dic- 
tionary. Vide um in voce. 

A comparative and superlative degree are formed by the words anan for the com* 
parative, and pang for the superlative see both words in voce. Manan appears to be de- 
rived from Mana, where, and may be rendered by where of as Jyo hade manan itu, this 
is better than that — as (these two) where of this is good. The word ttuwih is also used 



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X PREFACE, 

for the same purpose, denoting more, in excess. Leuwih hade, more good. Liiuwih paw 
jang, more long. Pang is always prefixed to the word to which it imparts a superlative 
degree, which word then must be followed by the particle and postfix, an or na, as hade, 
good, pang hade na or panghadean, the best. When extra force is wished to be applied 
t;o this superlative degree, the word sakali, altogether — is added — as pangh<ulena sakali, 
the most positive best 

The past tense is indicated by the word anggeus, mostly abbreviated to geus, as 
geus anggeus, it is done, it is completed. Geus datang, be has come, and corresponds 
with the malay suda. The future tense is denoted by Mengke, answering to the Malay 
nanti. Mengkd da tang , Iwill come. Mengke hade, it will become good. 

The initial consonants of many words often vary rather arbrtiarily for the sake appa- 
rently of what appears to be euphony to native ears, thus 

116x6 becomes jVler£ 

Boro t , Moro 

Naheun „ Tubulin 

Nonya „ Tanya 

Notog „ Totog 

Nyore'n „ Sore'n 

Nyorang „ Sorang 

NySaruud „ S£ur£ud 

Nyuknng „ Chukang 

Nyekcl M Chekel 

Meuting , f Peuting 

Meuweung ,, BeuwSung, 

when a word cannot be found in the dictionary with one form of initial, an attempt must 
be made to quess at its cognate affinily, and sought elsewhere, as to have always given 
the words with their varying %hapes would only have unjustifiably tended to swell the size 
of the dictionary. \ 

An extensive class of words exists in the Sunda , which 1 hare distinguished by the 
name of idiomatic expressions. They are monosyllables generally of three letters, as if 
they were a remnant of a very rude and aboriginal state of the language. They are often 
worked up into composite words, with the usual Sunda pre-and postfixes ha and an, or 
some other analogons particles. The use of them in the crude form gives strengh to the 
expression with which they are associated, .and indicates a precise line of conduct or ac- 
tion. Such idiomatic expressions will be found scattered through the whole work , such 
are lit, bus, del, dtis, kek* hop, rem, rep, sep, s<ir, top, tut. They have a peculiar 
force and cannot be translated by any corresponding word in a European language, 
but their tendency has always been indicated. They may even be left out of the sense of 
the passage where they occur, without exactly injaring the meaning, but a native makes 
very extensive use of them , as they give force and precision to what he says. As hop 
bai di hakan, putting it into his month, he eat it. Kop indicates the deliberate act of 



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*ttEFAC£. , XI 

putting into the mouth preparatory to eating, and implies that the man was eating it with- 
out knowing that there was any harm in it , or suspecting the stuff of being bad or poi- 
sonous and yet simply the act of eating is sufficiently implied by di hakan , he eat it. 

So also of top, which implies taking hold of seizing top bai di bawa, laying hold 
of it, he carried it away. We might say that he could not carry it away with out taking 
it in some way, and that di bawa he carried it away, was sufficient; and so it is, even 
with a native, but when they prefix top, though we can give no precise translation, the 
idea is conveyed that there was no harm done in taking it, that no one opposed the act. 
The full force of these idiomatic expressions can only be learut and appreciated on lear- 
ning the language and hearing them used by the natives. 

1 have throughout the whole dictionary endeavoured to give the etymologies of the 
proper names of places, of the Archipelago, of the Residencies and of chieftowns in Java, 
of rivers and mountains, in short of the chief features of the country, whether in the Sunda 
districts or elsewhere, which may perhaps throw some light on these matters, and is at 
least an interesting topic of speculation. For examples of these attempts I would refer 
to the words bait, bantam, boro budur, jawa, su?ula, Sumatra, prambanan, praxcu, 
priang'en, progo, japara, and many others. An extensive and interesting class of words 
associated with hyang , Divinity, will be found on reference to this word. Under the 
heads of atot, chaw, hoih, huwi, pare, orai will be found an extensive classification 
of the different varieties of Bambus, Plantains, Rattans, Yams, Paddy and Snakes, which 
are known to our Mountaineers, and which may occasionally prove interesting or instruc- 
tive. The varieties of Paddy were determined many years ago by collecting samples of 
them , and getting together a commission of natives to assign the names and point out 
their differences, which are often only trifling. 

Weights and measures have been attended to, and when possible a comparison given 
between Dutch, English and Javanese articles of this kind. For which purpose reference 
can be made to the words bault, pal, kdyan, pikul, pond, kati, kaki, illo, tumbak , 
gantang, sangga. The comparative details of which have been taken from Doursther's 
weights and measures, a work in the French language. 

It may be also well to give here in a concise form the numerals used in Sunda, the 
particulars of which can be referred to, under each word in the Dictionary, where on 
attempt ha* been made to trace many of the words to their original meaning and indicate 
the process by which they have been arranged. 



1 

2 


Siji, Sahiji, Sa. 
Dua, Duwa. 


3 


Tilu, Talu, Tolu. 


4 
5 


Opat. 
Lima. 


6 
7 
8 


Oenap. 
Tujuh. 
Dalapan. 



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XII PREFACE. 

9 Salapan. 

10 Sapuluh. 

11 Sablas or SawSlas. 

12 Duablas or Duwawglas. 

20 Dua puluh. 

21 Dua puluh siji ; Salikur. 

22 Dua puluh dua; dua likur. 

25 Dua puluh lima; lima likur; Salawe. 

30 Tilu puluh. 

40 Opat puluh. 

50 Lima puluh ; Sekat 

GO Genap puluh ; Sawidak. 

70 Tujuh puluh. 

75 Tujuh puluh lima; Lebak satus. 

80 Dalapan puluh. 

90 Salapan puluh. 

100 Sa ratus; Satus. 

175 Lebak Satak; Sa ratus tujuh puluh lima. 

200 Satak; dua ratus. 

375 Lebak saraas; Tiga ratus tujuh puluh lima. 

400 Samas; am pat ratus. 

500 Limang kupang; lima ratus. 

800 Domas; delapan ratus. 

1000 Sdwu; Sa rebu. 

10.000 Sa laksa; Sapuluh rebu. 

100.000 Sa keti; sa ratus rebu; sa puluh L«ksa. 

1.000.000 Sa yuta; sa ratus laksa; sapuluh keti. 

Sa Rebu , Dalapan ratus, lima puluh lima ^z: 1855. 

The Sunda people, at present, have no written character of their own. Throughout 
Bantam and Buitenzorg they use the Arabic Character when writing, which strange to 
say is hardly ever in their own native vernacular, but when they do write any memoranda 
it is in malay; In the Preang'er Regencies the Javanese characters are in frequent use. 
The Batu Tulis near Buitenzorg which has lately been deciphered by Mr. R. Friederich 
is probably a remnant of a native Sunda character. This insription , however, contains 
hardly any recognizable Sunda words, but is a rude attempt to jumble up as many Sans- 
crit words as possible, which remark also applies to the inscription of Kwali in Cheribon. 

In compiling this Sunda Dictionary I have not hesitated to avail of all the informa- 
tion which was within my reach in cognate languages. Both Marsden's and Crawford's 
Malyan dictionaries have been carefully gone over, and every word appropriated which 
could claim a home in the Sunda. I have to regret my want of understanging the San- 
scrit character given by Mnrsden, to many words in his dictionary, and as he has not 



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PREFACE. XIII 

given a Romanized version of these words, they are to me, as to most other people, very 
learned but also very unmeaning signs. 

The Javanese dictionary of P. P. Roorda van Eijsinga 1835, has also frequently been 
consulted, but more nicety of discrimination was often here incumbent, as from the closer 
affinity of the two languages of Java, it was necessary to be careful not to admit words 
which had no right to a place, or perhaps only varied slightly from what are used in 
Sunda. 

One work alone I have carefully eschewed, viz; the Sunda Dictionary of A. de Wil- 
de, published by Roorda 1841. A casual glance down its pages soon convinced me 
that it would rather lead me astray than afford information , and so I was forced to lay 
it aside, although anxions to avail of all the light which I could find. It may even yet 
contain some words which I have not given, but to sift them out would be a labour of 
considerable extent, and probably a loss of time in the end. The work of Mr. de Wilde 
did not see the light, till many years after he had left Java, and was thus of course 
without the natives at his elbow to put him to rights when in any doubt, and without 
other authorities for reference or help. 

Even in Java living in the interior, surrounded by natives who speak the language 
as their mother tongue, it often requires, with many words, some judgment to select the 
right meaning, and words are current in different districts which are not known again in 
others, or which have a somewhat modified meaning, and are sneered at when used diffe- 
rently from what is usual with any particular set of people. The Sunda people possess no 
literature to which reference can be made, and it is consequently a purely oral language 
spoken by a little better than two millions of people, at the west end of Java, to and 
with the greater part of Chribon. 

The influx of words from that great classical language of the East — the Sanscrit — 
has also been considerable into the Sunda, where they have been retained with great ac- 
curacy during a long period of years, probably not less than 1000 or 1200 years. The 
same early intercourse with the natives of India, as that which took place with Sumatra 
and Java proper, or the Eastern parts of our island, no doubt extended also to the Sunda 
districts, but of this neither written history nor tradition preserves any remembrance, and 
with few trifling exceptions the Sunda districts retain no traces of temples or stone images 
indicating the presence of artists from Continental India, but with which the East end of 
the island so plentifully abounds. The Budhists were driven out of Continental India in 
the Seventh Century of the Christian Era, when a great trade was carried on with the 
Indian Isles, for those valuable products which found a ready market in the West — and 
from the conflicting ascendency of one sect or the other on the Indian Continent, we may 
fairly conclude that the worsted party had to fly and seek a safe refuge in foreign parts, 
and no country would offer them a more inviting refuge than the Indian isles. The 
Budhists were eventually the worsted party and settling in great numbers in Java built 
boro bodur % and many other old monuments and temples of which we still find the ruins, 
introducing at the same time the Sanscrit literature and holy books which descending 



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XIV PREFACE. 

through their children of mixed Hindu and Javanese race gradually imparted to the col* 
loquial tongues that large accession of ideas which they still retain , m the same way as 
the Arabic derivatives have, at a later period, been introduced with the Mahomedan reli- 
gion, and by some Arabs intermarrying with the natives, without either Hindus or Arabs 
having fitted out navies and armies to invade and conquer the country, as done by Eu- 
ropeans in our days. 

The language which those Indians, whence soever they came, grafted upon the na- 
tive stock , was not their own colloquial speech , but the language of tbeir religion and 
of their sacred books. They probably came from the Gangetic provinces, as neither the 
Tellugu, Tamil nor Singhalese colloquial languages have made hardly any impression , and 
if the Sanscrit literature and words were communicated by these latter people, it was 
through the language of their literature and religion r which throughout India, especially 
before the Mahomedan invasions, beginning under Mahmud of Gizni in A. D. 1000, was 
the almost universal Sanscrit. 

In the following dictionary I have endeavoured to trace out such words as have had 
a Sanscrit origin, which I have been enabled to do, with the aid of the Singhalese and 
English Dictionary of the Keverend B. Clough , Colombo 1830, who, in his preface, de- 
clares nine-tenths of the Singhalese to be derived from either Sanskrit or Pali. Not that 
I have any pretentions to a proficiency in the Singhalese language, but I trust that it will 
be found that such words as will be constantly occurring throughout the following pages, 
will tend to throw some light upon this part of the language, and will elucidate manv 
words whose Sanscrit origin might not, at first glance, suggest itself. These words from 
Clough are always marked by the letter C. with a number after them , which is the num- 
ber of the page where they occur in the Dictionary , the Singhalese words of which are in 
the Singhalese character. 

In this part of my study I have been assisted by the Articles supplied by Mr. R. 
Friederich to the Transactions of the Batavian Society, with reference to Bali, which his 
knowledge of the Sanscrit has enabled him to do so often with happy succes. I am also 
further indebted to this gentleman personally for communications on the same matters, 
which I trust I nave, for the greater part acknowledged in their proper places. 

I have endeavoured to give the Botanical names to as many of the trees and plants 
as possible, which occur in the work for the most part taken from Blume's Flora Javae , 
nv selected from various books or writings of which several notices in the Katuurkundig 
Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indie, by Dr. G. Wassink have been fruitful sources. De- 
ficiencies have often been supplied by occasional rambles in the Government Palace gar- 
dens at Buitenzorg, where the plants are all carefully labelled by Mess". Teysmaun and 
Binnendijk, the gentlemen who have charge of this scientific ornament to the residence 
of the Governor General of Netherlands India. 

The scientific names for the Zoology of Java have had their origin in Horsfield's 
Zoology of Java and in various writings and Museums, 

With a view to gleaning something of the Ancient lore and language of the Country 



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PREFACE. XV 

T, many years ago, used to have a village bard, called a inkang pantun or storyteller 
to recite bis tales. This roan was called Ki Gembang and a dozen or 15 years ago, had 
a great run of popular native favour, being in great request all over tho Western parts 
ot' the Province of Buitenzorg. The subject of audi sagas is the olden time, when Puja~ 
jaran flourished and over which the native of die present day sits the* live* long night, lis- 
tening to the deeds of those who have long slept with the past. Sach legends are not 
worth anything as matters of history, but are rich in native wit and humour, and found 
to contain a vast deal of words, which are little heard in every day conversation. The 
mantle of Ki Gem bang has now a days descended on his aoci. 

The last of my authorities, to whom I am perhaps the most indebted, is the present 
Demang of Jasinga, Raden Nata Wireja, with whom I have gone ovejr the wfcolt dictio- 
nary, that is all words of which I was not sufficiently certain, and who during several 
months of 1854, at intervals, devoted a couple of hours per day, to assisting me with 
the elucidation of difficult or doubtful words. 

No pains have been spared to render the work as correct and useful as possible; an I 
with this predication the author throws himself upon the good will of his readers. The 
following resumd of the number of words under each letter of the Alphabet may be in- 
teresting in various ways 

Under letter A are 438 words — awi counting as 1. 



i# 



B „ 823 

C „ 407 „ — chaw counting as 1. 

D „ 261 „ 

E 95 „ 

G „ 437 „ 

II „ 292 „ — hnwi and hoih counting each 1. 

1 „ 135 „ - 

J „ 287 „ 

K „ 1.034 ,. 

L „ 484 „ 

M „ 501 „ 

N „ 657 „ 

O „ 69 „ — orai counting aa 1. 

P „ 937 „ — padi counting as 1. 

R „ 367 ,. 

S „ 946 „ 

T „ 819 „ 

U „ 127 „ 

W " 176 „ 

Y „ 16 „ 



9.308 



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XVI PREFACE. 

The printing of this dictionary has been long delayed and very nearly seven years 
have elapsed since the manuscript was handed to the Society. The difficulty of printing 
such a work in English, a language foreign to the place, is fully acknowledged by the 
author and must bear the blame of occasional inaccuracies. The abode of the author , 
nearly 50 miles from" Batavia, rendered it impossible for him to revise the press. 

The earlier part is often kindly illustrated by notes by Mr. R. H. Th. Friederich f 
whom sickness has latterly driven to Europe. The proper pronunciation of the words may 
sometimes appear doubtful I from the necessary printing letters being absent especially where 
8u occurs. The v above the first letter e of which must be considered as circumflexing 
both letters. 

JASINGA, 5 Augustm 1862. 



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DICTIONARY 



OF THE 



SUNDA LANGUAGE 

OF JAVA. 



A. 

A bah -a bah, goods, chattels, effects; gear, tackle -see Parabah. 

A bang, Javanese -Red -rarely heard -occurs in the word Tanabang near Batavia - Tanah- 
abang-red land. 

Abdallah, the son of Abd-ul-muttalib , and father of the prophet Mohammad, he was the 
husband of Amina. Not long after their marriage Abdallah set out on a trading jour- 
ney to Gaza in the south of Syria , and on his return , died at Medina before Mohammad 
was born. 

Abd-ul-Muttalib, the grandfather of Mohammad, who took care of him when left as an 
orphan at the early age of seven years: but he also died soon after in A. D. 578 aged 
82 years. Col: Rev: June 184 Page 374. Abd-ul-Mutalib was noted for the munifi- 
cence with which he entertained all pilgrims, who came to the temple in Mecca of 
which he was guardian. 

Abdi, ar: a slave or bondman to the government; the term was in vogue under the Sul- 
tans of Bantam. Throughout the Country of Bantan there were scattered Lumbur 
abdi and oramj abdi , abdi villages and abdi people , who were treated as serfs or sla- 
ves , and their joung women sent to the Harems in Bantan , by a sort of „ Droit de 
seigneur. v 

Abdul, ar: the slave of — from the arabic word abd slave. Many Mohammedan names 
begin with these words, as Abdul-Rachman the slave of the compassionate (God)- 
Abdul Rahim, the slave of the merciful (God). 

1 



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* A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Abdullah, ar: a common name for a man, means „the slave of God 11 . All Chinese 
who become converts to Mohammedanism get the name of Abdullah. 

Aber-aberan, to stroll, to wander, often to avoid pursuit. 

Abig-abig, the upper gable end of a house, being a triangle of which the sloping roof 
forms two sides, and a line drawn from eaves to eaves, the base. The triangular 
piece of thatch or matted bambu which fits into this place. 

A bong, Forsooth, oh dear- abong sia bogah duit, forsooth now that you have got some 
money. 

Abong-abong, said when a man presumes on his position or circumstances. Abong-a- 
bong ka nu leutik , presuming upon a mans position to oppress people of humble degree. 

Abrit-abritan, to skip or skit about, to bound nimbly along. 

Abu, ar : Father - often occurs in the composition of proper names , as the Javanese (of the 
western part of the island) mostly bear arabic names from being Mohammedans. 

Abu Bakar, ar: properly Abu B£ker-the father of the Virgin. The first Caliph so called 
and successor to Mohammad. He was father in law to Mohammad. His daughter Aisha was 
a virgin when Mohammad espoused her ; he had been married before to Kadijah who was a 
widow. 

A b u r a n , running wild , neglected , let at large , not taken care of. Jdlema aburan , a reck- 
less fellow- a man who has no permanent home aud is skulking from the police au- 
thorities. 

Abus, to run in, to enter- abus na kadinyo, it ran in there. 

Abusken, to cause to enter, to put or force into any place. 

Abu Talib, one of the sons of Abdul Muttalib on whom devolved the charge of his ne- 
phew Mohammad on te death of Abdul Muttalib. He took care of the orphan Moham- 
mad during his youth, and reached the age of upwards of 80 years. Abdallah, the 
father of Mohammad, and Abu Talib were brothers by the same mother. 

Achah, au interjection of derision: there you get it! thatfs it! 

Achalok, a hop, a short jump; to hop, to perch as a bird on a branch. 

Achan, even, at all. To di bM-bM achan, hedid not even give me any. 

A char, Persian- Pickles Acftar iwung, pickles made of the sprouts of young bambus. 

Ache, the town of Achin at the north end of Sumatra: The name is familiar to the 
Sunda people from their Hajis or Pilgrims to Mecca often finding their way there (1). 

Ache, a fine kind of Kambutan or Sundun, probably originally brought from Achin in 
Sumatra. 



(1) It is written in Malay /-^h Achas, but pronounced as above, the last consonant being 
( mostly) omitted in Sumatran pronounciation. Cf. for instance Mr. W. A. Henny in » Tijdschrift 
voor Ned. Indie" Vol. IV. p. 405. Aanmerkingen Fr. 



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AND ENGLISH. O 

AchSlok, to spring, to go by leaps, to hop as a bird or frog-see Achalok. 

Acheng, a name of endearment given to children- as much as „My darling. 1 ' 

Acheiik, elder or eldest sister- a refined expression. 

Achi, among Peranakan Chinese is elder sister, eldest sister- see Puachi. 

Achi, the juice, the gravy, the essential liquid of meat. 

Achi, the fecula of a palm tree or tuberous root, prepared for eating in any way. 
Ac hi kaicung, Sago prepared from the Kawung palm tree, Ac At kon&ng, fecula pre- 
pared from the tuber of the Ki koning^ or the wild turmeric. 

Acho, to talk vauntingly, to brag, to hold ridiculons talk, see ngacho. Acho baisia mo- 
hal aya nu ngandel, what stuff you talk, it is not likely that any one will believe 
you (2). 

Ac hung, a variety of Arum, of very offensive smelL 

Adah, an interjection of surprise or dismay, oh! is that the way! is that what you are 
after! as we might say „the devil take it!" 
Adah! wat leutik teuyn, oh the devil take it, it is too small. 

Adah! sia daik ngabobodo kang aing, is that what you are after, you want to make 
a fool of me. 

Adam, ar: Adam, the first man, called also Nabi Adam which means the prophet A- 
dam - but most of the remarkable Characters in the old Testament bear the distingui- 
shing epithet of Nabi. 

Adas, carawaij, carum- name of a warm tasted seed. 

Adas, generally called after the Malay, Adas manis, aniseed, anethum graveolens. 

Adat, ar: Custom, long established usage, mode, way of acting, for the reason that. 
Adat nagara, the usage of the Country. Adat goring , bad habits. Adat hula tilok 
ngala, because I never take any. 

Adeg, and ngadeg, to set up, to assume a situation or authority- Rank, position. 

Adegken, to be set up in office, or authority by another. 

Ad^nda, younger brother or sister, used only among people of rank- compounded of 
Adi which see, and Endah, good proper (3). 

Adi or adhi, much used in the composition of proper names of Chiefs, where it always 
indicates a high rank and perfection. Adhi, C. 24 over, above, upon, implying su- 
periority in place, quality or quantity. (4). 



(2) Bai is Javanese en nun , bah6, it might be pronounced as above, but is, I suppose, written 
in Sundanese as in Javanese Fr. 

(3) Rather from Adi- an- da; da or hida being a pronoun of the second and third person, used in 
addressing high people, at present perhaps only existing in common use at Bali- Cf. tjokor- da zz 
tjokor-hida or tjokor- hi- deva (tjokor means foot); baginda^i bhagja- an- hida , and others. Fr. 

(4) Adi first, prior; first, pre-eminent. Wilson. Both words are found in the western Polynesian 
languages Fr. 



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4 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Ad i , a younger brother or sister; a term of respect or affection in addressing a younger person. 

Adi Beuteung, a brother or sister of our wife, which is younger than her. 

Adi DahSuan, a brother or sister of our wife, who is older than her. 

Adi Kusuma, a frequent name among the Javanese nobility; from Adi- vide voce- and 
Kusuma Clough 134 a flower in general- but on Java it is used as an epithet for any 
thing excellent- Adi Kusuma is therefore „the flower ot perfection."' 1 (Or ,. the first 
„flower." Fr.). 

Adil, ar: just, equitable, fair. 

Adi ning Rat or adhi ning Rat, (5) a name subjoined to the two native Capitals on 
Java , and means „ Chief of the Land." Adi , vide voce , Ning is a Javanese and Sunda 
word expressive of of. Rat is a contraction of Rata, C. 581. Country, district, an 
inhabited Country; thus we have Surakarta adi ning Rat, and Jugyakarta adi ning 
Rat Adhi ning Rat is a title often given to Javanese chiefs of high rank. 

Adi pati, (6) one of the highest ranks of office, derived from Adi vide voce and Rati C. 
383 Lord or master, thus Chief Lord- the native governor of a subdivision of the 
Country, under the European Resident- the highest rank to which the native Regents 
are usually raised. 

A don, to visit a neighbour or friend- mostly with a view to get something out of him- this 
frequently happens at crop or fruit time , in order to get a share- to go and receive food 
or daily necessaries from a friend. Adon jagong , to go to get maize ; adon nyatu , 
to go to get fed. 

Adu, to fight, to squabble, see Agadu- This word is also no doubt of Sanscrit origin. 
The nearest to be found in Clough are at Page 636 Wada, discourse, discussion, con- 
troversy, disputation. 
Wadi, a disputant, a controversialist- Wadu, hatred, anger, malice, wrath. 

Adu biru, an expression of contempt used towards any one- montong di bawuran adu 
biru sia, you need not put in any of your jaw to meddle with conversation or matters 
that do not regard you. For Adu vide voce. Biruma C 473 barking- the verbal noun 
of Buranawa to bark as a dog- adu biru is thus literally, controversy and barking (7). 



(5) The last only by mistake. Rat can be a corruption of rdshtra kingdom, but it is rather the 
nominative case of raj , king, the meaning being altered. Fr. 

(6) Here it must be Adhipati^ in contraposition to pati, master, herus, which is on Java a title 
of lower rank, born by the second, quasi the adjutant of the Regent of a division; Adhipati being 
not the first pati , but the upper , superior master ; on Java also a title. Fr. 

(7) If the derivation of Adu be right, which I rather doubt (Wadu being not ibund in Wilson), 
biru might be Skr. bhiru, timid, fearful, and adu biru would be to fight as a coivard; notwithstan- 
ding I mistrust the derivation of both words, and suppose them rather to be Polynesian. The 
same observation is applicable to all the derivations from such words out of Clough, as are no Sans- 
crit. Fr. 



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AND ENGILSH. 3 

A dug, to stamp and kick about, as ahorse in the stable, or any animal confined in a fold 
or cage- to be obstreperous. 

Aduh, an interjection of grief or pain- oh! mercy on us! It hurts! 
Aduh! ulah bangat teuyn- It hurts, do'nt use so much force. 
Aduh! aing to bisa nulungan , alas! I cannot help you. 

Aduk, to mix, to mingle, to entangle, to cause confusion, to jumble together. Aduk apu 
to mix lime- Kusut amaturut di aduk, how confused it is by being jumbled together. 

A d u k e b o , literally „ the fighting, of buffaloes 11 - that part of the thatch which covers the 
ridge pole of a house. It is formed by tying two ataps to each other , so that their re- 
spective ends hang away from each other , and having thus the Jejalon of each in contact 
with the other. 

A duke n, to set to fight, to put in competition; to setup or connect the different parts 
of carpentry or machinery. 

Agama, religion- as Agama Serani, the Christian religion, agama Slam the Mohammedan 
religion agama Auda, the Bhuddist religion, which the natives know as their religion 
before the introduction of Mohammedanism, but which is about all that they know of it. 
Agama Gl from a GO a particle answering to our until, unto, as far as, with, and 
gama to come, to go, an approaching, a coming; a grammatical argument; also a 
science, a work on any one of the sacreds sciences; the word is universally (in the 
Archipelago) used, in colloquial intercourse to express religion. 

Agar-agar, a species of sea- weed; Zostera or Plocaria Candida. It is boiled down ints 
a jelly and so eaten , especially by invalids. Agari C. 7 from a privative , and gara 
poison- a kind of grass. (This is also the derivation in Wilson , but it means only a 
kind of grass, vulgo Deotar. Fr.) 

Agehan, to leave for another, not to consume or use up any thing entirely. Agthan 
Jeula lauk na saheutik leave me a little of the flesh or fish. 

A gem, noble, lordly, consistent with dignity or greatness, dignified, praise- worthy. AgSm 
naker tumpak krtta kuda opat it is very dignified to ride in a carriage with four 
horses. Piagem, a rent roll or schedule given to the chief of a village on the govern- 
ment lands, 

A g e r , a word expressive of vomiting, mantas nyatu teuleui ager-ageran bai , as soon as 
he had done eating, he began to vomit. 

A gu I -Proud, vain, elated with success. 

Agung and agung, Principal, chief, superior, great, noble. Juru agurtg, the chief di- 
rector- Kagungan, Highness. 

Agus, a rank of birth when the father has been a Mas, and the mother of ignoble ori- 
gin; also much used as a term of courtesy in addressing any man. 

Ah, an interjection of disapprobation, or dislike. Ah! ulah sok kitu ah! do not be doing 

80. 



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b A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Ah ad, ar: Sunday, the seventh day of the week. It is always named first in enumerating 
the days of the week. 

Ahem, Hem! the sound caused by a sudden expulsion of breath. 

A h i n g , appertaining to greatness , splendid , magnificent , excelling others. 

A hi rat. ar. a future state, the next world. 

Ahli, ar: see Ali, instructed in, conversant with matters connected with the Mohammedan 
religion, Eminent, sublime. (From ahl, people; by name the people of the Islafil, or 
from alijjon high Fr.). 

Ahwal or awal, ar: first, former, beginning. The word is used to distinguish some 
months- Rabiul awal- Kabiul akir, the former and latter Rabi, the third and fourth 
mohammedan months- awal na kiyo in the beginning it was thus 

A i n g , the pronoun I, used by a superior to an inferior. This word may be the first part of the word 
aya , a riftned expression for father , with a common Polynesion torminal ng attached to it - 
or it mey be the Singhalese ayiyaG. 45 Elder brother, with the Polynesian ng subsituted 
for the final ya in the original word. Deference to age being so much observed by the natives , 
that a slight modification of Father or Elder brother has become current for the personal 
pronoun used to designate a superior individual- see hula. 

A is, to carry on the back, mostly wrapped up in the Samping. 

Aisha, ar: the second wife of Mohammad and daughter of Abu Bakar. Aisha was only se- 
ven years old when betrothed to Mohammad , and was not regularly married to him , till 
two years later. She was always Mohammads favorite wife , and was the only one who 
came as a virgin to his arms , and hence her father was called Abu Beker the father 
of the virgin. All Mohammads other wives had been married before. 

Ajag, a species of wild dog common in the jungle. It is of a brown foxy colour, and 
has a bushy tail. A small variety is called wnng-asung. The ajag is the Canis ruti- 
lans. It worries sheep and young buffaloe calves. 

Ajaib, ar: wonders, miracles. 

Ajak, to invite, to urge, to press, to persuade, to take a part or share in any action 
to stimulate, to excite- Kula hanto di ajak Ywas not invited. Di ajak ka nu goring, 
he urged me to do wrong- ajakan reujeung to invite him to go along with you. 

Ajara, intending, purporting, having a wish or design to do something- Ajam ka Bogor, 
I propose or intend to go to Buitenzorg. 

Ajang, For, to be used for, for the purpose of. Ajang indung for mij mother; Ajang 
iniah , to be used for a house ; ajam pi-teuas , to make it hard. 

Ajang an, to pay respect or deference to. To di ajangan sakali, they paid him no respect 

Ajang an, is also used for tho pronoun you when applied to great people, and might 
be translated your deference. Parentah ajangan kudu leumpang , your deferences orders 
were that we should set out. This word is derived from the Kawi word jeng mea- 
ning foot, and implies the humbleness of the person using the word, as he dare not 



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AND ENGLISH. < 

address himself to any part of his superior higher than his feet- Jangha , C. 203 tho 
calf of the leg. (It might be conferred with or be the same as aing; see above Fr.). 

Ajangan, said of a great man, as much as His Honour - Ajangan tuan y your honour, 
(certainly the same word as the two preceding ones. Fr.) 

Ajar, to instruct , to teach , to train , to learn- Ajar a , a teacher in compound Singhalese words , 
as Loajara, a name of Buddha or Brahma, from Lo the world, Ajara, teacher C. 
610. (8). 

Ajar, a recluse of former times, when the people were Buddhists, a hermit, an ascetic, 
It is probably also derived from Ajara C» 610 a teacher. It may however, be a contraction 
of Acharya C. 61 a teacher a preceptor, dropping the final and constructive ya, and 
softening down the rest of the word so as to suit Polynesian organs.. Thus we find 
the father of Sawela hala called Balia achar Raffles vol 2 P. 84 which is most pro- 
bably an abbreviation of Balia-acharya (9). 

Ajar domas Eight hundred hermits who are said to have formerly lived abont the Pa- 
losari hill in Bantam. 

A jar an, admonition, reproof; to attempt, to try, to venture ones luck- ajaran lamun 
daik hadt, try if it will succeed or become good. Ajaran meuli I ventured my luck 
and bought some 

Ajengan, the same as ajangan. 

Ajerutan, jumping along, skipping off- running like a hare or rabit. 

Aji, to study, lo learn, as at school, the formularies of religion; to read religious books, 
to recite prayers. The word Aji is most probably a corruption of the Sanscrit word 
Adhi-i or Adhi to read. 

Aji, Price, Value, see Pangaji. (The same meaning has the word in Balinese Fr.). 

A j i , is a title preserved in old Javanese history in the name of Aji Saka , who is suppo- 
sed to have come to Java from the continent of India with colonists about A. D. 75 
or 78 and to have introduced both the Hindu era and religion. Raffles vol 2 P. 66/68 
The word Aji, as a title, is heard in Aji Jaya Baya, Aji Nirmala, and Aji Usiwasa 
celebrated giant of Sourabaja. Raffles 2 vol P. 75. 

In endeavouring to trace the origin of this name, there is found in Clough's Dictio- 
nary Page 14 Ajiwaka, a kind of Hindu religious mendicant who goes about naked 



(8) I should divide Loa or lohazl loka, (Cf. Patuha,B. mountain in the Priangan regencies, which 
I am inclined to derive from Skr. Pdtuha , the declivity of a mountain. The same alteration of 
K. into k. is a rule in the Battak language)- and djard (being old age, djarat old) thus the old of 
the world (or of the age) Fr. 

(9) The softening of the cha to ja is not necessary for the Polynesian organ, and is a thing rather 
unheard of. The only softening of a tenuis to a media that takes place in Malay and Javanese 
is that of ka to go. Cf. Segala, telaga with the Skr. Sakala and talaka Fr. 



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o A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

as a proof that he has destroyed his passions. The word is derived from A privative , 
and Jiwa life , which means thus death , non- existence , a person not troubled with 
a mundane soul. Saka C. 691 a sovereign , any prince who gives name to an era. 
Ajiwaka Saka may thus have been contracted into Aji Saka, for both the w<* and k* 
are constructive particles. Probably our Aji Saka was a religions enthusiast who ca- 
me to Java with his admirers to escape persecution at home (10). 

Ajir, a stake or prod, particularly for lining out work. 

Ajok, to mimic, to ridicule. 

Ajol, to come running up to, to approach at a trot. 

Ajol-ajolan, frisky and playful as a spirited horse which will not be quiet. 

Ajug, a native candle-stick; a stand, mostly made of tin, in which to place an oil lamp 
a tin lamp stand, fitted at the top to receive a glass with oil to serve as a lamp. 

Ajul, to poke and knock off, as fruit from a tree, with a long stick. 

Ajur, sloppy, moist and dissolving, in a state approaching to mud. 

Akal, ar: device, cunning, contrivance, judgment. Goring akal na, his tricks are bad. 
Akal jSlema loba, the devices of man are many. Kudu ku akal, it must be done 
with contrivance. 

Akal an, to circumvent by device, to work at with contrivance. Kudu di akalan ku 
wang , money must be used to bring the matter about. Beunang ngakalan ku linggis, 
it has been cunningly managed with a crowbar. 

Akar, root, the root of a tree or plant. 

Akar wangi. Malay, fragrant root, name of the root of the Andropogon muricatus of 
a brown colour and emitting a fragrant smell, used to make hand-screens or fans. 

Akas, a variety of ant which bites very hard and draws blood. 

Akasa, the sky- the atmosphere , occurs in Jampes, but not in the common colloquial 
language, sometimes heard as Angkasa. Akasa C. GO, Ether, the sky, the atmos- 
phere. 

Akbar-ar: Great, used only in the expression Allah hu akbar y God is great, (allahu Fr.) 

A k e u 1 , the process of kneading warm and fresh, boiled rice in a Dulang which the nati- 
tives consider improves the flavour. 

Aketip, to take up and carry in the arms. 

Akherat-ar: the future life, the next world, (cf. ahirat P. 6.). 

A k h i r and a k i r a r : last , latter , final , termination Akhir jaman the latter dag , here- 
after. Rabiul akir, the latter liabi, the fourth Mohammedan month. 

Aki, Grandfather, a term of respect for any old man. 



(10) Saka is considered by the Javanese as founder of their civilisation, of their old religion and 
especially as having introduced writing and reading. So the term Aji, which they put to his name. 
I suppose to be nothing else than the word Aji (Page 7.) which the writer and I derive from adhi-i, 
to read, where from by a small and common alteration becomes aji Fr. 



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AND ENGLISH. 9 

Aksara, a letter of the alphabet, a character, the alphabet. Akshara C. 5. a letter of the 

alphabet. Daun aksara, a pretty and curions leaf which grows as a lowly plant on 

stones amongst the moist and elevated mountains. So called Alphabet leaf from being 

covered with black marks having the rude resemblance of letters. 
Aku, to confess, to acknowledge, to claim as property, to own to. 
Akut-akut, the ichneumon fly; the kind ofi fly which builds small mud nests, in which 

it lays its eggs, and buries along with them spiders, caterpillars &c. for the food of 

the future larvae. 
Aku tan, to bear away in loads, returning again and again till done. 
Ala, to take, to appropriate, to get possession of; to gather fruit. 

alia C, 50, seized, laid hold of. 
Ala, as Ala manan, much more so than, much more preferably, Ala is probably the root 

of the Malay or Javanese kalah , to lose , not to win , worsted, and thus worse than 

(this or that). 
Alaikum, ar: with you, as Salam alaikum, Peace be with you. 
Alak-ilik, to peep and spy about, to look around pryingly. 
A 1 a m , ar : the world , mostly heard prefixed to Dunya. Alam dunya the universe. Paku 

Alain, the title of the Independent Prince of Jugyukarta, literally „the spike nail of 

the world." 
Alam, ar: in the time of. Alam Inggris in the time of the English. (The same as the 

preceding , JL Fr.) 

Alamat, ar: Sign, token, signal, presage, Alamat paiA a presage of death, holz 

Alang-alangan, to wander away, to skulk about, to wander at random. 

A lap -a lap, a small bnt fierce variety of hawk. Falco Bengalensis. 

Alas, lands or forests belonging to any district, as ala$ Bantan belonging to the territory 
of Bantan. Also a continuons ridge of land uncut by any stream of water , and in 
this sense is always used in conjunction with the word tali, rope or line as tali 
alas, the unbroken ridge connecting two hills, or leading from the lowlands to the 
mountains. Alas in the sense of forest is not Sundaese but Javanese. But in Sunda 
it is used in composition as seen from the following examples, Alasan, aswalas, kopi 
alas. 

Alasan, to collect in the forest such articles as grow there spontaneously, such as Ra- 
tans and wild fruit. The word alas means in Javanese forest, but the Sundas do not 
use it so. 

Alasan, rain, and wind together, particularly in the jungle. Bisi manggih alasan, lest we 
meet with rain. 

A lay a, occurs in the composition of some proper names and means house, abode, fflaya 
C. 65. House. Suralaya the abode of the Gods, see voce. 

2 



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10 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE. 

A 1 6 a n , to pick and select seed , said particularly of paddy. 

Al£m, to praise, to encourage by commendation. 

A 1 e m a n , giving oneself airs, unneedfully proud. 

Al£ pa, careless, off one's guard, heedless, negligent Marsden Page 13 gives Alpa as 

Hindu- negligent. It is also Kawi. (11). 
Aletim, clouded and dull, threatening for rain. Covered with mist. 
Aleiit, with intermission, one by one, said of people walking, like all natives do, in a 

row, one by one after each other. 
Alhamdulillah, ar: God be praised, God be thanked. 

Ali, ar: Eminent, sublime, noble. Ta-ali, (Perhaps JUj tadla Fr.). exalted, most high. 

Ali, as Ali talil (JoLJ, tahlil) the exordium to the prayers in the mosque. 

Ali, was the son in law of Mohamad and fourth Caliph. He is generally called BaginaV 
ali , His Highness Ali. He was married to Fatima the daughter of Mohamad. He died 
AD. 660 

Alia, ar: most High. (A corrupt pronounciation of Ac), the ^ ye made mobile Fr.). 

Alim, ar: wise, learned, instructed. Also much used as a genteel negative, as Ali/n 

teuyn, I really do not know. 
A lip, the letter A, also of the Arabic alphabet. 
Allah, ar: God, the true God. Tuhan Allah, the Lord God. The word Tuhan is most 

likely the usual word Tuan, Mr., Sir, and it is believed the people of the Archipelago 

in general insert the aspirate to draw a line of demarcation, when they apply the 

word to God. 
Allah u-akbar, ar: God is great, a favourite expression when in consternation. 
Allahu-algin, (&lim)ar: God knows best, God only knows. An expression implying that 

something has gone wrong, or that some irretrievable accident has occurred. 
Allah-ta&la, ar: God the most High. God Almighty. 
Alo, a nephew, a niece; when. the father or mother, being our brother or sister is older 

than ourselves. See Swan. Alu> C. 789 light, lustre, from aloka C. 65. light-seeing. 

Thus the light of the family. 
A 1 o k , he says, he would have us believe f he pretends ; this word is always followed by 

maneh self. Alok manth to bog ah btja he pretends he did not get news of it. 
A Ion, quietly, slowly, gently. 
Aluan, the course of a vessel at sea; direction in which to steer. 



(11) In its formation the word might be compared with jelema in the place of j alma which is the 
same as janma in Skr. and Kawi , meaning birth , but in Sundanese that which is born, especially 
mankind. Fr. 



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AND ENGLISH. 11 

Alu-alu, four chechendet of Haramai flax. 

Alun, to swim, and at the same time to support some other person or body, as a sin- 
king boat, a loaded raft or the like. The swell of the sea, a wave. 

Alun -alun, on open plain or parade ground in front of the dwellings of native official 
chiefs , or governors of districts , as the Regents , where processions and public ceremo- 
nies take place. Two waringin trees are always planted in the centre. 

Alur, the beaten path in the forests of wild cattle and Rhinoceroses- a furrow. 

Alus, fine in texture or quality, genteel, respectable, clever, cunning. 

A ma, father, a refined expression used only when speaking of men of rank. 

Amal, ar: pious good works, by which the grace of God is obtained. 

A mar, ar: Thing, affair, business, order, mandate, injunction. Amar allah, the mandate 
of God. 

A mat, very, excessively, Bener amat> very true, Beurat amat, very heavy. 

Ambalu, Gum-lac. The ambalu of the Sunda mountains does not give the true gum-lac 
of commerce , which is produced by the Coccus lacca. The Sunda ambalu is neverthe- 
less produced by a small Coccus insect found fastened upon the trees in the same 
way as books describe the true ambalu of commerce. In Java this ambalu is most 
frequently found upon the Ficus Procera or Kiara, which in common with all other 
figs , yields much milky sap , but does not seem to produce the lac which is valuable 
in commerce. Crawfurd's Dictionary says the word in Javanese is Tambalu, which 
would give Tamba C. 222 copper, Baluk or Baluka C. 469, a drug, a perfume, 
sand , gravel. Thus copper drug , or copper sand. The colours would suggest the cop- 
per colour, and the Hindus might have imagined the substance either a drng or for- 
med of sand. Or Tamba-copper , and Luta or Luna, C. 609, a spider, local inflam- 
mation produced by the urine or spittle of a spider, from a sort of spider forming the 
lac. Tamba-luta :=: Tambalu. (12). 

Am bar, ar: amber; ambergris. 

Am bar, a small foetus brought forth at full age of nine months, but unnaturally small; 
this child always dies, and some of them are dried and preserved as talismans or 
charms for good luck. 



(12) Tambalu, does not occur in the Javanese dictionary .of Gericke, edited by T. Koorda. Am- 
sterdam 1847; neither exists it in Wilson. 1st edition. Tamba is no Sanscrit; the words given for 
copper bij the Amara Kosta are: Tdmraka, (in Wilson is also to be found tdmra), <;ulva , mlecha- 
mukha, dvyashta, xvarislUa udumbara. From tamraka is the Javanese- Malay tembaga a corruption, 
occasioned by the difficult pronunciation of mr. Tamba might be a Ceylonese corruption of tdmra; 
but it is rather an established fact, that Ceylonese or Pali words have got no intrance into the 
Malay and Javanese, but only true Sanscrit ones. The rest of the above derivation will perhaps 
not be tasted by etymologists, and I restrain from judging about it. Fr. 



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12 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESK 

Ambar-ambar, a lot of little instruments to be used about the person, as tweezers, 
toothpick &c, hung together on a small ring and carried about tied to the corner of 
a handkerchief. 

Amb^k, passion, will, disposition for exertion. Gedi ambek a man of exertion; often a 
man who wants more than he is entitled to. 

Ambekan, to draw the breath, to breathe. 

Amben, a belt , the girth of a saddle. 

Amben, the stage or platform before the door of a native house. 

Ambengan, to have in readiness 

Amb^uh, to scent , to smell , te be aware of an odour. 

AmblSng, abandoned, not cared for, deserted. 

Ambon, the island of Amboyna. 

AmbrSg, a united continuous report, as of guns fired off all at once. 

A m b u , mother (of a human being) Amba C 43 , a mother. Ambikawi C. 809 a mother , 
a wife. Ambuwa C. 44, a wife. (AmM, Ambika and Ambalikft, mother, are Skr. Fr.). 

Ami, a designation occurring in ancient Javanese history , as a prefix to the names of men 
of rank. Raffles vol 2 fcage 80 and 88 , Ami Luhur , Ami Jaya , derived from Swami 
C. 783 or Hami , a master , a lord. They were the sons of DeVa Kasuma who had 
them sent to India to be educated, where they probably obtained the title of Swami, 
this was early in the 10 Century after Christ. (This is possible; Svami, Skr. lord. Fr.). 

Amil, ar: a village priest, a petty priest. 

A m i n , ar : amen ! so be it. 

Am in a, the mother of the prophet Mohammad. In the seventh year of Mohammads life, 
she took him from Mecca to visit his relations at Medina. They were on their way 
back to Mecca , when Amina sickened and died at Abwa , half way between the two 
places, and here she was buried. 
Amir ar: a leader, a commander, an emir. Amir- al Muminin or Amir al Mumin, the 
commander of the faithful , a title of the Caliphs. 

Amis, Sweet to the taste, luscious. Didmis an expression used in dying yarn of a red 
colour when it is put ont into the Sun before applying the Changkudu. 

Amis, the inner or juicy bark of trees, as distinct from the onter and dry part. 
Amit, to be unwilling, a polite way of excusing oneself, a polite way of asking permis- 
sion, You must excuse me. MJmeh di chokot kudu ngamit heula ka nu bogah, before 
you take it, you must ask permission from him who owns it. Amit bohong I am un- 
willing to tell a lie, you must excuse my telling a lie. Amit nibahken binih occurs in 
a paddy planting Jampe' , and means , I entreat permission to scatter out the seed. (Ba- 
lin. pamit id.). 

Am par, to spread out, to strew with. A layer, a stratum. Ampar samak, to spread 
ont a mat (to sit or squat down on). Jalan na di ampar karees , the road was strewed 
or covered with gravel. Pare sa ampar , a layer of Paddy as lying in store. 



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AND ENGLISH. 13 

AmpSg, to abound in, foil or enough of- to heart's content 

A m p e 1 in Javanese is a variety of Bambu. Amp61 is a place in the town of Sourabaya 
connected with the introduction of Mohammedanism by a certain Sunan Ampel who is 
buried there. 

AmpSlem, a variety of the mango fruit. The first syllable of this word seems to be of 
Sanscrit origin. Amba C. 43. a mango. Pelem in Sunda is of good savour, fine taste, 
but to give it this interpretation, we should have to associate a pure Sanscrit with a 
pure Polynesian word , which is against the common run of associations. In Crawford's 
dissertation to his Malay grammar at page 99 he has ventured to state that Mampa- 
lam a mango „is the Sanscrit Maha-pala, the great fruit through the Talinga." (13). 

Ampihan, to put by, to keep, to take care of, to have in one's keeping. 

Amplas, the ficus politaria. A tree the rough leaves of which are much used to polish 
wood or horn. 

Ampo, said of animals, particularly buffaloes and deer, wich lick the places where salt 

has been deposited, or are in the habit of licking the ground or rocks which contain 
some saline matter. Batu Ampo , is ampo stone which is found in many parts of Java 

and eaten by the natives. It is either a rock in a high state of decomposition , from 
having undergone a sort of caries in situ, or, in other cases, may be an aggrega- 
tion of minute animal exuviae. 
Amp ok, a plate of Silver, or of any other metal, worn by naked children to cover their 

nudities. 
Amprok, in conjunction with, joined to. 
Amprokken, to shove up close to, to put together. 
Am pun, forgiveness, pardon. Menta ampun to ask pardon. 

Amuk, to fight furiously, to attack indiscriminately, to smash and destroy. Said of any 
animal unmanageable from rage. This is the word which has given origin to the expres- 
sion of „ running amuck," as it is also Malay. Imahma di amuk, he pulled the 
house to pieces. Jelema sakitu loba na di amuk ku sorangan nana , such a large num- 
ber of people , he ran a muck amongst singlehanded. Si amuk one of the three heir- 
loom guns on Java the amuck-maker. See Guntur Geni and Nyai Stomi. 
An, is a particle of much and extensive use; its place is as a suffix to the word to which it 
relates , and is very extensively used with Pa as a prefix. Pa-gaw£- an work , from gaw6 
to work. Pa-mabok-an , a drunkard , from mabok , drunk. It often gives to substantives 
and adjectives a verbal form , as anak , a child , anakan to have a child , to bring forth. 
Had£, good, Iiadean, to make good, to mend; Batur a companion , Baturan, to keep 
company with, to accompany; Imah, a house, Imahan, to put up a house on any 



(13) According to Wilson and the Amara Kosha are Amra and Amrdtaka or Amrdta, reap, the 
mango and a variety of it, the Spondias mangifera. Amba might be Pali Fr. 



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14 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

spot. Jero deep, Jgro-an, to deepen, to dig deep. 

This dictionary has not been overburdened by inserting all derivative words formed 
with an which are in common use, but when an is found subjoined to a word, 
the meaning will easily be traced by referring to the crude or simple part of the 
word , as Hadi good will be found , and the composition Hade -an will easily suggest 
itself, to make good, to repair. 

Anak, a child; the offspring of any animal, the young, a seedling plant, an offset, a sa- 
pling; the interest on money, see Bibit. Anak is extensively used to designate not 
alone the young of any animal , but also a subordinate part of some larger implement 
or body, of which the following are examples. 

Anak chau, young plantain sprouts used for transplanting. 

Anak chSlaka, a person habitually unlucky, a luckless wight 

Anak Jawa, a Javanese. 

Anak kambing, a lamb, a kid. 

Anak kebo, Buffaloe calf. 

Anakkotok, a chicken. 

Anak kuda, a foal. 

Anak kunchi, a key 

Anak Htah, the uvula, at the back of the tongue. 

Anak loch en g, the clap of a bell. 

AnakMalayu, a malay . 

Anak mas, a slave born in the master's house. Such slave children are often illegitimate, 
but an anak mas is not necessarily illegitemate , as the mother may be legally mar- 
ried either to a slave or a freeman, but the mother being a slave the child is also 
born in bondage. Mas in this instance is probably mas C. 525 flesh , a child of the 
flesh, and thus born unto the state of the mother. 

Anak panah, an arrow* 

Anak par^, the sterns of Paddy which tiller out form a parent stock. 

Anak prahu, a sailor. 

Anak roda, the spoke of a wheel. 

Anak sapi, a calf, the young of the cow kind. 

Anak t6re, a step child. « 

Anak uching, a kitten. 

Anak wolanda, a Dutchman, a person of European parentage. 

Anakan, to bear a child, to bring forth young. 

Anak-anakan, a puppet , a doll , an image. 

An ant a, C. 26 from an not, and ania end; Endless, eternal, infinite; also an epithet 
or name of the king of the Nagalokaya the region of serpents or dragons. See Anta 
Boga. (Skr. Nagaloka). 



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AND ENGILSH. 15 

Anawadak, a Pelican, called in Malay Undan-Pelicanua onocrotolos. 

Anchak, a kind of temporary platter, generally about 8 inches square, made of split 
bambu wattled together, with a bit of plantain leaf upon it. Such anchaks are es- 
pecially used when making offerings at Kramats or ancient Balais, or to the tigers 
in the forest, where they are always left, and not used a second time. 

Anchak, Ficus Ruinphii, a variety of fig tree, found about Batavia where it is also cal- 
led Kayu Bodi; it resembles the Bo-gaha of Ceylon, which is the sacred tree of Bud- 
dha , of which circumstance Kayu Bodi may be meant to convey the idea , and may 
then have been imported into Java with the Buddhist religion, of which it forms so 
prominent a feature in Ceylon. Bo C. 480 a tree, the ficus religiosa. Dhi C. 302 
understanding, intellect, knowledge, thus the tree of knowledge, or knowledge 
derived from this particular tree. Vide voce Bodi. (14). 

Ancheleh, sneaking off, trying to avoid work or trouble, working with indifference. 

Anchik, to put up, to hang out, said of a person's abode. Sok anchikdi imah batur f he 
mostly hangs out with the neighbours. 

Anchol, a promontory, a headland, a projection into the Sea. 

Andaya ning Rat, a celebrated chief of Majapahit and successful leader of the forces 
of his country. He is also known by the title of Ratu Pengging. The king of 
Majapahit gave him his daughter in marriage, and afterwards admitted him to a 
share in the government. Raffles vol 2 P. 121/3. 

Andaya C. 33, share, portion, part, Ning, of the — Rat, country. (Ddja Skr. portion 
an prefix. Fr.). 

Ande\ supposing that, a figure in argument. 

Ande% a close companion, a confidential friend; much used in conjunction with Sobat, as 
Sobat aride*, a determined friend. 

Andeg, to slay in one's course, to stop suddenly while running. 

Andcl, to believe, to place confidence in, to trust, to confide. 

AndSr, an upright post which supports the ridge-pole of a house. 

Andika, thou, you, as applied to a person on equality with ourself, the same as te Java- 
nese handifco , to order , to give command. (Handiko in Javanese means ako thou, you. Fr.). 

Andis, a kind of swallow. 

Andong, £ species of very large bambu, also called awi gede, the big Bambu, Bambnsa 
maxima. 

Andung, a variety of thin palm tree, used for spear handles. 

Ang, unwilling, I wo'nt, a child's expression. 



(14) Bodhi means in the first place understanding , in the second place the holy fig tree. Wilson. 
The tree received this name, because the Buddha received his understanding, or revelation, sitting 
in meditation under such a tree. Fr. 



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16 



A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 



Ang'ar, bad, poor soil; soil in which whatever is planted thrives badly. 

Ang'ar-lSng'e'r, to be pleased, to be smirking and in a good humour. 

Ang'^l, having to wait a long time; having trouble to get through business; provoking 
and unnecessary detention, such as native Chiefs take care to give to those who have 
to do with them, thereby showing, as they fancy, their importance. 

An gSn,, anatomically, the liver; morally, the heart, disposition; the pith of a tree, the 
inner part of a bambu ; the soft part which lines the tubes of barabu. Leutik ang~ 
en , little hearted , wanting pluck , discouraged. GedS any en , great hearted , having 
courage, in spirits, enterprising. Ang'en gore'ng, bad hearted, deceitful, malicious. 
Anxfen putih , white-hearted , sincere , candid. 

A n g' 3 1 , warm , a genial glow , agreeably warm as clothing &c. 

Ang'eun, stewed or boiled vegetables, immersed in their juice. 

An g gal, light in water, buoyant, easily floating. 

Anggang, apart, gaping, with an interstice between any two objects. 

Anggara, Tuesday, an ancient denomination for this day, derived from Bhuddist times, 
see Dite'. 
Angaharuw-a, C. 13. the planet mars. (Angara Skr. the planet Mars.) 

Anggarh^man, the word with wichsome songs commence, particularly accompaniments 
to the angklung, but of which no one can give any intelligible meaning. 

AnggSl, a pillow, a cushion. 

AnggSus, Done, fineshed, used up, completed- an exclamation as, all's over! it's done! 
a preposition set before verbs and adjectives to show that an action has been comple- 
ted, and in this case it is generally contracted into geus, as gem datang he has come; 
geus gede, he has become great, geus beak, it is all gone, all used up. 

Anggo, to reserve for one's own particular use; to have for one's own private use. 

Anggo, a method of taking fish by making enclosures which allow the water to pass through 
but retaining the fish; much the same as Agombongan which see. 

Anggon-anggon, apparel clothing. 

Anggor, Persian -vrine-Buah anggor, grapes. 

Anggor, a bunch or string of Peuteui fruit. 

Anggrdk, a beautiful and fragrant epidendron or orchideous plant, often found on fruit 
trees. ^ 

Anggrit, Nauclea lanceolata,a hard, heavy and durable wood. 

Anggur, rather, in preference. Angguranmontong leumpang manan nindak ayeuna, I would 
rather not go at all, than start now. 

An gin, the wind, a whisper of information as if brought bij the wind, angin haler , the 
north wind; angin puyuh, a whirlwind; Luhuran angHn, above the wind , to windward; 
Handapan ang'in below the wind, to leeward. Kula meunang angin, I have got in- 
formation , literally I have got wind of anything. 



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AND ENGLISH. 17 

Ang' ir, to wash and cleanse the head and hair with some lixivium. 

Ang'it, to arrange or compile a book. 

Angka, a figure, a cipher, a letter, shape, outline. Angka, C. 11 a mark, a spot, a badge, 
a vestige, a line, a stroke; ornament, decoration. (In Skr. also a cipher. Fr.). 

Angkanan, to intend to do , to propose doing. 

Angkat, to take away, to lift up, to raise, to remove from its place, to carry off, to 
proceed on a journey. 

Angka Wijaya, the last king of Majapahit, when it was destroyed in anno Javae 1400 
AD. 1478. The word means the „ Badge of Victory." He is also called Alit Wi- 
jaya or Brawijaya. Alit in Javanese means little. 

Angker, any thing that must be done quickly, expedition. Parentah angker , an order 
that must be immediately attended to; a sharp order. 

Angkeuh, to have a mind, to intend, to have in m view. Angkeuh na daik ka Bataivi, 
I intend to go to Batavia, Di angkeuhan ke'ne'h, I still intend to do it. 

Angklung, a musical instrument made of bambus, cutoff at the ends, like the pipes of 
an organ, and being strung together in a frame, are shook to elicit their tones. 

Angkuh, proud, arrogant, itn polite, rude. 

Angkul, a wattled hurdle of split bambus, used in the construction of dams in the moun- 
tain rivers. The pole of such an angkul is called Ranchatan, and the split wattled 
bambu Tali pitik. 

Angkul goler, an angkul which in constructing a dam in a river, lies flat on the bot- 
tom of the river, and on which the dam is constructed. It often prevents the whole 
dam from settling, and holds the Chagaks or stakes in their places. 

Angkup, the slough cast by a fresh leaf bujsting from its bud. 

Angkus, to refrain, to hold in passion or desire. 

Ang'on, to watch or take care of buffaloes, or other cattle, whilst at pasture, whilst 
grazing. This is the usual occupation of children and young lads, who are hence 
called Budak ang'on, and to whom the buffaloes become much attached. 

An got, exceedingly, violently, in an excessive degree. 

Angsana, name of a tree, Pterocarpus Indica. It grows up to be a large tree. Its 
leaves are pennate, and fall off about 6nce in eight months. The tree frequently 
becoming<i|uite bare for a few days before the new ones make their appearance. The 
tree bears handsome bunches of yellow flowers , terminal on the branches. The seeds 
have thin butterfly- wing appendages, and hence the Botanical name Pterocarpus, 
wing-fruit. The word is evidently Sanscrit, though the nearest approach to it in 
Clough is only Asand C. 66. a seat; also a tree, ficus religiosa, possibly from such 
tree being holy, and under its shade the seat of holy men. In the Sunda districts 
it will frequently be found planted in old grave yards or Kramats. The tree grows 
plentifully throughout the Archipelago, and is said to yield the large slab tables of 

3 



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IS A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

the Moluceos, where it is called Kayu Lengoa Mr. Friederich informs me that ia 
Sancrit Asana has also the meaning of „ sitting in some peculiar position , as is the cus- 
tom oi devotees^ Mar the word asana , as the etvmon of our An&sana tree have had 
its origin in this tree being often selected for the place where former devotee choso to 
sit and meditate, and from this holy character of the tree, it was planted al m;t the 
graves of the deceased? (15). 

Angserot, a syrringe, a squirt- usually made of a bit of bambu and used for squirting 
Tuba or intoxicating water at fish in holes. 

Angseuk, to push forward to, to attack, to force forward. 

Angsur, to push forward, to shove together, to push along the ground Suluh naangsur- 
ken deui y push the fire wood together again , when mending a fire of logs lying on 
the ground. 

Anjerogken, to come to a crisis 4 to come to the denoument of story. 

Anjian, to copulate, said only of brutes. 

A n j i n g , a dog , canis- a term of reproach : the big-headed ants , which bite so hard , and 
appear to be the guardians in a hillock of white ants. 

Anjing awe we', a female dog, a bitch. 

Anjingan, to hunt or bait with dogs. 

Anjog, Prematurely, too early, untimely. 

Anjukan, haughty, overbearing, always having one's own way. Jelema anjukan,& bully, 
an unruly person. 

Anjur, a kind of shovel shaped instrument made by fixing the upih of a Pinangtree, or 
a bit of broad bark of any kind , between a forked stick for the purpose of throwing 
up water from a bole; for baling out w,ater. 

Anom, properly Javanese- young , youthful. 

Anta, brackish, having 1 a taste of sea water. 

Anta Boga, The presiding deity over the lowest region of the universe; he was in shape 
like a dragon. He caught in his mouth the Chvpu with its Retna Dumila as it fell 
from the hands of the superior deities and swallowed it. The Retna Dumila subse- 
quently became the Vayang Trusnawati, who presides over Paddy cultivation. Anta Bo- 
ga afterwards delivered up the Retna Dumila to Sengyang Guru. The name Anta 



,15) Asana and Angsana are no doubt the same word: out of some hundred, where the Javanese 
have put a nasal sound into a Sanscrit word, it suffice to name the word awjkasa in place of Skr. 
ikara. Asana with first long a now as wel as Asana and A^ana, have besides some other meanings 
also that of a tree, Terminalia alata tomentosa, which seems to indicate the same as our Pterocarpus 
Iodic*. Clough speaks according to Ceylonese information. Asana nsittingin the position of a devotee** 
has certainly given the origin of the tree being also called , he sharing the holiness of some kinds of 
ficus, which were selected for the same purpose, Fr. 



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AND ENGLISH. 19 

Boga occurs in Sunda Jampe's for paddy planting , associated with Trusnawati , which 

see. Anta, C. 32, a boundary , a limit ; final, ultimate and sometimes death. Bhoga, 

C. 500, a snakes body, the- extended hood of a snake; food, eating, wealth, riches. 

The Dragon of death. See Ananta. If Anta here is an abbreviation of ananta , then it 

will mean the „ Eternal Dragon" the „ undying dragon. * 
Antanan, a very common creeping herb , with circular , scolloped leaves , and seeds growing 

on the roots. It has a bitter taste but is much eaten by the natives. Hydrocotyle asiatica. 
An tar a, between, even until, even unto, until, among. Iuterval- AntaraC. 33, within, 

between, amongst. Antara bukti even until obtaining, Antaragunung jeung laut, between 

the mountains and the sea. 
AntSl, driven hard up, pressing against, so as not to be able to go any further. 
Ante las, ar: Satin. 
An ten, there is, there are, to exist, to be in any particular spot- Anten siji, there is one- 

Tanten for To anten , there are none. 
Antep, in an excessive degree, Antep ing hade , the very best- Di antep to carry to far, 

to be too severe, to overdo. 
Antep-antepan, too severely, going beyond reasonable bounds. 
Ant^r, to conduct, to attend, to follow as a companion, or in suit; to carry, to convey. 

Aing kudu di anter ka imah, I must bo conducted (or attended) home. Di anterken 

deux ka nu bogah , it was carried back to its owner. 
Anter, Slow, intentionally drawling; causing unnecessary delay. 

A n t i , to wait, to delay, to tarry; to long for. Di anti-anti, to wait for, to hang on in attendance. 
Anting, a variety of ear- ring, with a piece of gold, silver or other metal curving in a 

circle under the ear. See Karabu. 
Anting, backwards and forwards , back again the same day- a3 Pulang anting , to go and 

return the same day. See Untang anting. 
A n u , an undefined expression , often of forgetfullness or doubt , as we might say , „thingumee M 

such a one, so and so, such a tiling. Sianu, Mr. Somebody- Mr. Thingumee. Dibtre 

anUj he gave me so and so- See Etaun. 
A nut, to submit, snbmitting to, obedient, submissive. 
Any am, to plait or braid; to work baskets or matting- to intertwine. 
Anyar, new^ fresh, recent, Imah anyar anew house; Jamang anyar , a new jacket. 
Anyar, The name of a place in the Straits of Sunda, called by the English Anjir, after 

the Dutch spelling, and where ships from Europe frequently call for refreshments. 
Auyaran, to renew, to make afresh. 
Apa-bila, when, at what time, whenever, as soon as. Apa-bila is also Malay, from 

which it has most likely been taken, as betrayed by the word Apa y which, what. 

Marsden P. 61 gives Bila as Hindu and meaning, time, point of time. Wela and we'- 
ll C. 672 half a day, any portion of a day- time. 



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20 a DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

A pal, versed in, skilled in, well acquinted with any matter. 

Apem, a kind of confectionary or paste made with rice flour. Appa C. 63. a kind of cake 

or muffin made of rice flour. 

Apes, delicate, easily laid up with illness; pretending to be disgusted; nice, in the sense 

of not liking rough work; Babari apes, ter4 mepes, easily disgusted, yon will soon 

be at a loss- that is, you must not shrink from disagreeable work if you mean to succeed. 

Api-api, to feign, to sham, to counterfeit ; dissembling. 

A pi- a pi name of a tree with hard stem, growing in mnd on sea-shore. It makes good 

fire wood. Aegiceras majus. 
Apik, careful, attentive at any work; guarded in conduct; neat, smart. 
Apiokk^n, to put together, join or unite together for any definite purpose. 
Apis, as Apis buntut, the crupper of a saddle. 

Apiun, ar: Opium- See Madat- the inspissated juice of the poppy. 
Apok, in conjunction, along with, met, put together. 

Apr ok, to meet, to find, to be in conjunction with, to meet while out and abroad 
A p u , lime , either burnt from shells , coral or limestone. 

Apu-apuan, Calotropis gigantea , a plant otherwise called Badori which see. The leaves 
are largish with a whitish pila on them, which looks as if lime had been dredged on 
them, hence the name which alludes to this peculiarity. 
A pun, a rank of birth below mas, and above Uyang. 
Apung, to fly, to dart, or to fling up into the air; to jump up; to toss up the head- Jfa- 

nuk apung, the lark. 
A pus, the crupper of a saddle; a rope; a string. 
A pus, a variety of Bambu. Bambusa apus. 

Apus or Sa Apus, is a quantity of three hoy as of Plantain fruit. 
Arab, ar: an Arab, Arabian, Arabia. Nagara arab> the country of Arabia. Orang arab 

an Arab person. 
Arad, a drag-net to catch fish with. Di arad, to drag a net for fish. 
Arafat, ar: a hill to the Eastward of Mecca, to which the pilgrims resort, and which 
ceremony forms part of the process of becoming a Haji. The visit to the hill of Arafat 
is made on the 9 th of the month of Haji, and terminates on the 12 th . Arafat is some 
15 or 16 miles to the Eastward of Mecca. * 

A rah, to wish for, to covet, to desire, to have in mind to get. To di arah deui, it is no 

longer desired, no further use will be made of it. 
Arak, an ardent spirit made from rice, palm wine and molasses, Arrack- Arakku , C. 45. 

Arrack , a spirituous liquor. 
Arak, a kind of hardwood; vitex leucoxylon ; the same as Laban. 

Arak, to carry in triumphal procession, especially as the bride at a marriage, or children 
just before they are to be circumcised. 



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AND ENGLISH. 21 

Aram, brushwood used for consolidating or giving substance to boggy roads, embankments, 

dikes , dams &c. brushwood laid down on a muddy road. 
Aran , a name ; as to- Aran hadi^ nya hanto , as to its being* good, indeed it is not (Jav. id). 
Arang-arang, name of a fish in some rivers. 
Arangan, name of a fish, the same as Arang-arang. 
A rap, bits of string in weaving, which raise the alternate threads. 

Arapat, ar: the mountain of Arafat near Mecca, where some of the ceremonies of be- 
coming Ilaji take place. See Arafat. 
Arapap-Srfiupeup, to stutter, not to be able to articulate clearly. 
Arawah, also much called Roa, the eighth month of the Mohammedan year; otherwise 

also called Saban. 
Ardi, mountain, occurs sometimes in the composition of proper names, and is Kawi. (Scr. 

aJrt,a mountain; herefrom are formed in Javanese ardi and redi> by transposition. Fr.) 
Are, The open country, or where there is little or only young jungle, in contradistinction 

to the mountainous and forest parts. Orang are , the people living in open country ; this 

expression also sometimes implies evil spirits, demons. 
A rep, to exspect, to hope for, to look for; Todiarep deui> I no longer expect it. I do 

not expect to see him again 
Ares-aresan, sweepings of rice mixed with sand and dust, picked up for use. 
Areui, Jungle rope; the twining and long runners which abound in all tropical forests, 

much used as bands or ropes. Called in French Liane. Called in Malay Oyod, which 

word in Javanese means Root thus the idea of root is conveyed , when speaking of these 

lianes, which spread their roots above ground. 
Argopuro, according to Javanese pronunciation: otherwise Argapura. The highest part 

of the Iyang mountains in Basuki, 9237 feet high, covered with rude terraces and tra- 
ces of ancient worschip. 

Argha, C. 47. Reverence, mode of worschip. 

Arghya, C. 47. renerable, deserving worship, respectable. 

P u r a , C. 409. a city, a town , a collection of houses, a house or cluster of houses walled in. 

Argh a-pura, the worshipful city- or place to worship at. 

Piira, C. 415 a piece of water, a large quantity of water. 

Argha-para, the worshipful water, the water deserving worship. 

At one place on the top of the Argopuro, is a sort of hollow, going down into 
the ground about six feet perpendicular 1 . It is so narrow that a man can with dif- 
ficulty get up and dpwn it. On the top of the Argopuro, Mr. Zollinger found 
several glazed pots partly whole and partly broken. They are about two feet high 
and have a mouth one foot wide , but belly out below. 

Can there have been some worship of sacred water on the top of the Iyang? 
Tjjdschrift 8 year 2 e Xo. Feb. 1846. 



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22 A DICTIONARY SUN'DANESE 

The Dayaks are still fond of possessing large earthenware jars for religious pur- 
poses , and the Sunda people often tell you of mysterious ,jars having been found 
at Balais or sacred spots amongst the mountains. (16). 
Ari, If, in case that, now supposing that; Ari daik , chokot bai y if you like, you have only 

to take it. 
Aria, or Ariya, a rank of office below Tumunggung 

Aryya- C. 48. a Person of eminence, a man of worth, a master. 
Ayrya- C. 64, a term of high respect, of veneration, and applied to persons of high 
descent. One of the names of Buddha , but particularly applied to the priests of Bud- 
dha. In the Pali form it is called Ariya- C. 64. (Arya with long a, of a good fa- 
raihj , Skr., is in the old time of Bali (and Java) one of the titles of the Xatri- 
yas. Fr.) 
Ariya Bang 1 a, a character in ancient Javanese history, connected with the foundation of 
Majapahit and Pajajaran , and elder brother of Chiung Wanara. See Eaffles £ vol P. 100 
Ariya Bang'a having settled at Ma/apahit. Bang^a C. 486. breaking, splitting, a fissure, 
a division, defeat, discomfiture. Ariya Banga was probably so called from breaking 
or splitting the country into two separate dominions. 
Ariya Dam ar, the son of Angka Wijaya, the last king of Majapahit, by a witch of 
the Gunung Lawu. He was an enterprising youth and was sent by his father in com- 
mand of an army against Bali, in consequence of which Bali became tributary to Ma- 
japahit Ariya Damar was subsequently appointed to be chief of Palembang on Suma- 
tra. To Palembang he carried the Champa Princess , who had been married to the king 
of Majapahit (his father?) and who had by him a son called Raden Patah. This prin- 
cess had subsequently another son by Ariya Damar, called Raden Husen, and these 
two brothers were instrumental in upsetting Hinduism in Java, and introducing Mo- 
hammedanism. Raffles vol 2 Pages 115/117. 
Ari -ari, as Tali-ari-ari, the after birth, 
Arip-ar: intelligent, w T ise, acute, skilful. 

Ari-raya, a holiday, a festive occasion. This is Malay, but still often used by the Sun- 
das. Ray a in Achinese is great, and the Malays may have borrowed the expression 
from them, and it will thus mean „the Great day". 



(16) Argha is not only a mode of worship ; an oblation (of eight ingredients) , Wilson: but also the 
vessel where such oblations are placed in. It appears nearly always in conjunction with the Lingga 
and Joni, (the latter forming even part of the Argha) and leads us with some certainty, principally 
in olden times, to distinguish the worship of Siva, in his mean (originally Dekhanic) from, The 
mountain called » town of the Argha", is not far from the city called Probolingo n the illustrious 
linga" (Prabhil — lingga.) Cf. Moore Hindu Pantheon, p. 385 sqq. and plates 83. 84. 85. and princi- 
pally 86. Besides the Sandhya or daily prayers of the Brahmins by Mrs. Belnos Plate 13. 



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AND ENGLISH. 23 

Arit, an agricultural instrument like a hedging bill, called in Malay Parang. It is uni- 
versally used for cutting grass, or for cleaning away weeds in gardens. 
Arjuna, C. 48. gives Arjjuna. The name of a king with a thousand arms, see Bisnu. 

Arjuna is a celebrated character in the old Javanese legends. 
Arjuno, name of a mountain on the confines of Sourabaya and Pasuruan, 10.709 Kbine- 

land feet high. 
Aro, the large bottlefly, such as lays the eggs for maggots. Musca vomitoria. 
Aros, a kind of gingham cloth in stripes of blue and white. 
Aro tan, festivels in former times; the word occurs in Pantuns. 
Aru-aru, to meddle with, to disturb, to oppose or give oflence. 
A r u m , fragrant , sweet-scented. 
Asa, I think, to be under the impression, to feel. Murah kitu asa di beve, It is cheap 

in that way, I feel as if it were given. Asa, C. 66, an interjection of recollection. 

Asil. C. 65, wish, desire, hope. 
Asa-an, to taste, to try, to take a taste, to make atrial. 
A s a d , a r : the zodiacal sign Leo. 
A sah, to sharpen, to whet, to rub or grind upon a stone. Kuda di asah it must be 

sharpened. Ki asahan, name of a liane or jungle rope, good for using as a rope in 

tying fences, or making dams in rivers, Tetracera dichotoma. 
Asak, ripe, done enough in cooking. Buwah asak, ripe fruit Kejo asak properly boiled 

rice. 
Asak an, to cook, to boil, to dress food. 
A sal, ar: origin, source, race, descent, beginning, commencement. Asainali Pajajaran, 

his descent or origin is from Pajajaran. 
A sal, as long as, so that, provided that Asal ulah di leburken, as long as you do not 

spoil it. Asal meunang sfji bai ge hade, provided that you get only one, it will 

do. Asal opat kaki jangkung na , mahi y as long as it is four feet high, it will be enough. 
Asana, I think, it strikes me; Asana mohal di bM, it strikes me he will not give it. 
A sang, the gills of a fish. 
Asar, ar: that period of the day which is towards 4 o'clock in the afternoon, and is the 

third prayer hour with the Mohammedans. 
Aselan, to replace seed or plants, that have failed. To fill in. 
A s £ m , a tamerind tre^-Tamerindus Indica. 
A s is m J a w a , the acid of Java ; tamerind prepared for use. 
A sep, a name of courtesy given to the male children of nobles, or of great men being a 

contraction of Kasep , handsome. 
AsC-ruk, to walk about and examine, as a garden or a forest. 
A sih, love, affection, pity, commiseration. 
Asil ar: revenue, income, produce, profit, gain. 



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24 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

A 8 in, salt, saltish, salted. Daging asiu, salt meat. Chi asin salt water, the water of the 
sea. 

Asmara, the same as Samara, the deity of love which see. Samara C. 710. from Sa for 
Saha, with- Mara an enemy; having the passions unsubdued. (17). 

Asongken, to push forward, to shove along, to push on to eucbunter-to set afighting. 

Asrah, to surrender, to submit, to give oneself up, to ask for mercy; yielded, submitted. 
Sarahken in Sunda is also to give up, to surrender anything. 

A s r a k a 1 , the act of standing up in prayer, (ar.) 

Asta, a cubit, the measure from the elbow to the tips of fingers. Hasta C 789 the hand, 
a cubit measured by the hand and arm, from the elbow to the middle finger. 

Astaghafarillahar: an exclamatio nof astonishment or of sudden alarm: may God avert, 
may God preserve us. God bless me! 

As tan a, the burial ground of Chiefs or of great men. In Bali Pangastanan is a sort 
of temple where Siwa is worshipped by the mass of the people. Sthana, C. 774 from 
Stha to stay-place, spot, situation or Asthana C. 66. an assembly (of the dead as 
used for a burial place). 

As tin a, name of the Country of the Pandus, placed by the Javanese in the province of 
Pakalongan in their own Island-Crawfurd. (Skr. Hastinapura , ancient Delhi. Fr.) 

Asuh, to nurse a small child, to fondle an infant in the arms; to hold such a child in 
the arms and swing it about. 

Asur, to push together, particularly firewood or burning logs. 

A s u r , to bribe , to gain to one's interest by gifts. 

Asur an, a bribe, a douceur. 

Aswalas, a term of reproach. The words are properly Javanese and Asu- alas, dog of 
the woods. Suna, C. 748. a dog, derived from Su to hear, to obey, and na affirmative. 
alas forest, (cvan, Nominat. gva; cass. obliqui fun- Skr.; cf. Gr. kyon, kyn-os; lat. 
c(v)an-is; Germ, hun-d. Our form here is derived from the Nominative-$va, with pre- 
fixed a. Fr.) 

A tah, unripe, raw, not sufficiently cooked. 

Atak-atak, direction, position, as Kapahung , to nyaho di Atak-atak na I lost myself 
in the forest, and know not in what direction (or where abouts). 

Atal, Orpiment, a yellow sulphurate of arsenic, with which the natives, especially at the 
east end of Java , smear their bodies , and make themselves yellow , on occasions of ce- 
remony, especially when celebrating their marriage ceremonies. Artal is given by 
Crawfurd who says it is Sanscrit. 



(17) Smara Skr. derived from smri, memorem esse (memory me- smor); cf for the application of 
the word (love, the God of love), the Latin cava. The a is prefixed, as in many words, to facilitate 
the pronunciation Fr. 



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AND ENGLISH. 25 

A tar, ar: the planet mercury. 

Atas, considering, with reference to, as to, since. 

At a 8 pelkara itu, with reference to that affair. 

Atas di b&rt, daik bai, since you give it, I am willing to take it 

Atawa, or- Sia masih kinih daik chicking, atawa daik widur , do you still wish to re- 
main, or do you wish to go away. It is perhaps the same as Tawa, C. 225, more, 
yet , still , moreover. (Skr. athawa, or; cf. utaxca, lat. aut. Jav. atawa, utawa and utaioi. Fr. ) 

Ater, a variety of bambu, with substantial but not very thick stem; much used for boat- 
hooks. Bambusa Thouarsii. 

Ateul, Itchy, having an itch to do something, ticklish, prurient- 
Ateul bitcir, itchy in the lips, disposed to blab. 

Ateul leungan, disposed to make use of one's hand's to thrash others. 
Ateul suku, disposed to wander about. 
Sireum ateul , the itchy ant- a red variety of ant. 

Sireum ateulan, said of things which are not even and alike, as some good, some bad- 
some light, some heavy. 

Atoh, pleased, delighted, elated, glad. 

Atu, an expletive, as Atu hot well yes- Atu ulahl now ctont. 

Atua, or, either- atua sia , atua batur , either you or your companion ; see atawa. (Is the same 
word; awd corrupted to ua). 

Atua, old- used only with wong person, as wong atua, the old people, parents. 

Atua in the Pacific, almost every where, means God, Divinity, and has no doubt its ori- 
gin in the Tua or Atua of the Archipelago, meaning old, as old age every where 
commands respect among these people-see Tuwa and kituwa. Wong-atua. 

Aub, shade, shelter, used in conjunction with Paxjung an umbrella, as Aub-payung, lite- 
rally the shade of the umbrella, but figuratively a duty that devolves on any person, 
or a right that may appertain to him. Saha nu bogah aub payung , who possesses the 
natural right? 

Audabila men d she tan irajim, the way in which natives pronounce Audzu billahi men 
Sheitani r^rejimi by the aid of God , against the accursed devil- see Marsdens dictionary Page 
205. a form of prayer used by the natives when in trouble, and especially used when 

a sudden flash of lightning is seen. The words are Arabic. (/*aaJI ^Uax^Jf ^+ *Ub «Sy:) Fr). 

Aulia, ar: Saints, friends of God. Although an Arabic plural, it is equally used in the 
Archipelago as a Singular, conformably to the genius of the languages-Crawfurd. 

Awab or awap, vapour, exhalation- the breath or animal perspiration visible from cold. 

Awak, the body, person, the trunk. 

Awak, a pronoun, thou, you, used towards an equal, and is neither so low as Sia nor 
so high as Andika: little used except in songs and Pantuns. 

4 



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26 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Awal, ar: first, former, beginning, see ahwal. 

Awang, the clouds. The etherial space. The heavens. 

A was, seeing clearly, sharpsighted , vigilant, watchful. 

Awdt, lasting, enduring, which can be used for a long time. Kayu aw&t, durable wood. 

Umur awdt, a long life. 
Awewe, a woman , a female. 

A w i , a bambu , a general name for every variety of Bambusa. 
The Sunda people distinguish the following varieties- 

Awi A pus, resembles Awi tali, and is used much for splitting into withes. 
„ Ater, strong and good for boathooks or poles. 
„ Bitung, large and substantial, good for posts. 
„ Bongkonol, small like Tamiang , of little use. 
„ Buluh, large but subject to be eaten by worms. 
„ Buluh munti, resembles Buluh, and is of little use. 
„ Bunar, large, good Bambu. 

„ Changkeiiteuk, small sized tubes, makes neat bilik. 

„ Changkore, a useless variety, cannot stand of itself, but reposes upon other 
bushes. 
Awi-Awi-Gede, or big bambu, called also Awi Andong; a valuable variety, much 
used. Bambusa maxima. 
„ Gembong, of little use, thin in wood, joints far apart. 
„ Gombong, much resembles Awi Gedd. 

„ H a u r , a peculiar variety of Bambu , with thick wood and makes goods posts. 
„ „ China, a variety introduced from China, with small tubes, and grown 

in gardens as ornamental. 
„, „ Chuchuk, the thorny bambu, large and bearing numerous thorns or 

spikes- good for posts. 
„ „ Hejo, or Green Haur, very smooth and bright green , good for posts. 

„ „ Ko'heng, Yellow batnbu, planted as ornamental. 

„ „ Tutul, spotted variety. 

,, Leah, striped like Awi Gede, but is smaller. 
„ Mayan, a large variety, but of little use, as the worms eat it. 
„ Sar^ngkol, small, crooked variety, of no use. 

„ Surat, or the written bambu, from being much striped along the tubes ; of uni- 
versal and great use. 
„ Tali, of universal use for all kinds of purposes; makes good string, as its name 
implies. The bambus Tali, GedS and Surat are the most useful of the 
whole lot. 
„ Tamiang, thin, used for making temporary spears. 



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AND ENGLISH. * 27 

Awi-Tela, gives the best Iwung, or edible sprouts; otherwise of little use. 
„ Tere.leng, smallish in tubes, but stout and strong like Ater. 
„ Wulung or Hideung- Black- a useful bambu. 

Awis, a kind of long reed or rush, growing in bushes, with seeds terminal to the stem. 

Aw or, deprived of virginity, deflowered. 

Awt-awt, confusedly, in disorder, without any regularity. 

Awul, a mysterious and apparently fabulous animal, that is heard only at night, and is 
reported to be somewhat of the human figure, but with feet turned backwards; it is 
fancied to be found only in old forests, amongst the mountains. Its name is dirived 
from the cry which the animal is believed to emit. 

Awun-awun, the haziness which in dry weather hangs over the country, and precludes 
any distant view , as of the mountains. 

Awur, to spread or scatter over or out- to strew about. Biazna di awurken ka buruan, 
he flung the rice about the yard (in front of house). Chai na di awurken ka kebon , he 
sprinkled the water about the garden. 

Ay a, is, there is, there are, to exist. Aya stji, there is one. Aya bai datang kakitcari, 
it still exists to this moment. 

Aya, father, a very refined and respectful expression. 

A yak, to sift, to riddle. 

A y a k a n , a sieve , a riddle , a screen. 

AyakSn, to cause to be, to produce, to bring forward. 

Ayanda, Father- said with much respect. Aya father; endah, good. ( Cf. Adenda Fr.) 

Ayat, ar: a verse of the Koran. 

Ay at, used in the expression Jamany ayat> a Jacket without sleeves or neck, a sort of 
waistcoat, or bodice. 

Ayer-ayeran, sreaming, neighing, sending forth a loud shrill voice. 

Ayer Langgia- the predecessor of Jaya Baya as sovereign of K&liri in Java. Under 
these two Sovereigns were prepared tKe greater part of the Kawi works still extant. 
Friederich Bat. Trans. vel 23 Page 17. He reigned in the $& or 9th century after 
Christ. The name is probably derived from Ayrya C. 64 a term of high respect , of 
veneration; and applied to persons of high descent. One of the names of Buddha, but 
particularly applied to the priests of Buddha. The nearest approach which Clough af- 
fords for solution of Langgia is Langhanya, C 602, hunger, fasting, abstinence, and 
then the whole name would mean , „ the holy and venerable man who was abstemious" 
Holy and abstemious 11 , which were characters eminently coveted by persons professing 
the Hindu austerities. (There is no proper derivation of this name out of the Skr. Fr.) 

Aver mawar- Rose-water- Properly Malay. 

Ayeuh, laid as corn, fallen down from over- luxuriance of growth. 

Ayeiinah, now, at this present moment. 



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28 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

A yon, to compare weights, to balance one weight with another. 

A y u , handsome , pretty- in the Kawi of Java a name for the daughter or wife of a Prince. 

Raden ayu, a title born by native women of royal birth. 
A y u m a n , to mend by insertion , as a thatched roof by inserting new materials where the 

old had failed; or by replacing seed or plants, where they had failed in a plantation. 
Ayun, to swing backwards and forwards; to rock as a cradle; to dangle a child in the arms. 

A ceremony performed when an infant is first taken out of the house into the open air. 
Ayun an, a swinging cot for an infant. 

Ba-al, sore, painful the skin worn or rubbed off to the quick. 
Bab, ar: a chapter, a division of a book. The stamp- like seal smeared with lamp- black, 

and put at the head of a great man's letter. 
Baba, a name given to a male Chinese child born in Java, and generally called Si Baba. 

When applied to a grown up male Chinese born on Java, it is accented at the end 

and called Babah. This word Baba or Babah prefixed to a Chinaman's name shows 

that he was born on Java or in the Archipelago. Bappa or Balappa, C. 843, from 

Bala , younger ; AppH father , a paternal uncle , father's younger brother , and is thus 

a term of courtesy. 
Babachakan, to guttle, to eat greedily. 
Babad, to cut down jungle, brush wood or grass in preparing land for cultivation; to clear 

away with an instrument called an Arit. 
Babad, the paunch, the receptacle for food in the belly of ruminant animals. Babad may 

be a duplication of the first syllable of Bada C, 455, the belly, the abdomen. 
Babad, chronicle, native history. 

Babadean, to guess, to solve a riddle; to play at riddles. 
Babadotan, name of a stinking grass called also Jukut bau y ageratum conyzoides; very 

troublesome in cultivated land, especially in the humahs. Derived from Badot a ran- 
cid he-goat. 
Babai, to fix a token or mark of possession on a tree, either to secure the neighbouring 

land for cultivation, or to show that the fruit on such t«ees is private property. The 

mark so fixed, which is generally long grass tied round the stem. 
Babak, the bark of a tree, particularly when peeled off for any use. 
Babak, the state of a horse when its back is sore and raw from the saddle- sore- backed, 

said of a horse. 
Babak, a turn, a short spell of work. Hayang ngajaran sa babak. I will take a turn for 

trial. Kudu ku kida ayeunah sa babak let me now have it for a trial. 
Babakalan, said of young people whoe are courting, but not as yet engaged in marriage: 

derived from Bakal. which see. 
Babakan, a sub- village ; a village whose inhabitants have originally come off as a colony from 

some other village, as it were peeled off, as we might say „swarmed" when speaking 

of bees. 



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AND ENGLISH. 29 

Babak-haur, a kind of centipede. 

Babalanja- to do marketing, to make purchases of household commodities. 

Ha bang, to run away, to escape, to go off without knowledge or notice. 

Babantal, the ground part of a plough which carries the share. The sleeper or rest for 
any part of machinery, from Bantal a cushion. 

Babar, cast down, destroyed, put to rout, driven away. 

Babari, easy, not difficult. 

Babasaran, the mulbery-tree- Morus Indica. 

Babat, history, story, legend, chronicle, see Babad. 

Babatok, the skull, the cranium. 

Babawangan, sieves, a reedy grass growing in wet poor land. The word means resem- 
bling Bawang or onions. 

Babetken, to fling with violence or rage, to dash. 

Babi, a pig, a hog, a swine, a term of reproach for a nasty dirty fellow. Sus- Lank babi, 
pig's flesh, pork. 

Babi leuweung, the wild pig, the pig of the forests. Sus Verrucosus. 

Babu, properly raalay- a nurse, a woman to take care of children, in the employ of 
Europeans. Among the natives such a woman would be called Pangasuh. 

Babuk, to beat violently with a stick, to give a thwack. 

Bachack, wet and muddy. Said of ground soaked with rain. 

Bachang, a springe, accord with a noose fastened to a bent stick, in order to catch wild 
animals. 

Bachot; an expression of surprise; oh is that it! aye indeed! who would have thought it! 

Bad a, a period of prayer or festival. Bada isa, the period of latest evening prayers after 
dark. Surud Bada, after the festival. 

Badag, coarse, of large texture or grain; rough; uncomely. 

Badak, the Rhinoceros. Rhinoceros Sumatrensis. Badak may be derived from Bada , C455, 
the belly, the abdomen, and Ek C, 85. One- This Ek in Singhalese coalesces with the word 
to which it relates at the end , and when such word terminates in a vowel like Bada , the 
e of 4k is dropped , an only the k suffixed , thus Bada =2 Badak , which though not a 
current Singhalese word for a Rhinoceros, means „ One Belly", and would apply very 
well to an animal of which the belly forms so conspicuous a part. The Sunda people 
have also Ladog and Gandol for Rhinoceros. Nyampal badak, the evening star, lite- 
rally the feeding time of the Rhinoceros. Cheuli badak the cactus or opuntia plant , lite- 
rally Rhinoceros ears (18). 

Bada ik the body- The trunk of any animal- Crawfurd and Marsden call thi3 word Arabic. 



(18) The synonymous words ladog and more yet the Javanese warak seem to indicate that the * 
word is of Polynesian origin. The word is perhaps the same as the preceding Fr. 



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30 ^ DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

It would easily come from Bada C 455 the belly, the abdomen, with Polynesian an 
suffixed £3 Badan, which would indicate „ what had a belly". The Sundas more gene- 
rally use Awak for the body, yet still say Badan Semporna a faultless body, safe and 
sound, and some other similar expressions. In Pantuns Badan Si Nyai is generally 
the chief female personage of the story, (^jo badan is undoubtedly introduced from the 

Arabic ; the original Polynesian word is awak , which occurs also in Javenese , Balinese 
and Malay. Fr.). 

Badar, the young offish, small fry. The term is also fondly and playfully applied to 
children. Crawfurd gives Adar, aged, advanced in years. Our word would form from 
this with Bezl Badar, being of some age, not old but still advanced from primative 
nascence. 

Bad 6 y to guess, to divine; to offer to be, to have a pre-appearance of- chifc bade", try and 
guess. Bade 1 na gede, he offers to become great, he looks as if he would grow large. 

Badega, a servant, an attendant, mostly a young lad. 

Badi, ulterior meaning, what any line of conduct may lead to; the result. Budak tonyaho 
di badi a child who does not know what may be the result , a child who is easily ta- 
ken in. 

Badi-badi- a short dagger, much worn in the girdle or belt. 

Badis, assuredly, oh that's the way! a term of surprise. 

B a d i t u , still further on , beyond some object indicated. 

Badiyadari, a celestial nymph. This word is used for the Huri of the Mohammedans. 
Widyadhara, C. 648, derived from Widya a magical pill, Dhara who holds- a De- 
migod of a particular order supposed to be attainable by magical rites and incantations. 
The Sunda Badiyadari is evidently the feminine of the above words of Clough , which 
with final a and thus in a masculine shape is never heard in the Snnda language, 
whereas the female shape with final f is very common. (19). 

Badiyo, on this side, nearer the speaker than some other object indicated. 

Badodon, a small temporary Sadpan 9 set to catch fish when Tuba has been used, see 
Bedodon. 

Badog, to steal, to purloin- a coarse expression. 

B a d o n g , a variety of fish trap set in rapids , resembles a large cylinder made of bambu , 
with one end tapering to a point. 

Badong, a country so called on Bali. It projects into the Southern ocean like a fish trap 



(19) In Kawi the masculine and feminine form exist, and are written as they ought to be accor- 
ding to the Sanscrit. They are inferior deities at the command of Indra. The derivation of Clough 
must be a Buddhistical fancy; widya meaning really knowledge, and the compound word thus one 
possessed of knowledge. Fr. 



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AND ENGLISH. 31 

of this name , and a very rapid current runs through the adjacent straits. So that the 
circumstances favor the interpretation which might be given to it from our Sunda Badong. 

Bad or i, Calotropis gigantea, a shrub which produces a pod , containing a fibre like cotton. 
It is sometimes called apu - apuan which see. It is called in Malay Biduri see Mars- 
den Page 59. 

Badot, a rancid, stinking he-goat. 

Badui, a small tribe of heathens living among the mountains of South Bantam, who have 
hitherto resisted the adoption of Mohammedanism. Bedawi, arabic-rustic ; a clown, a 
Beduin or inhabitant of the Arabian desert. The Bedui of Bantam do not give them- 
selves this name , but it is applied to them by their Mahomedan neighbours. The Ba- 
dui call themselves after villages, and have no general name to designate their race. 
(Arabic j».jj bedewi or badui campestris. Meninski). 

Bagal, the root end of any member where it joins upon the body, that part of a plant 
where it comes out of the ground. Bagal tepus the stump endofatepus plant. Bagal 
buntut sapi the root end of a cow's tail. 

Bagal ^n, name of a Residency in the middle of Java, and adjoining the South Coast. 
Bhaga, C 485, fame, glory, knowledge; the absence of passion, the tranquillity of 
the religious man who has divested himself of all worldly excitability; omnipotence or 
supreme power; virtue, moral merit, final emancipation. Ali> C. 65. a race or family. 
Bhaga-ali, the race of Devotees. 

Bhaga-ali-an^j Bhagalen, the abode of the race of Devotees. These districts 
were formerly probably the abode of holy refugees from India. They had in this po- 
sition the Prawn mountains immediatly to the north of them , and the grand temples 
of Prambanan . Boro Budur and so many others in the districts adjoining them on the 
East. See Bagawanta and Serayu. (In the Mahratta country is a district Baglana. Cf. 
Lassen Ind. Alt. I. p. 148. N. 2). 

Bagawan or Bhagawan, a title given to all spiritual persons on Bali. Friederich Bat. 
Trans, vol 23 p. 8. The word is also used in Ceylon , and in Clough 2 vol. page 486 
is Bhagawantan , one of the names or generic terms of a Buddha. 

Bagawanta, called according to the peculiarity of Javanese pronunciation Bo^owonto. 
It is the river which runs between the residency of Bagalen and Jogjakarta. 
Bhaga see voce Bagalen. 
Wanta, C. 621 subjugated, possessive of. 

The river subjugated to, or possessive of Bhaga. This river is still in so far held sa- 
cred, that no prince of Java blood may or dare cross it, and its presence often caused 
to DipoNegoro and those of the blood royal much trouble in the Java war of 1825/30 (20). 



(20) Bhagaxcanta is lenghtened from bhagatvat, of which the fuller form is Bhagawant, Fr. 



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32 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE. 

Bagedur, the soft centre of a plantain tree near the root, sometimes eaten. 

Eager, upright, good, sincere; serviceable- a term of wonder. Jelema bager, an upright 
good man , a man in his right senses- Kayu na bager tenth , the wood is still serviceable , 
still sound and good. Lain bager, how wonderful- how strange: literally, otherwise 
than upright or sincere. Nu bager, you d'ont mean it, can it be really so. 

B a g i , to divide , to share , to allot , to portion out. Kudu di bagi you must divide it. 
Bagaya, C. 467, a part, a portion, a half. Baga, C. 467 and Bhaga, C. 490 part, 
portion, share. (Skr. bhngya, to be portioned or divided). 

Bagia, the fated luck of any individual, either for good or for evil. Fortunate, happy, 
lucky. Bhaga, C. 485, fortune, prosperity, happiness. Bhagaya, the final ya is an 
adjective constructive form. Bhagya, 0. 490, destiny, fortune, luck. Bagya. C. 467. 
good luck. (The same as the preceding, which means also in Skr. destiny, fortune.) 

B a g i a n , portion, share , division. Bagian hula ma saheutik my share is only a little, (bhagja-an). 

Baginda, a designation, an appellative for a person of royal birth, either male or fe- 
male. His Majesty, His Highness. Probably derived from Bagei in Malay, as, like, 
resembling , and Endah , good , excellent- Bagei- Endah zl Baginda. Ali the son in law of 
Mohammad, and fourth Caliph is always called Bagind" 1 Ali, His Highness Ali. (see Note 3). 

B a gong, swine, a wild pig. 

Bagus, handsome, pretty, of good quality, welldone. 

Bag us, a title given to illegitimate sons of native princes, when they are generally cal- 
led „ To Bagus", which is probably a contraction of Ratu bagus. As To Bagus Buang 
was a celebrated rebel in the Bantam territories in the middle of the last century , and 
was an illegitimate son of one of the Sultans of Bantam, (cf. agus). 

Bah an, a plank, a board. 

Bah as, drooping and dead. 

Bahe, to pour out, to spill, spilled. The etymon of this word is Bah which alone does 
not occur in Sunda, though it is probably heard in Sawah, Wahangan. In malay it 
means a flood, inundation. WahinawS, C 641, to pour, to shed. Wahinawa, C 633- 
to rain, 

Baheula, formerly, originally; original, ancient. 

BahSuman, to gobble up, to swallow, often in an uncooked state. 

Bahu, see Bauh, a measure of land. Baha C 633 from Baha to bear, the shoulder of an 
ox, any vehicle or means of conveyance; bearing, conveying. Baha C. 640 a carriage, 
a conveyance,- a carrier, a porter- the arm (21). 



(21) Skr. bdhu and bdha, the arm; the other forms of Clough are in Skr. written with w\ all 
derive from the root vah to bear. Fr. 



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AND ENGLISH. 33 

Bai, only, just, simply- a favourite and familiar interjection. Siji bai, only one: Kadiyo 
bai, just come here. Hade bai, very good. (See Note 2). 

Baiawak, a kind of guana- an animal of the lizard tribe- Inmalayitis Bewak. (At Ba- 
tavia benjawak and menjawak). 

Bainat, evident, apparent to every one, a clear result. 

Baiombong, a house centipede, found among old thatch, a couple of inches long, and 
with venomous sting. 

Bait-ullah, ar: the house of God- the Kabah or sacred Temple at Mecca. 

Bajag, Pirates, sea-rovers. 

Bajirah, as Karang bajirah, a variety of limestone which is blue and very hard. 

Bajirah, a variety of white ant which is luckily scarcer, but is more destructive than 
the common Rinyu. It is found more under cover, or in buildings. It is long in the 
body, and milk white with small red jaws. It will sometimes even creep up between 
the plaster and brick work of a wall to commit its depredations. It never builds up 
houses or passages of earth like the common Rinyi or white ant. It is a variety of 
Termes. Wajra C 616 a thunderbolt in general, or the thunderbolt of Indra- crystal , 
glass- Hard , impenetrable , adamantine. Perhaps both the limestone and ant have their 
origin or their name in this word. The former from its hardness, and the latter from 
eating their way through every thing. 

Bajogol, a liane which is very serviceable in tying up the wood of dams in rivers, as it 
endures a long time. The root is of a yellowish colour and stinks. 

Baka, mangroves, a particular kind of tree growing in Saltwater. 

Bakakas, tools, implements, utensils. Furniture, moveables. Chattels. (Malay: pa- 
kakas). ri 

Bakal, the raw material; the rough stuff to be worked up. To promise or have the ap- 
pearance of. Bakal luhur, it will become high. Bakal goring eta, that will turn out- 
badly. (As a verb it is an auxiliary indicating the future time Fr ). 

B a k a t u 1 , the fine bran obtained in pounding rice clean. It is often baked in leaves and eaten , 
and as such is called Pais bakatul. 

Bako, Tobacco- Nicotiana Narcotica, called also Tambako. To bogah bako, I have got no 
tobacco. The name betrays its introduction by Europeans , probably by the early Por- 
tuguese. 

Bakti, good and meritorious actions in obedience to the word of God. Ngabakti, to do 
good actions, to do what a man's faith or religion requires. Bhakti, C. 485, faith, 
fidelity, devotion, worship, adoration. (Skr. the same). 

Baku, a turn, a rotation, an assigned day or period for the performance of any work or 
duty. 

Bakul, a large basket, such as used in Rice mills. 

Bakung, a kind of lily with white flowers. Crinum asiaticum. 

5 



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34 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Bakutrak, the fourth consecutive year of planting the same humah field. 

Bala, people, snbjects, attendants, privates in an army. Ratu to bogah bala, a Prince 
without followers or subjects. Ari daik prang kudu rnawa bala loba, if you want to 
make war, you ought to bring many followers. Bala, C. 462, an army, forces, a 
man, a male. (Skr. bala, strength, power; an army, forces, bala, an infant, a child; 
infantine; unwise, uninstructed. Wilson). 

Bala, overgrown with brush wood and grass , obstructed with vegetation. Said of a plan- 
tation which is not properly weeded. 

Bala bar, to get spread abroad by report or tradition. 

Bala c hang, a superior variety of Delan or Trasi. It is of a yellowish colour and made 
of the choice of materials from which Delan is made. Balachang admits of the inter- 
pretation Bala, C. 462, strength, power; young. The young part of what is vile. The 
stuff stinks. Chan , C 191. vile, base. 

Baladah, to break ground, to begin a piece of work in the soil; to clear the ground for 
any work. 

Baladahan, to make a commencement- to begin work in the ground. * 

Baladewa, C 462, from Bala strength, and Dewa, divine; a deity so called, according to Hindu 
mythology; he was the elder brother of Krishna, and the third of the incarnations ter- 
med Rama. 

B a 1 a i , an ancient and sacred spot , for making offerings and prayers. They are frequently 
found on mountain tops throughout the country, and are often still held in some de- 
gree of awe by the natives. BaUyan, C. 469 fit or proper for sacrifice. This is very 
likely the etymon of our Sunda word Balai, and it has penetrated into the Pacific, 
where the Malai is well known, or was so when &e islands were first discoverd by 
Europeans, as a place of religious observances. In mariners Tonga Islands London 
1818- in the vocabulary occurs „ Malai, a piece of ground, generally, before a large 
house, or chiefs grave, where public ceremonies are principally held". 

Balii, C. 469 is pure, clean, free from blemish, or defilement; fit to be offered- and 
Bala-ya^j Balai would be the object fit to be offered, or the offering. It is strange 
that this Sanscrit word, or its modification should have found its way into the distant 
Pacific islands (22), 

Bala nib a n g a n , the ancient name of the district now called Banyuwangi , at the East end of 
Java. The word is probably derived from Balang, to throw away, as it was used as 
a place of banishment by the ancient native princes of Java , and even now the Dutch 

(22) Bali) Skr. an oblation, a religious offering, presentation of food to all created beings: it is 
the same as banten; there from is devided baleya, fit or proper for a sacrifice; this is the same as 
the Pali bdleya-n, and I think our balai. The other derivation is not to be approved of , bdld meaning 
only in the feminine form and in a circumscribed sense, pure, (as of a female animal, which is fit 
for sacrifice). Fr. 



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AND ENGLISH. 35 

government have a penal settlement there for convicts , who are employed rearing Co- 
chineal. 

Balanak, a variety of sea fish, very good in flavour, but very full of fine bones. Mugil 
Sundanensis. A mullet. 

Balandongan, a place to keep or pile timber in- an open shed to store timber in. 

Balang, to throw, to cast, to fling. 

Balangan, to throw at, to aim at with any missile. 

Balangken, to throw or cast any object, as a stono or stick. 

Balangsiar, to stroll or go about, raising the wind, or seeking the means of subsistance , 
or the necessaries of life. 

Balanja, hire, cost, expense, disbursements, money for current expenses, pocket-money, 
wages, maintenance. 

Balas, an eruption, or breaking out of pustules on the skin. 

Balasawajar, an expression difficult to translate, answering to — D'ont tell me; do you 
think I am such a fool as to believe you. 

Balawiri, to wander or go backwards and forwards to the same place. 

Bald, a public building in every village, that serves for a mosque or place of worship, 
and it is here also that all strangers unknown to the inhabitants arc lodged and fed. 
The Bale is probably of very ancient use, as it is still known as a petty Hindu tem- 
ple on Bali. Bat. Trans, vol 22 Page 33/3 k (It is the same as Balai; which see). 

Baled og, to throw at, to strike at, to thwack, to thump. 

Baleg, ar: adult, marriageable, grown up to puberty- longing after the opposite sex. 

Baldn, turn, time. Sa balen y once, one time. 2\lubalen y three times. 

Bales, to return, to retaliate, to have revenge; to fly back as a spring or bent stick; such 
spring itself. Bales surat to answer a letter. Panjhadean hula di bales ku fjoremj , my 
goodness is requited with evil. Ari sia sokjahil, mohal to di baits , if you are malicious, 
you are sure to be retaliated upon. Bales na bejad, the spring is spoiled. 

Bali, the island next to Java on the East, where the Hindu religion found refuge, and 
continued to be observed after the fall of raajaphahit on Java , and the consequent in- 
troduction of Mohammedanism. A sort of Hinduism still exists on Bali. Mr. Friederich 
considers that the word Bali is of the same origin as Bantam , which see- and fancies 
that Bali was a sort of holy land of the Panditas, devoted to religious purposes and 
offerings, which in short the word implies. Balcyan, C. 4G9 fit or proper for sacri- 
fice. The word in its origin is no doubt the same as the Sunda word Balai- 
which see. 

Bali, the after-birth, the placenta. 

Balibat, a word heard in the names of some ancient divinities. The Badui have a divinity 
called Dalam Balibat Jaya. Bali- see voce. Bata, C. 455 descent, going down, descent 
from a height. The west- Bali-bata may be thus „ brought down by sacrifices , by of- 



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36 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

„ferings" — and the whole set of "words will be „The Dalam who is illustrious brought 
„down by offerings". (23). 

B a 1 i k , to return , to go back. Geus balik , he has gone or come back. 

Balik, the reverse, the other side, the back of any thing. Di balik lawang behind the 
door- Di balik na , on the other side of it. 

Balikan, to return to the attack; to go over again, as work. 

Balikken, to send back, to drive back, to return, to put back. 

Ba limbing, an acid fruit, Averrhoa Carambola. 

Balimbing beusi, another variety of averrhoa. 

Baliyung, the native axe or hatchet; it has no shafthole, but the top is spindle shaped, 
allowing it to be set in its socket, at any angle. This is the native axe or hatchet, 
which is proWhbly made after the model of stone axes, before iron was known. The 
shaft has a bit of the wood, at right angles , at one end , for which purpose a piece of 
wood with its root has been selected. Round this projecting head- piece is fixed a bit 
of buffaloe hide , sewed together with thongs , which are also cut out of hide ; and be- 
tween the hide- cap and the wood , the head of the axe , which is a long spike of iron , 
is driven in. This spike turns round with a good knock, sideways and so the blade 
can be easily set at any angle to the shaft, and form, as may be desired, an axe or 
even a cooper's adze; and when set at any intermediate point, is found very useful 
for dubbing down wood. 

Balla, European- a ball, the dance of Europeans. Main bala to dance. 

Balok, a beam, a piece of timber. A rude representative of coin formerly used by the 
Dutch, being the end of a rod of Japan copper cut off in equal lengths and stamped. 
Balk, Dutch- a Beam. 

B'along, to keep a sawah constantly under water, even at times when no crop is growing , 
which is thought to improve the land. 

Baluk, small boats used on the rivers in the residency of Bantam, for the purpose of 
conveying merchandise. 

Balumbang, a pool of water; the muddy pool which is always seen under the steps into 
a native house, caused by the washing of the feet. 

Balung, a bone. 

Baluntas, a shrubby herb growing near the sea shore, Pluchea indica. 

Bam ban, also pronounced sometimes Bangban. A Scitameneous plant, Maranta Tonchat 
or Maranta Indica, from which Arrow -root is made. 

B a m b u n g , a large Coleopterous beetle often fouud about cocoanut trees. 



(23) I should rather think it to be bnliwat y possessed of offerings , rich in offerings, receiving many 
offerings. See bagawat, Fr. 



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37 



Ban, a band, a belt -with a clasp worn round the body- Ban, C. 458 tying, fastening, 
binding. 

Banaspati, the genius or genii who preside over forests and their trees. Wanaspati , 
from Wana, forest; Pati, lord, C. 621- the Forest lord. (Known also on Bali as 
a devil.) 

Banchang, drawn of work, or usual occupations, unhinged, attention diverted. 

Banc hot, a small and active variety of frog, common in Sawahs. 

Ban da, property, capital, means, riches; the prime cost. Bhanda, C. 486. Capital, stock 
of money to trade with. Probably means literally „what is tied together"- from Ban- 
dinawa, to tie. (Bandha, Skr. a band, binding, tying; a pledge, a deposit; the body 
* Wilson). 

Ban da, The island of Banda in the Moluccos. • 

Bandar, a chief town, or trading place, a factory, an Emporium. Bhandagaraya , C. 
491, from Bhanda, a vessel, a cup &c. Capital, stock. Agara, a house, a store- 
room , a place where household goods ; and utensils are kept. A treasury. Probably 
corrupted into our short Bandar. 

Bandaran, a custom house, a place at the mouth of a river where toll is taken. 

Bande Agung, the reception hall of a great man. 

Bandeng, a sea-fish, much kept in ponds near the shore. 

Ban den g, name of an Aroui or liane in forests- see Katalimbeng. 

Bandera, a flag, a banner. Portuguese. Marsden P. 50. 

Bandil, a kind of pronged spear used by the police to take violent subjects; it is shaped 
like the letter Y, and the prongs being set with inverted rattan thorns, tear the flesh 
if escape be attempted. 

Banding, to place next some other object; to compare by juxta position. 

Bandrek, a warm drink, made of ginger, pepper &c. 

Bandrin^, a sling to throw stones. 

Bandung, two together, double, as two hens living in one nest. The Etymon of this 
word may be Bandhu C. 459, from Bandlia to bind, a kinsman, a relation, but espe- 
cially of the distant or cognate kind. The Polynesian final ng has been suffixed. A friend , 
a brother. 

Bandung, name of one of the divisions of the Prianger Regencies. 

Banen, a hog , a swine ; a term of reproach. 

Bang, properly Javanese, of a red colour; Kain bang , a red batik cloth. 

Banga, a character in ancient Javanese history, connected with the foundation of Ma- 
japahitand Pajajaran, see Raffles vol 2 P. 100/104. He is usually called Ariya Banga. 
On quarrelling with his brother Chiung "Wanara, the empire of Java was divided; 
Ariya Bcng'a with his brother Raden Tanduran founding Majapahit, leaving Chiung 
AVanara in possession of Pajajaran or the west end of Java. Banga C. 486. breaking. 



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38 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

splitting, a fissure, a division, a chasm; defeat, discomfiture. This name probably at- 
tached to him from the splitting of the royal authority in Java. 
Bang'ang'ah, gasping and blowing for breath, as on ascending a hill. The etymon of 
this word is ang which appears to imply apart , separated , but is not used separately ; 
it occurs in Anggang , and Bung'ang'ang- which see. 
13 a n g ' a t , with force , with violence , excessively , beyond moderation in an extreme degree- 
severe- Bantfat teuyn di gebugan, you strike him too severely. Mardntah jelema ulah 
sole bang'' at teuyn, in ordering people d'ont be too severe. 
Bangbaluhan, a log of wood tied to the neck of a buffaloe or other animal, to prevent 

its fighting or goring the others. 
Bang ban, see Bamban, name of a plant- Maranta Tonchat. 

Bang bang, an^xpression used with reference to the Eastern points of the Compass. The 
word is probably a derivative from the Javanese word abangvei, and being duplicated 
will indicate the ruddiness of the East or of the rising sun. 
Bangbang Siang, the break of day, dawn, the East. Siang is Malay for early or day 

light , and is not otherwise heard in Sunda than in this expression. 
Bangbang wetan, the East , sun- rise. 

Bangbara, a black bulky kind of humble bee or Bombus, with sharp jaw3 which bores 
holes and nestles in timber. These insects are especially troublesome in buildings made 
of common jungle wood, most of which they will attack, if the wood has been cut when 
young. The insect is familiarly called „the Carpenter", and in Malay is Kumbang. (23). 
B a n g b c t , one of the chief divinities of the Badui. The word occurs in the sense of a di- 
vinity in several jampe's. 
Bangka, dead, said particularly of cattle that have died in the wilderness without the 

knowledge of owners, and ar thus not fit for food. 
Bangka, the island of Banca, celebrated for its tin. [loangka, Skr. the bend, or elbow of 
• a river, the winding course of a stream. Might the island have been calted after the 
currents of the sea about? Fr.). 
Bangka, heard in the expression Tuwa bangka , an old obstinate or malicious person. Bang- 
ka is probably a contraction of Bangka wara. 
Bangkawara, malicious , bad , wicked , perverse , naughty , acting contrary to orcters. Bhanga , 
C. 480. fear, dishonesty, fraud, circumvention, cheating. Wara, C. 638. opposition: 
thus fraudulent opposition. (Might be derived from wangka, and wara best, chief, prin- 
cipal; meaning a person whose chief quality is bending and winding himself? Fr). 



(21) This might bo the Skr. bhramara, a bee, which occurs also in Kawi and means not the 
honey giving, but the black humble bee, the Malay Kumbang. The corruption might be explained 
by the natives avoiding two r in the same word, wherefor they left out the first r (bhamara), and 
with their fondness for alliteration they put in another b^ bambara , or bangbara). Fr. 



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AND ENGLISH. 39 

Bangkayut, the straw of the ear part of paddy, after the grain has been removed. 

Bangkol, a hook, a crook. 

Bangkong, a toad. Batu bangkong , a trachyte stone or rock. 

Bangkong, as Ki Bangkong, a large forest tree with hard, heavy wood. 

Bangku, Portuguese Banco- a bench, a form , a sofa. 

Bangkulu, Bencoolen in Sumatra. Bangka-hulu> old-Bangka Fr.). 

Bangkwang, a white round root, something like a garden turnip, generally eaten raw. 
Pachyrrhizus angulatus. 

Bang'o, a bird of the stork kind, with black body and white breast. Sometimes called 
by the Dutch the Domine , the Parson , in allusion to his wearing a small white band 
at his neck , and being otherwise dressed in black. Ciconia capillata. Called also Ban- 
go SJse'r. * 

Bang'o butak, the bald Bang'o, from having no feathers on its head. It is larger than 
the simple Bango. The adjutant bird. Ciconia. 

Bang'or, obstinate, self-willed, naughty. Hardy, as a plant or animal. 

Bangs a, race, family, tribe. Nobility, of high or noble descent. Wansa, C. 614. race, 
lineage, family. 

Bangsa-an, having noble descent, being of good family. Made in Malay into Bangsa wan. 
(The Malay bang saw in is rather the Nominative case of bangsawat, possessing a line- 
age Fr.) 

Bangsal, Paddy still in the husk but beaten out from straw. 

Bangsal, a marine store house, a Banksaul- we do not hear this word in the interior, 
nor is it now a davs in use along the coasts of Java, but exists wherever the native 
governments are still in force as in Ball It is most likely derived from Bandha, C. 
459, a pledge, a deposit , a tie , a fetter, a binding. Sala, C. 719, a house or hall. Ban- 
dha- sala would thus be a hall of deposit, and thus of safety for foreign traders. When 
foreign traders landed their goods in such a building , it was a kind of pledge for their 
good conduct , and that they would and could pay for any produce , which they might 
engage. 

Bang'si, a clarionette, blown from the end. 

Bang'un, appearance, shape, make, form. Bang^un na bagus, its shape is beautiful. 

Bang' u nan, a set, an assortmant. Goong tilu bang^unan, three sets of Gongs, with other 
accompanying musical instruments. 

Bang'us, the muzzle, the mouth of an animal. 

Bantahan, to resist, to oppose, to rebel, to act contrary to orders in Malay Ban tali- Mars- 
den 49 to wrangle, dispute, contest, sqtfabble, quarrel in words: and Perbantahan. 
M. 217. disputes, contention. Some people wish to trace the origin of ] tontam on Java 
to this word Bantahan, contracted into Bantan, as indicating a rebellious, disobedient 
people, which character they generally possess. 



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40 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE. 

Bantal, a sleeper for any thing to rest on. The lower part of a Chinese plough; the 
part to which the iron shoe is fixed. 

Ban tan, the present residency of Bantam, at the west end of Java. The Javanese and 
Dutch Dictionary of T. Koorda published at Amsterdam in 1847 gives this word Ban- 
tan, as implying-instrument , means; an offering. In Balinese Banten is an offering; 
and Bantenan are collective offerings. Mr. Friederich considers Banten , to be a Krama 
or refined form for Bali, which by Clough's dictionary, Page 463 implies , Propitiatory 
offerings, religious gifts or sacrifice- which meaning Mr. F. is of opinion would ap- 
ply to the island of Bali, since the same meaning attaches to the word Bali in Sans- 
crit. Mr. F. fancies that Bali was a sort of holy land of the Panditas , devoted to 
religious purposes and offerings, for which same purpose Banten had originally been 
employed , but as such was destroyed by Hassan Udin , on the introduction of Moham- 
medanism. Other words in Javanese make a transfiguration as strange as Bali^j Ban- 
ten, as for instance Kari^s Kantun. T.- Roorda, Page 172, to remain over; a re- 
mainder. Kirim^3 Kintun. T. Roorda Page 180. to send; any thing sent. 

Ban tar, a fall in the course of a river where the water runs over a smooth bottom, and 
even surface. 

Ban tat, an hermaphrodite. 

Bante'ng, the wild cattle, the wild bull. Found amongst the mountains, or in lonely 
forests in the Sunda districts. The bulls are handsome animals, sleek and black with 
noble horns; the cows are inferior animals and fawn- coloured. 

Banting, to knock, to dash, to fling with violence one thing against another; to got a 
jolt, to shake, to joggle. 

Bantu, to assist, to aid, to help. 

Ban tut, stunted, of small growth. 

Banu, the sun: occurs in ancient lore as Banu raksa. Banu C. 468. the Sun. Bhanu, C. 
491 from Bha to shine, the sun, light, a ray of light, a master, a sovereign, a Prince. 
Banu- raksa, protected by the sun. Sun-protected. 

Ban yak We di, the name of a character in the ancient history of Java. Raffles vol 2. 
Page 98. It means in Javanese Banyak, a goose- Wedi afraid, frightened. As an 
infant he was thrown away into the Krawang river in order to get rid of him , but 
being saved by a fisherman, was restored when grown up, and became Sovereign of 
Pajajaran, under the title of Chiung Wanara. The name of the „Frightened Goose" 
has no doubt reference to his having been cast a drift on the river. 

B any at, to come out or up from the water, or from a river- to emerge. 

Ban yuan, from Banyu in Javanese, water. To wash, to cleanse with water. 

Banyumas, a residency on the South coast of Java to the Eastward of the Priangan Re- 
gencies ; — Golden water". 

Banyuwangi, an assistent Residency at the extreme East end of Java; the words mean 



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AND ENGLISH. 41 

in Javanese „ Scented water" — Here was formerly the old state of Balambangan. 
Bapa, Father- Papa- Bapa. C. 459 a father. 
Bapang, a metal plate worn on the breast of police- men, or other petty officials as a 

mark of authority. 
Bapang, a variety of Mangga so called. 
Bar, an idiomatic expression indicating- „ pouring out" — is usually associated with Bur 

which see, and which means Bar in a greater degree. Bar when associated with Ber 

means to keep flying, flying about. 
Bar-bSr, said of birds or bats which keep flitting or flying around any place; flying 

backwards and forwards. 
Bar-bur, to keep 'pouring out. 
Bar a, glowing cinders, embers, live coals. 
Barabat, proceeding in a straight line, forthwith, right on. 
Barahala, some mystical being, anidol- Bara- C. 4(58, charge, custody- Bara. C. 461, 

important, of consequence. Hala C. 788 venom , poison of serpents. Halshala, a sort of 

poison, a kind of snake. Barahala will thus be „ Venom-loaded 11 and will denote some 

malignant being. (Malay JU-j > Inscriptions of Malang bhardla , seems to be the same 

as bhatdra , in Tagaly bhatdla ; with the cerebral t , which is nearly related to r Fr.). 

Bar ah ma, usually called Batara Barahma, apparently the God Brama which see- occurs 
in Jampe's and invocations. 

Barai, to pay, to make a payment. 

Baralak, the dead leaf branch of a Cocoa nut tree, which has withered and dried up. 

Baralak, as kuda baralak, said of a horse which has a tail which sticks out stiff and rigid. 
Cock-tailed. 

Baranang glittering, shining, as lamps or lights in the night, as burnished gold or silver. 

Bar an da, Port: Varanda. A Varandah, the open gallery of a European's house. 

Barandi, European. Brandy. 

Barang, goods, effects, particularly apparel, househould goods or things for Sale. 

Barang, an idiomatic expression, as Barang Sapuluh, about ten; To barang nanya, I did 
not chance to enquire, 

Barangasan, violent in conduct, furious, easily enraged, petulant in speech. 

Barangbang, the leaf frond of the Bettle nut and Cocoa nut palm, when dried up and 
turned red it falls from the tree devidently dirived from Abang , red in Javanese, 
as such fronds are then dried up red. In Javanese Barangbang means red- onions. 

Baranghala, obstructions, things is our way, difficulties. 

Barani, the loadstone, called generally Batu Barani, perhaps derived from Bhrantiya, C. 
502, whirling, going round, revolving (as a compass does). In the back part of Ja- 
singa towards the Kendang mountains , there are some rivulets called Chi-Barani. This 
name may be a modification of Bawani , the consort of Siva or his attribute of Courage , 

6 



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42 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

or be a modification of the plural of wani ^ warana or wararani, daring, courageous. 

Barat, the west-Barat is a word very generally used for West, not only in Sunda, but 
in Malay and Javanese. The Sunda people have also a still more commonly used word, 
viz hulon of the same import. It strikes me that Barat may have a Sanscrit origin 
from Bahinawa, C. 4G6 to go down, to set as the Sun- or more probably the first 
syllable of this word Ba, which is also heard in Uadiya CL 4G8 from Ba and diya 
water, the ebb or reflux of the tide, low- water. Rata, C. 581, a country, a district 
and by contraction Barat, the Country of the setting sun. 

Bar ay a, Relations, of the same descent or blood, kindred. Probably the same as Bharaya 
. C. 492 , charge , custody , derived from Bhara , which in its turns is from Bhrae to nourish. 

Barelih, uneven, rough, shaggy. 

Bareng, at the same time, together, simultaneously. 

Barengan, to work in concert, to do at the same time. 

Bardra, the piece of wood used to strike the threads together in weaving. 

Bare to, formerly, some time ago. Poi bareto, the day before yesterday. 

Bareubeui, name of a large forest tree. Gynotroches axillaris. 

Bareuh, swollen, inflated, a tumefaction in the flesh. 

Bari, stale, old from keeping, as provisions; musty, mouldy. 

Bari, Indeed, even though. Bari saha nu daik, Indeed who would like it. 

Bar im bit, a general fear caused to the inhabitants of any part of the Country, by the 
presence and ravages of tigers. A general panic. 

Barinjil, uneaven, rough. 

Bar is, a line, a stroke, a row, a range. Military array, to drill- of the rank or quality 
of. Baris menak , of noble birth , of the quality of a nobleman. Baris knrincj , of the 
common people. 

Baron, proyo Nusa Baron, an island off the South coast of Java, near its last end, 
off the districts of Lamajang. Can this be an island risen by volcanic force from the 
waves within the ken of man , and hence called Baru-an zz Baron , by Malay traders 
along the South coast in ancient times , as Baru is not Javanese or did the traders 
from India find Marabolans upon it and then gave it the name of Bara C. 4G1 , the 
three noted Myrobolans, viz. Terminalia Chebula, emblic, and belerica? 

Baru or Wang baru, Ten Copper doits or two stivers. Baru is a Malay word and means 
New. The Sundas use also Tahun Baru, the new year, of Europeans or Chinese. 

Baru an g, Poison. The bear of Sumatra and Borneo. 

Baruang alas, literally interpreted, Forest poison, is a large caterpillar-looking insect, 
which the natives say poisons water when immersed in it. It is the Cladomorphus 
Phvllinus of zoology. 

Barujul, the native plough for dry lands, composed of a crooked piece shod with iron, 
and a beam to drag it bv. 



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AND ENGLISH. 43 

Baruinbung, Paddy straw next the ear- each individual stalk. 

Baruna. Varuna, the deity of the Hindu mythology who presides over the ocean, and 
over rain. JFaruna C. 625 the deity of the waters and regent of the west. Water 
or the ocean. 

Bar us, the name of a place on the West coast of Sumatra where the best camphor is 
produced, hence called Kapur Barus ^ Barus lime. 

Basa, speech, language; behaviour, manners. Basa Swtda , the Sunda language. Basajero, 
refined language, the language used about courts or towards great men, and corres- 
ponds with the Basa Dalam of the Malays, see Jero. To botjah basa , he has no man- 
ners; literally he does not know how to select his words. Basa, C. 405 and Bhasa, 
C. 493, word, speech, dictum. 

Basa, points to some particular act or time. Eukeur basa orang kagunung , at the period 
when we went to the mountains. It is probably only the former word in a modified 
acceptation. (Tt might be tritoa, house, habitation, from icas, to dwell; the o-i ve n 
example would in this case to be explained: at the time we dwelled in the moun- 
tains. Fr.). 

Basar, the power of God to see all things, all-seeing. 

Baseuh, wet, moist- Sampituj na baseuh, his body cloth is wet. 

Basi, a large dish for a joint; a platter, a large bowl. 

Baskat, a sort of waitscoat; a close garment for the breast This sounds like a corruption 
of the English word waist coat. It ties with strings on both the ri^ht and left breast. 

Basuki, a place and residency at the East end of Java, so called after the In liau Serpent 
king IFasuki, who in Indian and Balinese mythology accompanies Siwa, and is a con- 
spicuous character. Bat. Trans. Vol 23 Page Page 24. Basuki on Bali is one of the 
Sad-kahyangan or six temples, and is situated at the foot of the Gunuiif Aucuivin Ka- 
rang Asam. Bat. Trans. Fricderich Vol 22. 

Bata, a brick, a building material. 

Batal, love and affection broken and dissolved; to become unclean and unlawful. 

Batang, appears to be a nearly obsolete designation for a Deity, or for some superior 
being connected with old superstitions. The word is still in use among the Badui of 
South Bantam, who still adhere to a form of worship partly derived from Hinduism, 
or the former religion of the Javanese. Thus they talk of the Patang Jala or Batang 
jala, as one of their chief divinities, and with them occurs the expression, when thev 
are in difficulty or much fatigued, of Ilari Batang tulung Maumj. The word Batang 
may be a corruption of Batara which see. Wata , C. 017 among other numerous 
meanings has that of „a Tiger, the Bengal tiger 11 or the Tiger Royal. Tin initial 
W in the Polynesian tongues is often commuted for B. This mutation is also known 
in Singhalese, Clough Page 454 under the letter B says — „ Considerable difficulties 
arise from a custom which has gained both among authors and Copyists substituting 



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44 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

the B for W and vice versa" a final ang is also frequently added to words, 
by which the original Wata would become Batang. This appears to be the more pro- 
bable as this Hari Batang is associated with Maung ; the colloquial Sunda word for the 
Tiger Royal. Batang may also be a corruption of Dexoata , with the initial D6 drop- 
ped, and ng sufficed. Hari, C. 787 is derived from Hara to take, and is a name of 
Krishna or Vishnu, Yama or Indra, and the expression Hari batang tulung maung 
will thus mean — „Oh God Krishna, help me oh Tiger". Batang Jala may mean the 
God of magic or delusion. Jala C. 210 magic, conjuring, illusion, supernatural de- 
ception. Throughout Java till this moment the natives have a superstitious reverence 
for the Tiger royal , and will not hurt or kill it , unless it first has dosa or sin , and 
has killed a human being, or some of his Cattle. Batang is the name of a place and 
districts on the north coast of Java in the residency of Pakalongan , where the Prahu 
mountains come down near the shore. In these same Prahu mountains are found many 
remnants and remains of temples from Hindu times , and the name of Batang may 
perhaps be in some way connected with the Divinities there formerly worshipped. Ano- 
ther name of a place in this locality which attracts attention as being of Hindu origin 
is Sraman near Simbang. Clough Page 778 gives Sramana, from Srama to perform 
acts of austere devotion- an Ascetic , one devoted to meditation for the purpose of ob- 
taining final emancipation from existence; a Buddhist ascetic, a beggar, a religious 
mendicant, a Buddhist priest. 

Batang may also be explained as derived from Bata C. 455 descent , going down , 
descent from a hight. To the Sanscrit Bata the Polynesian Ng may have been added 
as a termination , and Batang may mean the low land , th e low country along the 
foot of the lofty and sacred Prahu mountains, see also Balibat. 

Batara, The Hindu Godhead. The Sundanese apply the designation to all the divinities, 
as Batara Guru , the chief Hindu God worshipped on Java , Batara Bisnu , Batara Ga- 
na or Ganesa <&c. Guru among the Hindus was a kind of spiritual guardian of youth, 
one of the names of Brihaspati, the preceptor of the Gods -Clough Page 178. Bata- 
ra Guru, however, on Java appears to have been the chief Hindu Deity worshipped, 
but whether Siwa or Vishnu is not evident. Crawfurd dissertation or Malay grammer 
Page 238 says that, on the authority of Professor Wilson, no doubt the Hindu god 
intended was Vishnu. 

Awatara, C. 5k awa, down, tara to cross or pass: a descent, this word is used by 
most of the oriental nations to express the incarnation of their deities , or their descent 
from heaven to Earth; and in Hindu history it particularly refers to the incarnation 
of Vishnu in ten principal forms , viz 1 , the fish- 2 , ihe tortoise- 3 the boar- 4 the 
man-lion- 5 the dwarf- G and 7 the two Ramas 8. Krishna- 9 Buddha, and 10 Kalki- 
see Bisnu. (Cf. Oesana Bali Tdsch. Ned. Ind. IX. 3.257. Fr.). 

B a t a r i , a female goddess ; the female of Batara. 



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AND ENGLISH. 45 

Batawi or Batavia, the Capital of the Dutch possesions in India, situated on the island 
of Java in the Sunda districts, and founded A.D. 1619 at the ancient Jakatra. 

Bati, profit, gain-maybe derived from Bhataka, C. 491, wages, hire, price. 

Batik, a particular method of dying Cotton cloths, the pattern being first traced with 
liquid wax and the cloth then dipped in the dye stuff; the places under the wax are 
not dyed, and when the wax is subsequently removed, the pattern becomes visible. 
Pattern, design. 

Bat in, ar: hidden, occult, interier, ulterior- the future, what is not yet known. Inward 
thoughts, what we ourselves only can know. 

Bating, no, not all, none at all, oh never! 

Bat ok, the shell of a Cocoanut. Babatok, the skull. 

Bafu, a stone, a rock. Batu asahan, a whetstone; Batu uji> a touchstone; Batu bata, 
a brick; Batu riyeus or Batu giling, a fiatstone for rubbing down any vegetable mat- 
ter to a pulp, see Pangriyeusan. Batu Barani, the loadstone perhaps from Bharanti- 
ya C. 502, whirling, going round, revolving (as a compass does). 

Batuk, a cough, to cough. 

Batur, a companion, a fellow in labour, in play etc. Batur is in very extensive use, and 
means generally-other people, our companions or neighbours; a neighbour, a person in 
same circumstances as ourselves. Beunatig batur, my neighbour got it. 

Baturan, to keep Company with, to keep in Company, to associate 

Bau, smell, odour, scent. Smell or stink. Bau na seungit, the smell is sweet. Bau na 
busuk, the smell is stinking. 

Bauh or Bahu, a measure of land, of which four make one Jung. Bahu, C. 470 the 
arm. The Bauh recognized by government on Java contains 500 square Rhine- 
lands roods or Tumbaks of each 12 x 12 & 144 square Rhineland feet £2 72.000 square 
Rhineland feet. Now as 0.94310 Rh: feet^i 1 Eng: 72.000 or 1 Bauh & 76344 
square English feet per Bauh, or a trifle more than 1J- English acre of each 43.360 
English square feet. 

Bauh, the fifth in descent, the father counting first; and the terms for each relationship 
are thus expressed ; Bapa , Anak, Inchu , Buyut , Changgah or Chenggeh and Waring. 
These four last terms appear to be inversely used, thus the Bapa will call the 14 ttl ge- 
neration from himself, his Bauh, and that same Bauh will allude to the same Bapa 
as his Bauh. These lines complete seven generations, which the natives designate as 
tujuh turunan, and which in general is considered very ancient, and when property 
is at stake, if it has been in the family for seven generations, it amounts to what we 
call prescription. 

Bauk, whiskers, hair on the cheeks. 

Baur or Bawur, mixed, blended, intermingled. 

Baurkun, to mingle, to blend. 



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46 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Bawa, to bring, to fetch, to carry, to convey, to take away. 

Bawa, on Bali a name of Siwa, implying Nature. Bhawa, C. 493 nature, a state or 
condition of being. Friederich Bat: Trans: Vol 22 P. 35. 

Bawal, a sea- fish, the pomfret. Stromateoides Cinereus. 

Bawang, an onion, allium. 

Bawani, the consort of Siwa, his attribute of courage- see wani. 

Bawat or Payung Bawat, an umbrella of oncient times; a state umbrella. Such as re- 
bels carry about with them when they rise to resist the government, as they are con- 
sidered badges of authority. On Java there is an appropriately coloured Bawat for each 
gradation of rank, the gold Bawat indicating the highest authority in the land, and 
used by the Sovereign or the European Governor General. 

Bawon, a proportion of the rice crop given for reaping, often also called Gachong. 

B a w u r , mixed , mingled , blended. 

Bawurken, to mix, to mingle, to blend, (see baur and baurken). 

Bay a, evil, mischief, danger. Hayang ulah nimubaya, I hope not to meet any evil. Baya, 
C. 460 fear, terror, alarm. 
Baya in Jampes in Sunda means West, see Seri. 

Bay ah, the lungs, the lights. 

Bayangan, something or person that we have design upon to possess ; marked ont as our 
own. Bayangan Ratu , the Prince intends to have it; the prince has set his eyes u- 
pon her, said of a woman. 
To fail or be worsted in an encounter; wounded. Unclial bayangan a wounded deer 

Bayangkang, stringy, porous and dry; said of fruit or edible roots. 

Bayar, to pay, to discharge a debt 

Bayaran, payment, disbursement. 

Bayong, the young or small fry of tfre fish Gabus. Ophicephalus striatus. 

Bayu, as Batara Bayu, the god of wind, Aeolus. "Wayu, C. 638, air, wind , derived from 
wa to go , and an affinitive. 

Bayu nan, as Bayunan Ratu, a royal bed- chamber. 

Be, a particle prefixed to substantives and adjectives, by which they obtain a verbal form ; as 
Bodo, stupid, Bebodo to make a fool of; Buah, a fruit, apiece of fruit, Bebuahan y a 
Kidney, which from its shape suggests the idea of a fruit. The crude form of the 
word , to which Be is prefixed , does not always occur separately , as is Bubud , Bubek, 
Bedag. 

Bea or Bey a, impost, custom, duty, toll. Crawfurd gives Be'ya as Sanscrit, meaning a 
Cowrie shell, such shells were formerly used to represent money or value. 

Be'ak, done, expended, finished, got through, used up. 

Bear, soft and crummy, not moist or adhesive but easily falling to pieces, or asunder like 
sand. 



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AND ENGLISH. 47 

Be'as, rice cleaned from the husk and bran, but not cooked. Also the cleaned grain 

of any plant, as Beas kopi, cleaned Coffee beans. 
Bebadak, a long funnel-shaped bambu basket, which being filled with stones is much 

used in damming rivers. The name is apparently derived from Badak , a rhinoceros , a 

large bulky unwieldy animal. 
BSbajeg, the hamstring, the main tendon of the hind leg. 
B S b a 1 a s a n , an eruption on the skin , a sort of scurvy. 
Bdbas, cleared and square as a debt paid off, discharged. 
Bebatok the skull, the cranium. 
Bebatu, the stone used for any particular use, as a weight for scales, for a standing 

clock etc. 
Bebeakan, using your strength to the utmost; in any extreme degree, putting forth your 

strength, or exertions till they are beak, expended. 
B^bechek, to work a bit of swamp for planting paddy, using only a pachul or hoe, 

and not a plough and buffaloes. 
Bebed, to tie up with a bit of string, to tie round and round. Ubed implies a higher 

degree, more entangled. 
Bebed-upih, an tipih well filled with provisions for a journey etc. 
BebSdah, to open or make new Sawahs. New sawahs lately made. 
Bebeger, young and full of flesh and activity. Chowcne bebeger, a full grown maidenhead. 
Bebek, a domestic duck; called also riri-anas. 

Bebek, to pound fine, to beat in a mortar, anything pounded or ground fine; said es- 
pecially of grinding rice till it is perfectly clean. 
Bebel, glans penis. 

Bebeledogan, squibs and crackers, fireworks. 
Bebundu and Bebendon, disgrace, loss of favour, dishonour. 

From Bandhu, C. 459, what is bound. Bandhnra, C. 459 injurious, mischievous. 
Bdbene, a female sweet heart, a mistress, an affianced woman. 

Bebeng, of the same size or diameter throughout its whole length; not tapering to a point. 
Berber, spread out, opened out; clear, evident. 
B^bOra- new-made Sawahs. Sawahs that are kept the year through under water, but not 

planted, in order to improve them. 
Bsbcureuh, a sweetheart, a young man engaged in marriage. 
Bebodo, to make a fool of, to deceive. 
Bebuahan, the kidneys- from Buah, fruit. 
Beburak, to chase away, to disperse, to scatter. 
Bechara, a matter of lawsuit or judicial investigation, see Pichara, derived from ilehara, 

C. 61. An established rule of conduct, an ordinance, an institute, a precept. To which 

is prefixed the Polynesian Be which gives it a verbal form. Gedong bechara, a town- 



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48 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

hall, a place where public matters are discussed, a court house. (25) 

Be'che'k, muddy, miry, 30ft and dirty as the earth after rain. 

Be dag, to overtake, to come up with di uJag kabedag , chasing him he overtook him. 

Bedah, torn, burst, rent asunder: to open or make new Sawahs-Bhe'dya C. 499, broken 
rent, torn. 

Bedah, different, varying, other, distinct, separate- Beda, C. 479 dissention, disagree- 
ment; or from Bheda, C. 499, dividing, separating; distinction, sort, difference. 
(Skr. bheda). 

Bgdahken, to make any opening for water to run out : to make a gap. 

Bsdak, a cosmetic for the skin, made from rice-flour and mixed with something to scent 
it. It is kept as -a powder and when wanted for use is mixed with a little water, and 
then rubbed on the skin; much used by young women. 

Bedame, at peace, reconciled, of one mind, concord. 

Bed as, strong, powerful. 

B6 day a, women who sing and dance before native chiefs. Called in Bantam Rejang. The 
Bedoyo of the Javanese. 

Bsdil, a gun, a hand gun, a fowling piece. WeMi or Wedilla, C. 668. shooting, ex- 
plosion. 

Bedodon, a kind of trap set to take fish wherever there is a small fall of water ; the 
water passes through leaving the fish. A small temporary Saapa. 

Bgdog, a common chopper, or cutting instrument worn by every native, and used for 
cutting wood &c. 

B e d o 1 , burst , as a dam or embankment swept away by water. 

B 6 d u g , a drum , viz. a hollow cylinder of wood with a hide stretched over only one end, 
the other end being left open. Such bedugs are hung up in the mosques to call the 
people to prayers, to give notice of a death &c, and are beat on all occasions of alarm. 
To nyaho di palobah bedug , he does not know where abouts the bedug hangs, a sly 
way of saying he never goes to the mosque to say his prayers , and thus does not even 
know where the bedug is to be found. 

Bedul, a pig, swine; an opprobrious epithet 

Bdgal, to way lay, the act of high way robbery or murder- a high way man. 

Beg-breg, the breaking or snapping of sticks or young trees, as when some wild beast 
rushes along : to fling down in a confused heap. 



(25) It is a corruption of the Skr. Wichara ^ Malay bichara), the exercise of judgment or reason on a 
present object, investigation, consideration, deliberation; discussion , dispute. Wilson. The Malay bichara, 
means to speak deliberately, to discuss. Fr. 



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AND ENGLISH. 49 

Bugog, a monkey, apparently so called from squatting on trees and looking at people 
see Gog. 

Bell, an iiiterjection , of sight; there it is! look! it appears; behold! Beh bai timbong , 
looking I saw it. Btth bai kant/ahoan dosa na, Behold his sin became manifest. 

Beja, news, report: the talk of all' people. 

Beja ken, to spread a report, to send news. 

Bejad, knocked up, ruined in strength, jaded, feeble, rendered useless for any particular 
purpose- spoiled. 

Bgjig, poor and mean looking. 

B&kakas, tools, instruments. (See bahakas). 

Bekeken, to hold open, to split open with the hands, to part. 

Bskel, food, provisions, victuals carried on a journey. 

Bdkse'r, frequently piddling, water gushing out readily. 

Be la, aid, assistance; a seconder or supporter , a protector- Batur kudu di bela- cm, we must 
bring help to our neighbours- Aing mengke jadi be'lasia, I will become your protec- 
tor. On Bali, according to Fricderieh Bat. Trans. Vol 23 Page 10. B<ila is the bur- 
ning of a wife in a fiery hole, separate from her husband. Into this she jumps without 
krissing herself. Bela has been described by Crawfurd as implying Retaliation , but 
as far as I (Friederich) can learn, the Bali meaning of the word implies rather the 
Sanscrit wela> sudden and easy death (Wilson). This becomes plain from the 
manner in which it takes place , also from the circumstance that the attendants of a 
chief who has been killed in battle, and who make an amuk and die with him, are 
also called Bdla. In general in Bali the word implies „the act of dying with a superior 11 , 
as the wife with her husband, the slave with his master, the attendant with his lord. 
This word is probably derived from Billa, C. 473, a sacrifice of animals to demons, 
or an offering made in honour of deceased ancestors. In Malay it means to accompany 
.-. in death ; the voluntary sacrifice of a woman at the funeral of her husband — or it may 
come from BJla, C. 478, power, strength, force, might. 

Bela, ar: misfortune, evil, hurt. *h experimentum , tentamen, difficultas, aerumna, afflic- 

tio, Freytag.) 

B^la-an, to support, to give assistance to, to maintain, to succour. Bela- tin paih, to 
support, to succour even unto death; this expression is still frequently heard in the 
mouths of our mountaineers, and is most likely derived from Buddhist or Hindu times 
when the wife sacrificed herself on the funeral pile of her husband. 

B«labur, spread out, scattered. 

Belai, injury, calamity. Jauh belai, out of harm's reach. 

Belang, pic-bald, party-coloured, black and white. Kula belanj , a pie-bald horse. 

B Slang wayung Ilyang, name of a supernatural dog in the Manek Maya, formed 
from the dirt washed from the body of Wayu ITyang with rice water. This clog was 

7 



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50 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

black with a streak of white extending from the tip of his nose, along the ridge of 
his back, to the extreme point of his tail. Raffles Vol 2. appendix. 

BSledog, the report of a gun, or of fireworks, as of Crackers. 

Beledug, a loud hollow sound, as of some object or body falling. * 

BglSdug, Ketan rice boiled in a Cocoanut along with the pulp, and thus making a 
mixture. 

Bdl^k, having sore, weak and watery eyes. 

BelSke'k, a snipe. Scolopax. 

BSldke'r, the third time of consecutively planting the same bit of cleared forest land. The 
third year's crop of Paddy off such land. 

Bel^keun, having cracked and sore soles q( the feet. 

Be let, stupid, dull at learning. 

BSletok, to explode, to make aloud report in firing off, splitting or bursting. Beletoh 
bai bedil bitu , the gun went off with a loud explosion. Batu na kabeuleum beletok bai 
beulah, the stone being exposed, to fire split with a loud report. 

Be ling, broken earthenware pounded fine to clean iron with, especially -knives. 

Belo, a young horse still retaining its shaggy coat 

Be'lot, round about, circuitous. Jalan b<!lot> a round about road. 

Belu, disgusted, having an aversion, wearied and vexed. 

Belud, a kind of eel living in boggy earth. 

Beludru, Portuguese Veludo, Velvet. Jamang beludru, a velvet jacket 

BembSm, a fruit resembling a mangga. (Kabambam y Batavia). 

Benang, sewing thread. 

Ben char, split, cracked open. 

Be'ndi, a gig, a buggy. 

Bendu, anger, passion, wroth, rage, impetuosity of temper, Crawfurd calls it Malay. * 

Bendung, to stop the course of water by dams or other means. 

Bendungan, a dam or embankment to retain water. 

BSnSr, true, right, genuine, real. Straight, exact. 

BSnerkSn, to adjust, to put in order, to correct 

Beng, the idiomatic expression of throwing or flinging. 

B & n g ' a n g , the venereal disease ; the name of a tree with fruit like that of the Durian 
or Kadu. 

Beng' auk, a hobgoblin; a term used to frighten children. 

BengbSng, said of the report of a gun. 

BSngbSng, of even size throughout, as a bambu or log of wood, which is of even thick- 
ness throughout. The same as Beb£ng. 

Bengbeng, said of water which flows back towards its source , particularly in water ways 
which are not cut deep enough. 



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AND ENGLISH. 51 

Bdngbreng, ina row, in a regular line. Hayo maka bengbreng, come stand up in a re- 
gular line. 

Benggala, Bengal. Used in a vague sense as implying a distant country. The people 
have Pard benggala, Bengal paddy, and Chaw jbenggala, Bengal plantains, a name of 
which, however, they do not know the exact meaning. 

Bengk^l, said of a Kawung palm tree, which yields little toddy. 

Bengker, the hooping in a circular fishing trap, which keeps it open, and prevents it 
from collapsing; a hoop — called also Seungkeur. 

Bangkok, crooked, not straight, curved. 

Bengkung, bent or curved like any thin matter or plate which gives way to forces. 
Hump backed. 

B^ngo, warped, bent, crooked, not flat and even. 

Beng'ong, stupidly gazing, dismayed. 

Bdngsal, unlucky, not successful, luck coming with difficulty. 

Beng'uk, a legumenons pod, also called koas. 

BSning, clear, limpid, pellucid. This is properly Malay, and is seldom or never heard in 
conversation , but on Champea is a river Chibening limpid river. Herang is the usual 
Sunda word. 

BSnit, to be fond of women, always after the lasses. 

B€ntak, to scold, to speak roughly to, to frighten with fierce words. To shove roughly. 

B^ntang, a star. 

Bentang timur, the Eastern or morning star. 

B^ntang buntutan, a Comet, a star with a tail. 

B£ntar, to become known, to gain publicity. 

Bentdl, a Couple of handsfull of seedling paddy plants tied together. 

Benteli, a forest tree which gives a milky sap used for destroying worms in children, 
when it must be mixed with sugar and water. This is the best vermifuge which na- 
tives know. 

Bdntdng, a fortification, a stockade, a battery, military trenches. 

B^nteng, the familiar name for Tangerang, 15 Pauls Southwest from Batavia, where 
the old Dutch company had a B^nteng or fort. 

Bentds, correct and clear in speaking, having good pronunciation. 

Bgntik, bent like a sword, having a round bend; folding together by means of a joint 
or hinge. 

BSntur, to dash, to knock, to joggle, to strike against. 

Bgny^ng, a plant the root or bulb of which being scorched and bruised, is made up 
into small candles or torches. 

B6r, the idiomatie expression of flying, as ber bat hiber kabih, and away they all fluttered 
and flew. * 



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52 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Bar a, many, plenty, abundant. 

Be rag, Hot with love; Elated, in high spirits. 

BSr&But, to quarrel and scramble for any object; to snatch from another. 

Be'rek, to be noisy, to babble. Utah zbdrdk, D'ont be noisy, keep quiet. 

BSrekah, propitious, favourable, prosperous, blessed with success. 

BerSkat, ar: lucky, blessed. Berekat Allah, the blessing of God. Having in supera- 
bundance, more than we can get through; victuals remaining unconsumed at a feast 
Enough and to spare 

Berekeke, a disease in growing paddy caused by a worm. 

Be re's, in even and neat order, pretty, handsome. 

Be rod, the name of a scaleless river fish. 

Be rod, confounded, in a mass, as Kiamat berod, things are in a miserable plight. 

Bus, the idiomatie expression of forcing in or stabbing. 

Beseset, to cram or force into a small aperture. 

Besot, slipped out, sprung out, come out with force. 

Bet, the idiomatic expression of cutting through at one slap, as of small trees or twigs. 

Be tali, to have pleasure in, to be gratified with, to have a delight in. 

Be tan, as, like to, similar to. Pantan in Malay- Marsden Page 230, like, as, resembling 
probably of the same origin. 

B e t o k , name of a fish in swamps , which is hard-lived , and survives long even out of water. 

Bet us, split, broken, particularly when by breaking any liquid flows out. 

Beuber, a sash or belt worn round the loins, to keep the body firm whilst either wal- 
king or at work. All natives wear a beuber 

Beubeunteuran, name of a variety of grass. 

Beubeureum findog, the yolk of an egg. 

Beubeut, to dash, to smash against any thing, as a tiger would smash its prey against 
a tree or rock 

Beu-eus, wet, moist, wet in a less degree than Baseuh. 

Beuheung, the neck; Siket beuheung up to the neck, as far as the neck. 

Beuhngar, Rich, affluent, having abundant possessions. Sugi ku pikir beuhngar ku akal , 
rich in thought , affluent in device. 

Beukah, open, expanded, as a flower or seed head; particularly said of Paddy when 
the ears shoot out. 

Beukas, mark, trace; said of a gun which has been shot oft, and leaves the trace of the 
powder. 

Beuki, to have an appetite for, to relish, to desire to eat, to be fond of any act even 
other than eating. To beuki ka na Mjo, he does not like rice. Used also figuratively 
as : Sok beu/ci bohong , he is fond of lying. Beuki kolot beuki bang'' or , the older he 
gets the worse he is. Beuki in this latter sense is the more. 



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AND ENGLISH. 06 

Beukreuh, coiled, or huddled in a heap, as a person or animal asleep, any thing lying 

in a heap in a hole. 
Beulah, split, divided; to split, to cleave, to rend; Part, portion, side, quarter. Evi- 
dently derived from Bila y C. 473, a fissure, a rent, a perforation. 

lyo suluh kudu di beulahan, this fire -wood must be split up. 

Papan na beulah, the plank is split. 

Sa beulah ti wetan , on the East side. 
Beuleum, to burn, to consume with fire. 
Beuli, to buy, to purchase; hanto kabeuli, I c'ant buy it, or literally it cannot be 

bought (by me). 
B e u 1 i t , a turn or hitch of a rope or string ; entangled ; twisted or twined round. Kabeu- 

lit 9 entangled by a rope getting twisted round. 
Bcunang, to get, to obtain, to get possession of. Beunang na y what is got, the thing 

obtained. 
Beuneur, full and good as grain or seed. Applied figuratively to any thing which turns 

out well and satisfactory. Bilang beuneur, truly said, no mistake. Pare na beuneur, 

the paddy is full in the grain. 
Beuneur h e j o , said of growing paddy , when the husks arc full , but the grain still 

green. 
Beung'eut, the face of man or animal; the countenance. 
Beungkak, swollen or risen slightly, as rivers by rain. 

Beungkeut, a parcel or bundle, any thing tied together, as firewood, Paddy , .vegeta- 
bles etc. Di beungkeut, to tie together, to tie up. 
Beuntah, awake, with the eyes open. 
Beuntas, to break down, to demolish. Beuntas pager , to break down the fence, to 

exceed one's authority, to use unlawful violence. 
BSuntSur, a small fish in the rivers or in ponds, of a yellowish tinge. Barbus binola- 

tus. 
BSunyeur, small broken rice, the grains which are broken in pounding or grinding. 
Beunying, a variety of wild fig tree. Ficus fistulosa. 
Beurang, in the day time, the day time in contradistinction to night. Also applied as 

indicating an advanced period in the day, towards noon, and thus not very early in 

the morning. Early, not at a late period. 
Be u rat, heavy in weight; also used figuratively to indicate affection for any one. Bara, 

C. 4G1, heavy, weighty, important, of consequence. Batu beurat a heavy stone. Bcu- 

rat ka anak 6w6 , having an affection for child and wife. 
Beurat sangga, said of ripening paddy, heavy on the stem. 
Beureum, Red; verbally Ngabeureuman , to make red, that is to make any one ashamed 

of himself, to worst an adversary. 



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54 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Beureum buntut tz2 Red- tail, name of a fishin the rivers. 

B6urSum pi pi tz Red- cheeks, name of a fish in the rivers. 

Beurit, a mouse, a rat. 

BSusi, Iron. Beusi Purasani, the loadstone. The word Purasani is probably a corrup- 
tion of khorasani, which at Page 125 of Marsden's Dictionary is interpreted as a Per- 
sian word meaning „ fine tempered steel of Khorasan." 

Beuteng, stopped, left off, as any work or occupation. Said of a person who has lost 
a situation or occupation. Ceased from employment. 

Beuteung, the belly, Nyiri beuteung , belly-ache. 

BeutSung, prpperly Adi beuteung , which see. 

Beuti, any yam or bulbous root; any bulb growing in the ground, at a root. 
.Bewat, a fine, to punish by fining. Applied also to government exactions, which are 
looked upon as fines or impositions. 

Be* wok, a long and shaggy beard. 

Bdwok, an insect resembling a Jangkrik; a kind of cricket. 

Bewuk, a bird like an owl. 

B^ya, same as Bda, which see. Custom, duty, toll. 

B6yd, soft, moist and easily giving way to pressure. Approaching a liquid state. 

Bi, an abbreviation of the word Bibi, aunt, which see. 

Biang! is an exclamation of surprise, either denoting fear or admiration. Also denoting 
mistrust , and at the same time half putting the question : Do you think I am such a fool as 
to believe you? This word is probably of Sanscrit origin, and would be properly re- 
presented by abhi hyang! which will mean „the Profound Divinity." „The superla- 
tive divinity.'" Abhi, C. 39 is a preposition implying similarity, before (in the presen- 
ce of), separation, severally, wish, desire; also, Conjunction, as belonging to, with 
respect to etc. Abhi in Compound words implies very, emphatic, before, as Abhikkan- 
ta, C. 39 from Abhi, very, kanta , good excellent, good in the highest degree. Abhi- 
nya, C. 39 from abhi very, nya Knowledge, profound knowledge, supernatural ac- 
quirements. And in the same manner we may form Abhi hyang, the most excellent 
Divinity, the supernatural Divinity. So also may be explained the name of Abiasa, 
one of the early sovereigns of Java, see Raffles Vol 2. P. 80. from Yasa, C. 572, 
fame, glory, celebrity, renown, thus Abhi-yasa, renowned in the highest degree. 

So likewise in the words Abiseka, which is still current on Bali for the anointing of 
the Rajahs. Abhiseka, C. 40 from Abhi before, Sikta sprinkling, an anointing, roy- 
al unction; Sikta, C. 730 from Sicha to sprinkle, and kata affinitive -sprinkled, wet- 
ted. Abhirupa, abhi, emphatic, Rupa, beautiful, extremely beautiful (26). 



(26) Hyang, so written, is no Sanskrit; the composition of such a word with aSkt. particle, abhi 



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AND ENGLISH. 55 

To return to the Sunda language we have Bianglala a Rainbow. Lala, C. 604 wa- 
vering, unsteady, fickle, Abhi-hyang-lala , the most excellent divinity who wavers or 
is fickle , from the evanescent nature of the rainbow. Abhi-hyang has here again been 
contracted into Biang. Raffles gives Yang-lalah for the Rainbow in Balinese. 

That the Sundaese no longer dream of the real meaning of the word Biang ! which 
is nevertheless so often in their mouths, is no wonder, seeing that they have been so 
long converted to Mohammedanism , and all that they almost know of the former wor- 
ship of their forefathers is comprehended in the words Agama Buda. 

Bianglala, the Rainbow, see above voce Biang. Vide Katumbiri. 

Biar, the dawn of day, sun-rise. Barang biar, just at dawn. 

Bias or Biyas, Cast away, lost the way; said either of a man losing himself in a fo- 
rest or wilderness, or of a man at sea driven to unknown parts by storm. Biya, 
C. 473, fear, terror, alarm, dread; asa, C. 65, wish, desire, hope- and thus a 
mixture of dread and hope , which a man tempest driven will have. 

Bibi, Paternal or maternal aunt, when younger than our father or mother. A term of 
respect for any woman who is younger than ourselves. 

Bibit, seed, any thing used for planting to procure a coming crop. Used also to denote 
any female animal for breeding, especially a buffaloe as kebo bibit, a breeding buf- 
faloe. The origin or commencement of any thing. Capital, money invested in any 
undertaking or speculation-see anak. 

Bibitungan, name of a variety of grass. 

Bidal, a thimble. 

Bidara, a common tree growing near the sea coast Zizyphus Jujuba. Bidara, C. 471. 
a small species of Jujube. 

Bidara-laut, the sea- shore Bidara. Different from the foregoing one. The wood being 
dried and grated is mixed with water, and given to children for a variety of com- 
plaints. It acts as a bitter tonic. 

Biduri, Opal. Bhidura, C. 494 the thunder bolt of Indra. Biduri is probably the fe- 
minine of this word. 

Bigeul, deaf and dumb. 

Bijil, g° out > come out; the act of coming out from any cover or place, Bijil ti imah, 
to come out of the house. Bijil ti jero taneuA, to come up out of the ground. Ku- 
du bijil , you must come out. 

Bijilan, what comes out Bijilan ti ehai, what comes out of the water. 

B i j i 1 k e n , to cause to come out , to turn or drive out. 

Bijil pamautan, said of growing paddy; the last leaf which comes out, being the one 



would give quite an hybridous word. Abiasa is the old Muni Wydsa (the redactor, of the holy 
litterature of the Hindus ) and who was related to the heroes of the great war. Abhinya is Skt. 
abhijnyd. 



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56 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE. 

under which, in cutting, the straw is snapped, and which is then pulled oft- di paut. 
Bikang, female, a woman, the good wife. In many parts of the country Bikang is 

not applied to a woman but reserved for animals, especially Buffaloes. This is the 

case about Buitenzorg. 
Bikeun, to give, to hand over. 
Biko, stupid, foolish. 
Bila, occurs only in the expression Apa bila, whenever, at the time when , which thongh 

properly Malay, is sometimes heard in Sunda. Both Marsclen and Crawfurd give Bila 

as Sanscrit meaning: Time, point of time, when, at the time that. It is probably 

the same as Wela C. 672 Time. 
Bilang, to count, to tell over, to reckon, to number. Jdlema na Lilang heula , count 

the people first. Probably Bila — see above — with the Polynesian ng suffixed. 
Bilangan, an account, enumeration, to be of account or value. To hasup bilangan, it 

cannot be taken into account; it is not of the number. This word is sometimes pro- 
nounced Wilangan. 
Bilatung, maggots, worms in putrifying flesh. Bilatungan, having maggots in the flesh. 
Bilik, split and platred bambus to answer the purpose of partitions; bambus so wattled 

answer the purpose of boarding for houses and buildings. 
Bilis, a small sea fish, not larger than a minnow, now and then appearing in great 

swarms off the South Coast of Bantam ; after them a small island off the South coast 

of Bantam is called Pulo Bilis. Engraulis Grayi. 
Bilis Alanator more correctly Iblis lanat, which is arabic and means the „ Devil's cur- 
se." An opprobrious answer to any one, amounting to our — „ go to the Devil." 
Billahi, arabic, by God! 

Biluk, to veer or turn round; in sea language, to luff up, to beat to windward. 
Bima, name of the East end of Sumbawa, noted for its good horses. Kitda Bima, a Bi- 

ma horse. 
Bima, C. 491i Bhima a name of Siwa, he who inspires terror, from Bhima, iear, terror. 

Bima, a son of Pandu and Dewi Kunti, one of the five Pandus in the war of the 

Mahabarat. 
Bimbang, properly Malay, but sometimes made use of; being overelated with joy; so 

pleased as to forget your daily occupations or what you are about. Said of a person 

in love who hardly knows what he or she is about. 
Bin, arabic, the son of. A contraction of Ibn. Mohammad bin Hassan, Mohammad the son 

of Hassan. 
Bin a, very, excessive as Kabina-bina teuyn, that is carrying the thing to an extreme, 

or being excessively troublesome , or going further than necessary. 
Binchurang, the bone which go?s up the front part of a mans leg, from the ankle 

to the knee. The Tibia. 



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AND ENGLISH. 57 

Bingbing, a small variety of dwarf Palm, growing wild in jungle. Areca humilis or 
Pinanga Kuhlii. 

BingkSng, bent, curved. 

Binglu, a sort of wild mangga. Mangifera — hardly fit to eat. 

Bing'ung, confounded, troubled in mind, embarrassed, perplexed. 

Binih, seedling paddy plants meant for transplanting; such seedlings ready for transplan- 
ting. Seed meant to be planted. 

Bin on g, name of a plant, Bucida nitida, CrawfurcL This word occurs in the name of 
an Estate and post station between Batavia and Buitenzorg, called Chibinong. 

Bin tar a, the ancient name of the district now called Deraak. Bintara in Javanese is 
the name of a sweet scented grass. Raffles Vol 2 P. 124. 

Bin tin u, name of a tree. Visenia umbellata. 

Binw-angan, name of a district on the south coast of Bantam. In some malay coun- 
tries in Sumatra Binuwang is a species of deer, and Binuwangan would be a place 
abounding in deer. Marsden P. 51. 

Bio la, a fiddle. The native way of pronouncing Viola !=za violin. 

Birah, a wild plant, with broad leaf like Bolang; a variety of Arum. 

Biret, said of knotty wood with the grain so twisted as not to be able to split it. See Buret. 

BirSungo, to inspect, to view. 

Biribisan, a slight sprinkling of rain; a few small drops of rain, the commencement of 
rain; to rain lightly. Bhira, and Bhiru, C. 494/5. fearful, timid. This may be the 
etymon, and then the word will imply rain enough to give a fright. 

Birit, the rump of man or beast. 

Biru, fuss, uncalled for interference. Only heard in the expression ngadu biru> to med- 
dle with matters which do not concern one. Biru is probably the same as Biruma, C. 
473 barking , the final ma is only constructive , and adu biru , would then be, to squab- 
ble with barking (like dogs), [cf. sub voce adu, and the Note]. 

Biru, name of a plant. Colocasia odorata. 

Biru Ink, a small dwarf cocoanut, the nut injured in its growth. 

Birus, as di birus, to strip young growing paddy, in order to get at the stem, to make 
a child's pipe or ole- ole- an. The young stems so stripped. 

Bisa, able, clever, skilled, leatned. Can, to be able, to have the power. To bisa, I can- 
not, Id'ont know how. This word is also , no doubt, of Sanscrit origin, though Clough 
does not give the word in the shape of simply Bisa or Wisa. He, however, gives wi- 
sakunu Page 663, a Pandit, a learned man, as derived from wichakshana Page 643, 
a Pandit, a learned man, clever, able, wise (27). 

(27) Bisa and bidsa (to be accustomed) I consider to be the same word. I d'ont recollect if this 
interpretation has been given by others before me, at least I found it already myself some 10 years 

8 



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58 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Bisa, poison, venom; wisa, C. 663 poison, venom. 

Bisi, in case that. Bisi to hade, for fear it should not be right. 

Bismilah irahman irahim, as pronounced by the Sunda people, being the Arabic 
invocation at the commencement of any work or undertaking. It is used especially at 
the beginning of prayers, and means „In the name of God the merciful and com- 



Bisnu, the Vishnu of Hindu mythology. As the word sometimes occurs in Jampfs, it 
may be well to copy over Clough's account of him at page 662. Wishnu (wisa, to 
enter, to pervade the universe) one of the three principal Hindu deities, and the pre- 
server of the world , during the periods of temporary annihilation , he is supposed to 
sleep in the waters, floating on the serpent Sesha-, Brahma is fabled to have sprung 
from a lotus, which grew from the navel of Vishnu, and the holy river Ganges is said 
to spring from his foot ; the different avatars or awataras are considered as emanations 
of this deity; and in Krishna he is supposed to have been really and wholly incarnate; 
he is usually represented as a mild and benevolent deity. The name is also written 
Wisnu, C. 665. 

Bisoro, a kind of fig tree- Ficus hispida. 

Bisu, dumb, unable to speak. 

Bisul, a boil, an inflammatory swelling under the skin. 

Bita, delight, pleasure. Bita, C. 474, and Bhita C. 495, fear, alarm, apprehension, ter- 
ror, dread- see Jagabita. This word appears in Java to have somewhat altered its 
meaning , which may have occurred from a misconception of the real meaning , which 
is an alarm, say lest something bad might occur, and hence has been taken to ex- 
press delight, see kabita. The alarm at loss or injury being stronger with the native 
than the manifestation of delight, when in the enjoyment of any advantage. 

Bitis, the lower part of the leg, from the knee downwards. The leg. 

Bitu, to go off as a gun, to make a loud report, to explode. Bedil to daiken bitu, the 
gun would not go off. 

Bitung, a variety of bambu, with thick wood, good for posts. 

Biwir, the lips; Biwir mata, the eye lids- called in Malay JSibir. Loba teuyn biwir sia, 
you have a vast deal of jaw ; too much to say. 

Biyo, just now, a little time ago. Composed of the particle Be (vide), and iyo this. ' 

Biyuk, stinking, putrid. Chi biyuk, stinking river. 

Biyur, an idiomatic expression indicative of birds flying away in a flock, or animals run- 
ning away in a crowd. 

Blak, an idiomatic expression of flinging oneself down before another, as to ask for par- 
don and surrendering oneself. Blak nangkarak , he throw himself down on his back. 

ago. Bidsa now is abhydsa, practice, exercice, (Wilson); from as with the preposition abhi studere, 
studiose facere (Westergaard). Fr. 



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AND ENGLISH. 59 

Bias, the idiomatic expression for counting between 10 and 20, corresponding to the En- 
glish teen and Dutch tien. See WSlas. Sablas^ 11-Duablas^ 12- Salapanblas ;=J 19. 

BlSg, the idiomatic expression applied to any thing thrown down with a dull bluff sound. 

Bl£ng, the idiomatic expression of throwing away or down. Bleng bai di picheun, and 
away he flung it. 

B13 s, the idiomatic expression of stabbing, as of a kris thrust up to the hilt. 

BlSs kasian, properly Malay, but still frequently used in Sunda, especially when fa- 
vors are asked. Pity and compassion. Hayang neda bles kasian tuan, I entreat sir 
your pity and compassion. 

Blok, the idiomatic expression of breaking off in large pieces. Blok bai $omplak> and a 
large lump split off. 

Blok, ground which is soft and muddy so that the legs sink in and are with difficulty 
withdrawn. Jalan na blok naker, the road was very deep in mud. 

Blug, the idiomatic expression of falling on any thing and covering it up. Blug bai di 
tubruky flinging himself upon it he seized it. 

Bo- &h, a word expressive of doubt or uncertainty; it may be; perhaps. It may not be. 
Mohal datang bodh , he perhaps will not come. Kabeh bodh kudu leumpang , I fancy all 
must go away. To hade bodh , tapito nyaho, it is perhaps not right, but I do not know. 

Bobo, rotten, giving way from decay. 

Bobo, to go to sleep, said of a child. 

Bobogohan, to have pleasure in; to begin to court a woman. 

B o b o k , to cut a hole into any thing which is hollow , as a Cocoanut , bambu , hollow tree £c. 

Boboko, a small circular bambu or wicker basket, especially for holding boiled rice. It 
is smaller at bottom than at top and not providdd with a cover. When it has a cover 
made to fit on the top it is called Sumbul. Kudu neang boboko we must get hold of 
the rice basket, a sly way of intimating a wish to have something to eat. Geus mo- 
jeuhna niang boboko , it is high time to look out for the rice basket- thus to eat. 

Bobokong, the buttocks, the groin, that part of the back along the back bone- see Bokong. 

Bobontos, the wooden sheath of a kris, that part which covers the blade, from the Da- 
daun towards the tip. 

Bobontot, said of fisb freshly caught in the river, and tied up in long grass, to be sent 
to a distance, and keep fresh. 

Bobor^h, a fragrant or coloured wash, either yellow or white, rubbed on the body, on 
occasions of ceremony, especially at marriages. 

Boborokoken, to call the neighbours together, to help to perform any work, as plan- 
ting out paddy or the like , and not paying them in money but giving a treat of Bu- 
bur or the like. 

B o b o s o , a fish in the rivers of the South coast of Bantam . The spawn develops in the sea to fish, 
which then ascend the rivers to remain there ever after. Resembles the mtng'a, which see. 



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60 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Bobot, a weight in the scales for weighing cotton. 

B o c h o r , leaky- Prahu na bochor , the boat is leaky. Figuratively to disclose a secret , to blab. 

Bo das, white. 

Bodi, see Anchak. Bodhi, C. 481 knowledge, intellect, omniscience, the state of being a 
Buddha. The Holy fig tree. 

B o d o , a method of preparing fish , by allowing it to partially decay , and then salting it. 
Bodu, C. 479 — boiled or cooked rice. 

Bodo, silly, stupid, simple. Often used to express simply „not having knowledge", though 
the person may otherwise not be stupid. 

Bodor, a Buffoon; the man who, at any exhibition, causes merriment. The mountebank 
of a set of players in a gang of ronggengs , or a set of angklung-players. 

Bo eh, white cloth used for wrapping up the dead previous to burial. 

Bogah, possessed of, having, owning. Corresponds with the Malay word Punia. Bogah 
batur y to have a companion. Bogah imah, to own a house. 

B o g o , a variety of fish , a kind of small gabus. 

Bog oh, having pleasure in any thing, delighted, elated with joy or love. 

B o g o 1 , name of a piece of bambu tied to the wrists of a man in charge of the police , to 
prevent his escape. Same as Tambalung, which see. 

Bogor, the native name of the place called „ Buitenzorg" by the Dutch. Intelligent na- 
tives can give no interpretation to the meaning of the word. Mogor is to run about 
after a women, and in a substantive form would become Bogor , but the natives do 
not appear to attach this meaning to it. It is the residence of the Governor General 
of Netherlands India. 

Bohak, laid open and gaping, like a wound from any cutting instrument. 

Bohong, to lie, to tell a lie: a falsehood. Utah sok beuki bohong , D'ont tell so many lies. 

Boja Nagara, that part of the north coast of Bantam which terminates in St Nicholas 
Point. The same words in Javanese form are Bojo Negoro, an assistant Residency 
belonging to Rembang. Bojo in Javanese has several meanings, viz, a wife; food or 
provisions; the chief, the principal, whatever is of most importance. This word is 
most probably derived from Bajanaya, C. 455. association, union, embracing, an em- 
brace, or Bojun C. 479 or Bojuna, C. 481, food, eating, provisions. Nagara, C. 306- 
a town, a city. It means thus a town where food is in plenty, or a town fit to be 
looked upon as a wife and be cherised. The people at Bojo Negoro in Rembang have 
an idea that the name of their place implies a spot where food and the means of sub- 
sistance are in plenty. Bojo kromo implies in Javanese , real hospitality. Raffles Vol 
1. P. 101. (Skr. Bhoja> a country, Patna or Bhagalpur; bhojya, food; bhojana, food; 
eating. Fr.) 

Bojong, the land contained within the sharp turn of a river, or stream of water. Land 
projecting into water, a'promontory ; also an islet in a river. 



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AND ENGLISH. 61 

Bokerk^n, to open or split up; often applied to large fruits that divide in cloves.. To 
open a slokan or water course by removing sand and other sediment, which has ac- 
cumulated at its mouth. 

Bokong, to take a weight upon the back; to carry a load upon the backbone; to set the 
rump against any thing for the purpose of pryzing it up or shoving it along- see Bobokong. 

Bokor, a brass basin or bowl. It may not improbably be derived from JBoku, C. 479, the • 
hand bent as if to receive water; a piece of cloth, or any thing that is pliable, as a 
leaf, a piece of paper &c bent into a hollow shape, as a Sugar peper &c. 

Bolang, a kind of wild Arum growing in swampy places, which the Chinese often boil 
up and give to pigs. 

Bol^d, a small native yam or potatoe; same as Man tang. Convolvulus Batatas. 

Bolodog, a half amphibious fish, found on the sea shores of Java, sometimes in the pools 
of half stagnant water, and sometimes crawling up on the sand and mud, in which it 
burrows. Chironectes. 

Bo long, having a hole in it, as a bag, basket, boat &c. 

Bolong'or, awake but not sensible, in a sort of trance. So far awake from sleep, that 
the eyes are open , and seeing what is going on , without their owner having the power 
to move. 

Bolongsong, a rope or halter with one end adapted to fit a horse's head. 

Bon an g, a musical instrument belonging to the Gamelan. It is a frame in which cords 
are firmly stretched, and on which a number of small brass pots are set which are 
tapped with a wooden hammer. 

Bonchenang, said of well filled fruit. 

Bonchdr^t, staring, agog. 

Bondol, name of a small bird, with dark brown body, and white head. 

Bondoroyot, as Sabondoroyot, a collection of immediate relatives. Our near relations; 
called also Saboronjotan. 

B o n 6 k a , Portuguese , a child's doll. 

Bong'an, your fault, you are to blame; carelessly, without thought, without due consi- 
deration. Borufan sia pandeuri , it is your fault that you are left behind. 

Bong'bok, a hole in a tree or in a post. Any snug deep hole in which to stow anything 
away. A chink. 

Bongbong, an opening made in jungle, tall grass &c, a clear passage. 

Bongbong, said to a child which has difficulty in swallowing, with a view to induce it 
to disgorge. 

Bongborotan, a hole or small opening to peep through. 

Bonggan, look out for yourself, take care of your own matters. 

Bongkar, to tear open, to pull roughly to pieces. To upheave, to take the contents out 
of a prow or boat. 



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62 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE. 

Bongk^k, small and dwarf, said of a man. 

Bongkok, crooked, mostly with old age; hump-backed. 

Bongkokan, the curved beam of a Chinese plough to which the buffaloe is yoked. 

Bongkonol, a variety of bambu, thin and slight in stem. 

Bongkonol, a variety of Pandan growing wild among the mountains, the leaves of 
which are used for tying up Java Sugar. 

Bongkor, a man not able to pay rent; land, as asawah, usually planted left uncultiva- 
ted. Bongkor Pajeg> unable to pay Pajeg or the fixed rent. 

Bongkot, the thick end of any thing, as of a stick or piece of wood. The lower and 
almost solid end of a stick of bambu. The piece of wood fixed in the handle of any 
implement, to hold it by. 

Bongsor, young but grown large. Said of either man, animals or plants, which though 
still young have grown up to a large size. Budak bongsor, a lad who is big for his 
age. Penyakit Bongsor. The small pox. 

Bont^ng, Cucumbers. Cucumis melo- much planted in the upland Paddy lands called 

humah, and in the Sawahs, as a second crop, when the paddy has been cut. 
Bontdng Suri, a variety of the Cucumber. The Queen's cucumber? 

Bon tot, a tree or stick which has been burnt, and one end remains unscathed- that un- 
scathed end is the Bontot. The fag end of a Sigar that has been smoked and thrown 
away. Any thing which has been burnt and a stump left , as in a wood fire , the fag ends. 

Bo-ol, the anus. 

Bopati, see Bupati. 

Bopong, name of the colour of a horse, being a fawn colour, or intermediate between 
white and brown. 

Bor, a gimlet, a borer, an auger, a centre piece. It is the Dutch word Boor which has 
the same meaning. 

Borak, or Al-borak, the Lightning in Arabic. The supernatural steed on which Mo- 
hammed pretended to make night- journeys to Jerusalem and heaven. 

Borangan, afraid, timid, fearful. 

Bordlang, variegated in color, having several colors on the same ground. The word is 
also applied to the tiger royal, as having a striped hide brown and black. 

Boro, to run after, to pursue, to go to any one or to any place, to approach. 

Boro ampar, quite impossible, ridiculous to think of it. 

Boro teuyn, foorsooth, quite impossible. It is quite out of the question. 

Boro Budur, the name of the remains of a magnificent Hindu tempel in the Residency 
of Kadu , where Buddha is frequently represented. Bara becomes in Javanese Boro- 
Bara> C. 461 , surrounding , encompassing , heavy, weighty, important, of consequence. 
Bhudr in Hindi, happy, prosperous, propitions. Calcutta Review No. 18 Page 384. 
„The Great Propitious". Or Budur may be an abbreviation of Budu-raja. Budu, C. 



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AND ENGLISH. 63 

475 the Ela or ancient form of Buddha ; Raja , King. Boro Bada Raja, the Great King Bud- 
dha , elided into Boro Budur ; or it may mean the encompassing of King Buddha , from the 
place having perhaps originally been the depository of some relic of Buddha, as such 
relics were highly valued, and sent every where and preserved wherever Buddhism made 
its way, and preserved in Dagabas or Domes. The temple of Boro Budur is surroun- 
ded by many such Dagabas, with an extra large one in the centre, which has been 
evidently intended for such a Dagaba. Dsgaba, C. 264 from Da or Data, a bone and Gaba 
from Garbbha the womb , a large solid building in the form of a Cone raised close to the 
Buddhist temples, and is an object of the highest veneration. The erection of these 
Dagabas had its origin in the fable that after the death of Buddha, his body, accor- 
ding to the custom of the country where he lived, was burnt. After the conflagra- 
tion had ceased , certain portions of his bones had survived the operation of the fire ; 
these were carefully collected and deposited with great pomp and solemnity by the 
priests in a building of this kind, raised for the purpose; afterwards, these sacred re- 
lies were divided, and sent over the world, for the purpose of religious veneration; 
every temple had its Dagaba , and every dagaba has a portion of these bones. (28). 

Borobot, expressive of the sound of any thing giving way, and about to break, as a 
dam of earth, a fence, or of an animal rushing out of the jungle. 

Boroboi, name of a tree Gynotroches axillaris, of the family of Guttiferae. 

Borocho, a plant, the Celosia argentea of Blame, of the family of Amaranthaceae. It 
has a red stem and leaf, and is a pretty object in a garden. Often planted by the na- 
tives in their humahs. 

Borok, ulcerated breaking out in scabs. 

Borokosokol, a variety of small Cockroach- a Blatta. 

Borolog, great in size; said of grain, particularly Paddy. 

Borong, to take work by the piece, to buy whole sale; to undertake anything on a 
large scale; Tah borong sia bai that's your look out. 

Borongan, is any work or undertaking taken by the piece- a set task. 

Boronjotan, a collection of immediate relations. Saboronjotan kabeh gens kumpxd di 
lumbur, all the relations of one family are collected together in the village. 

Boronyodken, to extricate apedaty or Cart which has stuck fast in mud, or in a hole 
by helping out with extra buffaloes. 

Boros, the inner and tender shoots of certain plants, particularly of Schitamineae , and of 
the Plantain, which are eaten raw or cooked. 

Bosun, disgusted with, tired of, said of anything which one has to satiety, loathing. 



(28) Bara in Kawi is a large number (hundred millions) like the Scr. arbuda; budur is also cal- 
led Budo, and the word might mean »the innumerable Buddhas", there having been about 900 
large figures of Buddha. Fr. 



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64 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Bot^kak, belly overfull, the belly distended to excess with food. 

Botol, a Bottle, from the Dutch word Bottel. 

Boyobos, soft and unresisting, anything which gives way when worked amongst. 

Boyongan, a captive, a person held in durance. 

Brai, the idiomatic expression of the dawn of day, of a glimpse being caught of anything. 
JBrai beurang , and the day dawned. Wat peuting keneh hayang gerrah brai , how long 
the night lasts, I wish the day would dawn. Brai tembong I caught a glimpse of it. 

Brai, the idiomatic expression of setting out on a journey, of making a start to proceed. 
Geus Brai, they are gone. 

Brama, a Hindu God. The following is taken from Clough's dictionary Page 483. De- 
rived from Braha or Wraha y to increase. According to the Vedas and doctrines of 
the Hindus , the divine cause and essence of the world , from which all created things 
are supposed to emanate , and to which they return. The unknown God ; a celebrated 
Hindu deity; Brahma is generally reckoned the chief of the gods and ranks first in the 
Hindu Triad , and is the operative creator of the world , hence he is frequently styled 
the grandfather of both gods and men, he is represented in their temples as having 
four faces of a golden colour , dressed in white garments , and riding on a goose ; in 
one hand he holds a stick, and in the other a Patra or alms dish. 

Brawijaya, a name given to the ancient kings of Majapahit. Bara, C. 461, heavy, 
weighty , important of consequence. Wijaya , C. G44 , from wi implying intensity , and 
and ji to conquer; victory, triumph, conquest. Mighty and victorious. (29). 

Br^bopati, a Javanese title of high rank, but now adays in little use. Bara, C. 461, 
heavy, weighty, of importance, or Brahat, C. 483, large, great, vast, and Bupati, 
vide voce. Thus supreme master or world-lord. 

Bred, a yearning after woman; Budak brid perlentt, a young man who snuffles after the 
girls, and is a coxcomb withall. 

B r e g , the idiomatic expression of flinging anything down on the ground , or of anything 
giving way and falling to the ground. 

Br eh, the idiomatic expression of sight or view, as Brih bai Umbong andlo! it came into 
sight. See ebreh. 

Br em, a fermented liquor made from rice, with sundry additions to give it relish or 
strength. 

Breng, smut on corn, on coffee trees or other plants. It is a disease on coffee trees im- 



(29) Bra is till now on Bali a name of the godhead; see Bra galungan, Usana Bali pp. 316. 327. 
369. (Tydschrifl voor Nederlandsch Indie. Xlde jaargang. 3de deel). We must not wonder to find 
this word as a title of the Kings of Majapahit , the name bhatdra being employed in the same 
way. Tr. 



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AND ENGLISH. 65 

parting to the leaves and branches a black pellicle, whilst at the axillae of the fruit 
a white smut sets itself, which causes the berries to rot and fall off. 

Brdsih, clean, clear; said both naturally and figuratively. 

Bresihan, to make clean; also applied to a child which is circumcized, in the sense of 
to make pure, according to Mohammedan law. 

Br e sin, to sneeze. 

Br Sum, an insect called in English- a lady- bird; a small coleopterous insect, the Cocci- 
nella. 

Bri, to thrash, to pitch into, to belabour. 

Bro, the idiomatic expression of giving way, either breaking up easily of itself, or when 
any force is applied. 

Bromo, the Javanese way of pronouncing Braraa. The name of an active volcano among 
the T^ngger mountains. Bromo in KawiisFire. This Volcano, the Bromo, is frequently 
in a state of combustion. 

Bruk, a large Cocoa nut shell used as a measure for any grain &c. Such a shell is 
more than half the nut, often with only one end cut off. 

Brul, the idiomatic expression of moving off in numbers, as a herd or flock. Also said 
of weeds or any plants which easily pull up out of the ground. 

Bruwang, a bear. Not known on Java, except as brought from Sumatra or Borneo as 
a rarity. Ursus Malayanus. 

Buah, fruit, grain- any projecting substance on the body which by its rotundity suggests 
the idea of fruit. Hujan buah, fruit- rain, the name given by natives to hail, which 
now and then though rarely occurs in Java. Buah Kayu , tree fruit ; Buah part , Pad- 
dy fruit, the Paddy grain. 

Buahan, to bear fruit, as upon a tree or plant. 

Buah birit, the round of the rump. 

Buah bit is, the calf of the leg- litteraly the fruit of the leg. 

Buana, the universe, the world. Bhuwana C. 496 from Bhu> to be; a world, water, 
heaven; a man, mankind. (See Buwana.) 

Buana pancha toJng'ah. This mid world. 

Buang, to banish, to transport for an offence. Has a common meaning with the Malay 
word Buang , which is also to throw away, in which restricted sense the Sunda peo- 
ple do not use it; but employ the word Picheun. 

Buat, to cut paddy: by snapping off each ear against a peculiar little blad of iron fixed to 
the hand, and which is called itim. 

Buber pasar, the breaking up of a market, the period when the market or Pasar closes 
by the people going away. 

Bubu, or Buwu. a wicker or bambu trap set for fish in a river. 

Bu buah an, all kinds of fruit. 

9 



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66 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Bubuai, a variety of Rattan, common in young jungle, but not fit for any use, as it 
soon dries and snaps. Calamus maximus. 

Bubueuk, the round bambu circlet for the head, in native Tudungs or hats. 

Bubuhan, district, dcpartement. 

Bubui, to cook by thrusting among hot ashes. 

Bubuk, a small worm which eats and destroys bambus after they have been cut. They 
eat through the tubes and cause them moulder away and be unfit for use. 

Bubuk, smashed, crushed to pieces. Anything ground or pounded fine. Bubuk kopi, 
Coffee ground for using. 

Bubulak, grazing ground, ground where the grass is short cropped. 

Bubur, Pap, rice or any other grain boiled well down till it is soft and watery, and 
being then mixed with sugar, is so eaten. Poultice for a wound. 

Buburak, to chace out of any place, out of a field or forest; to drive impetuously be- 
fore one. To hunt wild animals with dogs. 

Buburuh, to take wages to do any work; to work for wages. Buburuh mjatu, dl upah 
be'as , taking pay for eating , he is still rewarded with rice : a Sunda proverb , for doing 
every thing to the best advantage. 

Bubut, to turn wood or metal on a lathe. Tukang bubut, a Turner. 

Bubutut, to go out in night time to take fish; the fish so caught is immediately broiled 
and eaten by the river side. 

Bubuwahan, fruits of various kinds. Fruits collectively. (See bubuahan). 

Buchak, muddy, dirty, mud sticking to the feet. (Batavian Malay be'chek). 

Buda, Buddha; a name still retained by the Sunda people without any precise meaning, 
since they have become Mohamedans. They however still talk of Alam Buda , Bud- 
dhist times, as of an almost fabulous time, to which no definite meaning can attach. 
As a remnant of their old faith they still retain the Buddhist names for the days of 
the week, where Buda represents Wednesday, as in India. It is not, however, every 
man who can enumerate these days of the week ; only some of the more knowing. See 
Dite. Buda, C. 475, the planet Mercury. It may be useful to copy over here what 
Clough gives at Page 475. Budha from Budha to know; the name of the founder of 
Buddhism , the religion which is professed by the Singhalese part of the population of 
Ceylon, the Burman empire, and several other nations of the East; a sage, a wise 
or learned man ; a philosopher ; any eminent or deified teacher. Great confusion has 
taken place among Sanscrit writers and the Europeans who have followed them, by 
confounding Buddha which is a generic name for a wise man, a philosopher, with 
Buddha (Gautama) the son of Suddhodana, and the founder of the religion which goes 
by his name (30). 



(30) A similar confusion exists of Buddha, the planet Mercury, and the Buddha, the quite human 



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AND ENGLISH. 67 

Gautama Buddha died at Kusinara - Nuwara , near Oude at the age of 81 years, in 
the year before Christ 543. 

Budah, froth, foam. 

Budak, a child, a young person, either boy or girl; a lad, a lass, a slave. 

Budal, going away in numbers, or in a crowd; off, departed, removed, shifted quarters. 
Jelema na geus budal, the people have all gone away. 

Bud eg, foolish, simple; also perversely doing what is wrong. 

Bud en g, a peculiar trap set to catch JSler fish. 

Budi, understanding, intellect. To bogah budi, he has no intellect- he is an idiot. Budi, 
C. 476. understanding, intellect, wisdom. (Skr. buddhi). 

Budi-akal, resources, means of obtaining one's end. 

Bug, the idiomatic expression of lying down. 

Bugang, a dead carcass, any dead body of man or beast. Kembang bugang, a very stin- 
king plant in the jungle, Clerodendrura inerme. Churuk bugang , the middle finger. 

Bug-brug, thrown down carelessly in aheap; materials lying in heaps. 

Bug is, name of a people on the island of Celebes, considered the most enterprising of the 
Malayan race. Prahu Bugis, a Bugis trading boat or vessel. Soldado bugis, a Bugis 
soldier. 

Buhaya, an Alligator. Bu, C. 477, a demon, from Bhuta, a goblin; Haya, C. 786 a 
horse; a Demon -horse. (Jav. baja. Skr. bhaja is frightful, horrible, dreadful. The 
w might have been interposed for the purpose of not losing the aspiration , h. Fr.) 

Bujal, the navel. 

Bujang, an unmarried young man. This is the name by which house-servants, and paid 
labourers of all descpriptions are now known , though mostly married and often old 
men. In native society before it was meddled with by foreigners or Europeans , young 
men served the parents of young girls for wives, as did the patriarchs of old; for 
example Jacob served Laban twice seven years for his daugthers Leah and Rachel. 
Genesis 29 Chap. Probably derived from Buja, C. 475, the hand-, the arm, with the 
Polynesian ng suffixed; the hand or the arm taken to denote aid, assistance in work. 

Bujangga Manik, the name of Ratu Guriang, or the king of the moutain spirits. Bu- 
jangga means a serpent. In India the worship of serpents is adopted into the Brahminical 
system. In particular it is found in Cashmere. On Java and Bali there existed an adoration 
of serpents (Vasuki) and the Bujangga's appear originally to have been worshippers of 



reformer of Indian absurdities. Every body knows Buddha is not the name but the title acquired 
by the son of Cuddhodana, But Budha is one of the till now rather mysterious persons of unrc- 
formed Hindu Mythology, whose coming into existence depends upon the decision at what time 
the week of seven days first was invented , or when the next planets became known to the Indians. 
Budha appears at the head of the lunar race of Kings of India. Fr. 



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68 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

serpents , who afterwards coalesced with the sect of Siwa. Bat. Trans. Friederich Vol. 
23 Page 48. 

Bhujanga, Clough Page 495, from Bhuja, crooked, and anga, body, that is a ser- 
pent or snake. 

Bujuk, to coax, to cajole, to wheedle. 

Bujur, tha same as Jubur, the anus. 

Buk, the idiomatic expression of striking, either with the fist or with any implement, 
by shoving it against the object to be struck. Hence the word Tumbuk which see. 

Buka, to open, to uncover, to expose. Open; space, breadth, what a thing opens out to. 
Laicang kudu di buka, the door must be opened. Rasiyah na kudu di buka, its secret 
must be exposed. Buka na meunang sa asta, it opens out to the breadth of a cubit. 

Buka puasa, to break the fast, to cat after fasting; literally to open the fast. 

Buka upih, name of a bird in Sawahs or swamps. See upih. The bird is so called, 
because when on the ground , it is of a dirty dark color , and hardly perceived , but 
on flying up shows white under its wings , which is like the opening of an upih. 

Bukit, This word is properly Malay, and means a hill, not a mountain. It occurs in only 
two solitary instances in the Sunda districts, as applied to mountains, and these are 
the Bukit Tunggul and Bukit Jarian , two mountains in Bandong. Bukit Tunggul means 
„ Stump Hill"; it is on the boundary line between the Pamanukan Estate and SumS- 
dang. The tradition of the ^country says that here was felled the tree which was to 
form the Prahu which is supposed to still exist in the adjoining Tangkuban Prahu y 
which see. The Bukit Tunggul is a rather conical hill and bears a rude resemblance 
to the stump of a fallen tree. It is strange that these solitary instances of Bukit 
should occur in the interior of the Sunda districts, surrounded by otherwise purely 
Sunda names. Had it been on the coast , we might have imagined some ancient Malay 
colony settled near it. As it now is, it looks as if the Sunda people had hunted a 
name out of a foreign language to designate a mountain which it appeared to them 
anomalous to call a Gunung , with the word Tunggul jz: stump of a tree, affixed to it. 

Buko, a book, derived from the Dutch work Boek, a book, and pronounced the same as 
the English word. 

Bukti, a possession, any thing valuable which is obtained; a fall of good luck. Ngabukti, 
the act of coming in possession. Buktiya, C. 475, a possession, an inheritance. Sia 
ngabakti aing ngabukti, Do youmake offerings and I will appropriate them. (Bhukti, 
eating; possession, usufruct. Wilson). 

Buku, a knot in a tree, a joint, articulation. The space between two joints of the hand. 
Buku pare, the joints in a paddy straw. Buku leungan, the joints of the hand. 

B u k u r , having some tangible substance , which can be taken in the hand and examined , 
as distinct from air or water. Substance, contents, matter. 

Bukuran, having substance, something tan ible. Omong eta bukuran, that talk conveys 
something tangible. 



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AND ENGLISH. 69 

Bui, the idiomatic expression of coming up, as a man, fish or bit of wood from under 

water — the heavenly bodies from under the horizon. See Bulan , Timbul , Jebul , 

Kabul. 
Bulak-balik, twisting and turning; laid alternate ways, as bottles laid neck to neck in 

a basket , Bambus laid side by side , the top of one along the root part of the other. 
Bulakan, a place where water bubbles up, an eddy, a whirlpool. Nijabulak, a forcible 

spring or jet of water. 
Bulan, the moon; literally the object which keeps coming up (from under the horizon), 

but it is more especially entitled to this designation of Bui with the constructive af- 
fix an y from its constantly increasing in size as it comes up during successive nights, 

till it becomes Bided or round. 
The Javanese being Mohammedans have adopted the Arabic division of the year, 

and the 12 months are known by the following Arabic names; See each month in 

voce for particulars: 

Muharam, the first month. 

Sapar, 

Rabiul awwal or Mulud, 

Rabiul akhir or Silih Mulud, 

Jumadilawwal, 

Jumadilakhir, 

Rajab, 

Saban or Bulan Roa, or Arawah, 

Fuasa, properly in Arabic Ramazan or Ramalan; Puasa means fasting. 

Sawal, 

Dulkahidah or Hapit, 

Dul Haji. 
Bulan an, having the monthly disease. Menses, 
Bulan-bulan, the name of a fish in the rivers. Megalops Indicus. 
Bulang-baling, a double headed shot; a short bit of stick or bambu loaded with a 

weight, as a stone, at each end, and so used as a missile. 
Bule, the white buffaloo, which is very common in Java, but not a distinct variety as it 

sometimes occurs that Black mothers have Bule calves, and also that ~Bu\6 mothers 

have black calves. The colour is not exactly white, but of a ruddy hue, the hair, 

however, is white. Any animal which is usually black or dark coloured would be 

called Bule when white coloured, for example an Elephant. A naif way of calling 

anything white, which is usually dark coloured, as silver money in contradistinction 

to copper doits. 
Buled, Round like a ball, globular. Also circular or cylindrical. 
Buli-buli, a covered cup; a cup with a cover to it; mostly used for keeping oil in. 



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70 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

B u 1 u , hair of the body of man and of animals , but not the hair of the head of man which 
is Bu-uk. The feathers of birds , a quill for writing. 

B u 1 u b u r , gathered up at random , what has been thrown away by others. Hateup bulubur , 
ataps or thatch which has been used and thrown away as useless, but gathered toge- 
ther and used again for want of better. 

Buludru, velvet- the Portuguese Veludo, velvet. (See Beludru.) 

B u 1 u h , name of a variety of bambu ; Awi buluh , Bambusa aspera , of little use as the 
worms eat it very fast. 

Buluh Munti, a variety of bambu, somewhat like common Buluh only somewhat smaller. 

Bulukan, mouldy, covered with mouldiness from having been moist and not properly 
dried , said especially of bread or boiled rice which has been set aside long enough to 
get mouldy. 

Bulukbuk, a sort of large glaga, or tall almost arborescent grass. 

Bulumanukken, a verb compounded of Bulu feather, and manuk bird; and it implies 
to confound or mix like feathers of a bird which you cannot distinguish one from 
another. 

Bulu-Mayang, the fine plume or tail-feathers of cock-birds, which come out at the 
period of maturity. The sign of adolescence. 

Bulu Ongko, The poison tree of Java. I have never heard of it in the Sunda districts. 
The Bulu Ongko is a large forest tree growing in the Eastern districts of Java. I have 
seen it in Malang and inland of Banyuwang'i, and the people there all assure you 
that from its juice the virulent poison is prepared. Bulu they say is the name of a 
particular Ficus called in the Sunda districts Bunut , to which the leaf bears a resem- 
blance; and Ongko is an abbreviated form of Nongko, nangka, the Jack fruit tree, 
because the fruit resembles it. In most books the famous Poison tree of Java is said 
to be called Anchar, antiaris Toxicaria; that name having been assigned by either 
Leschenault or Horsfield. Anchar may be the name in some districts, but I have ne- 
ver been able to hear of the word any where on Java. 

Bum bang, having a fair and clear passage through, as through grass, reeds or Jungle 
&c, by often passing through, or by cutting down. Knocked over, slapped down. 

Bumbu, condiments, the ingredients of any mixture for eating, as of curry. Spices. 

Bumbung, a small bambu measure , mostly for rice or other seeds. A bambu fitted with 
a lid or cover for the purpose of keeping any object. 

Bumbung ddlan, name of a tree. Cassia marginata. Has long black round pods , called 
in some parts of Java Trengguli and Asem Wolanda, called familiarly by the Dutch 
„ trommel stokhen" drumsticks, from their shape. 

Bumi, the Earth, the world; the residence of a great man; the original inhabitants of a 
place; those who by long descent are dwellers in the same place. Bhumi, C. 498. 
The Earth, land, place, scite in general. 



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AND ENGLISH. 71 

Bunar, narao of a variety of bambu, thin in stem, and distant between the joints. 

Bunch is, pulse, beans of any kind. The Dutcn word Boontjes, small beans. 

Bung'a, Interest of money. The term is derived from Bung'a a flower in Malay, the in- 
terest being considered as the flower of capital, which is thus compared figuratively 
to a tree, or a stock. See Tangkal and Dibit. 

Bung'ang'ang, said of a bambu pag£r which is hanging out of its place, as if cut open 
for a thief, to pass. Said of anything or place that is gaping or yawning open, as a 
chasm in the ground, a hole in a bridge or the like. Yawning and open. The etymon 
of the word is ang which is also heard in the word Anggang , open, separated , and occurs 
again in Bang'ang'ah. 

Bungbulang, said of a decrepit old woman of whom nothing but skin and bone is left. 
Kari tumbling jeung tulang deui> nothing left but the pudendum and bones. The word 
is evidently ccmpounded of the final syllable of the first word added to tulang. 

Bung' in, land which contains much sand, which under water as Sawahs is very produc- 
tive. Rich alluvial soil. 

Bungkak, pleased, elevated in spirits, joyful, having agreeable emotions. 

Bungkar, the same as Bongkar, torn open, forced open; unloaded. 

Bungkeureuk, a small short pool in a river; something less than leuwi. 

Bungkul, a knot in a tree where a branch leaves the stem, any hunch or trump. 

Bungkui tuwur, the knob or round of the knee. 

Bungkus, a bundle, a parcel, a bale; a wrapper. Di bungkus to tie in a bundle , bundled 
up- folded up. 

Bung' Ion, a Cham el ion, which are often met with in the jungle. The natives have also 
the verb NgungHon, to deceive, to change appearances, alluding to the well known 
properties of this animal. (The most harmless animals, who exist. Fr). 

Bungsu, the youngest child of a family, the wreckling. the last born. 

Bung'ur, a tree, Lagerstroemia regina. At some seasons of the year it is covered with 
handsome pink and purple racemi of flowers terminal on the branches. It is a very 
ornamental tree and much planted in the gardens of Europeans. The word sounds 
as if derived from Ung'u purple, a reddish brown colour. 

Buni, hidden, concealed. Buni tilcukur, able to conceal a turtle dove, said of growing 
paddy when it is big enough to cover the ground. (Sembuni y to conceal himself. Bat 
Malay.) 

Buniaga, to work, to use ones powers. This is evidently Sanscrit, and is heard also in 
the Malay word Berniaga, to trade, to traffic. (Skr. banHj , a merchant, a trader; 
banHjya^ trade, traffick; there from comes the common word Banian. Fr.) 

Buniaga, a person fresh arrived in a new village, and who has not yet got a house. 
Probably derived from Bhu C. 496 to be, and Niyaga, C. 325, drought, dryness, 
aridity, heat-indicating thereby that the person has no possessions. (This is certainly 



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72 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

the same word as the preceding , only as a substantive , barCij ; the new comer being 
confounded with the trader who has no fixed home; the r in the Malay word I 
consider to be placed in consequence of the n being cerebral, as it were rn. Fr.) 

Buntal, the name of a fish in rivers; by irritating it, and rubbing its belly against the 
ground or on a stone, it swells out into almost a round ball. 

Buntas, got through, done, achieved as any work or operation. 

B u n t e 1 , a bundle of clothes , or anything tied up in cloth , as the corner of a handker- 
chief &c. 

Buntet, not opening, closed. 

Buntiris, a plant with thick and crenulated leaf. Calanchoe crenata. 

Buntu, closed, shut off, not admitting further ingress, as a cave in limestone rock. 

Buntung, maimed by the loss of some part, as a man of his finger or hand; an animal 
of its tail. Kuda buntung a short tailed horse. Suku na buntung , his leg is shortened 
off, part bf the leg wanting through accident. 

Bun tut, the tail of animal or bird; the fagend; metaphorically the tail of any occurence 
or incident; the consequence of; the followers and accompaniment of a great man. 
Buntut luku 9 the tail of a plough. 

Buntut Anjing, literally Dogstail, is a tall reedy grass with a bunch of seeds termi- 
nal to the stem. 

Bunuh, to cut open anything, especially fruit or vegetables, to get at the contents which 
are eatable or drinkable, especially said of Cocoa nuts. 

Bunut, a tree, Ficus Glabella. 

Bunyi, to sound, to make a noise, to crack a whip. Sense, meaning. 

Bunyian, sounding instruments; their sound; music. 

Bupati or Bopati, a Government Regent, a native chief over extensive territory; a ge- 
neral term, not a denomination of rank. Bupati, C. 477, a King, a monarch, from 
Bu the Earth, and Pati> chief or lord. 

Bur, the idiomatic expression of pouring out, or of running away, escaping, fleeing. Bur 
bai di taburken> and out they poured it. 

Buragu, a word used in Pantuns to express prosperous, lucky. 

Burak-barik, to be dispersed, scattered about. 

BurakSn, to spite out; to blow out of the mouth anything that has been chewed, as si- 
ri leaves &c. This is frequently done on occasions of Jampd. 

Burang, a caltrop; sharpened bambus set about gardens or plantations to spike wild pigs 
or other animals; sharpened bambus set any where to spike man or beast. 

Burangrang, said of the leaves which wither and drop off a tree all at once. Said es- 
pecially of the withered leaves which drop off a felled tree. See Rangrang. 

Burangrang, the name of a mountain on the confines of Krawang and the Prianger 
Regencies, which the ancient tradition of the country considers as the withered bran- 



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AND ENGLISH. 73 

dies of the tree which was felled on the Buhit Tanggul to make the boat, which still 
exists in the Volcano Tanghuban Prahu (inverted boat) which lies between the moun- 
tains called the Stump and the Branches. See Bukit Tunggul. 

Bur as, a dispute or claim which cannot be established; said of a lawsuit wherein nei- 
ther party wins. 

Buret, said of knotty wood which will not split on account of the twisted state of the 
grain. See Biret. 

Bur en g, defaced, obliterated; especially said of a writing which is daubed and hardly legible. 
Said of any act by which a man tries to conceal his deeds. 

Buri, behind, the after part; subsequently. Ulah ka ping hareup teuyn % ulak buri teuyn y 
neither push yourself too much forward nor lag behind. Buri na to daikken, subse- 
quently he was not willing. 

Burik, spotted, freckled. 

Burik-barik, to twist and turn, to tumble over, to put in confusion. 

Bu ring 1 as, startling with fear, as a wild animal or a buffaloe. Wild as cattle. 

Bur it, evening, night fall. 

Bur on, a run away, an outlaw; from Burn to chase after, which, however, simply as Bum, 
to run after, to chase, is not used in Sunda. A wild beast, any object which is chased. 
(In the last meaning it occurs on Bali; where it is nearly synonimous with binatang. Fr). 

Buru, to hurry on, to hasten, to bear a hand. 

B u r u a i , the spawn of frogs , as seen in pools of stagnant water. 

B u r u a n , the yard or clear space in front of a house. 

Burubul, to gurgle out, to come out sluggishly. 

Buruh, wages or recompense given for work done. 

Buruhan, pay for work done, wages. Ngala buruhan to take pay for work done; to 
do work for payment. 

Buruhken, to give wages to get work done. To pay for work done. 

B u r u j u 1 , a very simple and rough plough used for working dry land ; consists of only 
two pieces, a crooked piece and the pole. 

Buruk, rotten, stinking, decayed; given way, worn out. 

B u r u n g , a good for nothing person , a neer do well , a foolish person ; said of any work 
that has been taken in hand but not carried through; abandoned and neglected given 
up as a bad job; perversely causing disappointment. (Jav. wurung as Telaga wurung, 
the mountain near Cape Sedano.) 

Burung randa, name of a shrub, the charcoal of which is used in blackening the teeth. 
Literally means widowhood not taking place, widowhood no go. 

Burunganan, an apposite expression in an argument, as we should say „That being 
the case. The natural consequence is". Burunganan sia mohal di bcri> that being the 
case they will not give you any. 

10 



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74 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Burusut, slipped out , glided out ; said of a child or animal as it comes from its mother 
or dam; protruded. Anak na anyar keneh burusut na, Its young had just been pro- 
truded (born). 

Burut, a hydrocele, hernia, rupture, a swelling of the Scrotum. 

Bus, the idiomatic expression of shoving or putting in. Bus hasup ka imah, he popped 
into the house. 

Busal, a wild pig or boar with bosses or knobby bony excrescences on the face. Sus 
Vittatus. 

Busiat, a word of contempt or of scorn. Diga busiat, like a good-for-nothing thief. 

B u s i k , entangled and twisted together , as hair which is never combed. Said also of other 
things which are neglected and in confusion. 

Busuk, Malay but often used in Sunda; foul, stinking, rotten, and more particularly 
applied to foul actions. 

Busung, having a swollen belly from disease; the dropsy; daik busung , may I become 
swollen bellied or dropsical, a very strong asseveration or appeal to truth. 

Buta, properly Malay- Blind. Frequently used in the expression Buta rata, where no 
trace is left, obliterated, entirely disappeared. See Wuta. Buta-rata would also ad- 
mit of the meaning, Goblin-level, as if the goblins had distroyed all before them. 

Buta, a goblin, a malignant spirit; the word is used in Pantuns and traditions. Bhuta, 
C. 496, a goblin, a ghost, a malignant spirit hunting cemeteries, lurking in trees, 
animating carcases, and deluding or devouring human beings. A name of Siwa. 

Butak, bald, no hair on the head; said also of a high mountain where no vegetation 
exists ; Gunung Butak , the Sajira hill in South Bantam , said to be bare about the top. 

Butuh, in distress for want of food or money, hard up, pinched, destitute. 

Butun, or Huwi Butun, a large variety of yam, 

Butun, name of a tree growing on the South coast of Bantam, with fruit of the size of a 
man's fist, with four sharp corners or ridges. 

Bu-uk, hair of the head of human beings. 

B u - u t , a squirrel , Sciurus Plantani of Ilorsfield , such as are found about the villages in 
the Cocoa nut trees. There is another variety found in the jungle called K6kcs y which 
is rather smaller. 

Buwa, fruit, see Buah. 

Buwana, universe, see Buana. Buwana panclta* terufah this mid world. (This suggests 
the idea that the people formerly believed in the existence of five worlds , ours being 
the middle one. Fr.) 

B u w u , see Bubu , a sort of fish trap. 

Buyamin, Benjamin, a proper name- Arabic. 

Buyung, a largish earthernware jar, mostly of coarse brown unglazed manufacture, for 
holding water. 



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AND ENGLISH. 75 

Buyut, forbidden by some hereditary or traditionary injunction. Different families of the 
natives are found, who labour under various prohibitions, often regarding articles of 
food; as many families are, from acient times, forbidden the use of the flesh of the 
white Buffaloe , others that of the turtle dove &c , and for such people this flesh is 
Buyut. Thus Buyut is applied to any thing else in the sense of „ Sacredly forbidden". 

Buyut, is also a term of relationship, as applied by people to their progenitor or des- 
cendant in the fourth generation , as the Great Grandfather or Great Grandchild (31). 

Cha-ah, a flood, an inundation, a rise in the rivers after rain. Chai geus cha-ah, the ri- 
ver is swollen with a flood. 

Cha-ah d£ngd£ng, a flood which comes down suddenly, some two to four feet or more high, 
which has great force , and sweeps dams and other impediments away before it. A Bore. 

Cha-ang, clear, bright, brilliant; cleaned up, put in order; daylight. ClTh&or Ch'han, 
C. 201. pure, clean. Geus cha-ang, it is day light. Jalan gede cha-ang ayeuna, the 
great road is now cleaned up. (Skr. Ch'haya , is light ; lustre ; but I doubt if Cha-ang 
can be derived of it. Fr. See the article chahaya). 

Chabak, to handle; to take work in hand; to lay hands on. Pagawean eta kudu di cha- 
baky you must take that work in hand. 

Chabar, careless, indifferent. 

Chabe the capsicum or red pepper so universally used as a condiment by the natives. 
It is distinguished when necessary from Chabdrawit, by the name of Chabd gedd, the 
the big chabd. Variously called by Botanists Capsicum Frutescens , Capsicum annuum ; 
or Capsicum Incurvum. 

Chabd areui, the same as Chab£ Jawa- Piper longum. 

Chabd Jawa, Long pepper. Piper longum; called in Malay lada panjang. 

Chab^ Rawit, a small variety of pepper, more pungent than the foregoing ones; Cap- 
sicum Fastigiatum. Raxoit is Javanese and not Sunda, and means either fine , handsome , 
or as is more likely to be here the case , a sort of small worm or maggot. The bird's eye 
pepper. 

Chabol, dwarf, of diminutive size. 

Chabuk, Persian, a whip. (Chumdk a stick with a knotty head. Vullers lex Persico-lati- 
num. Chubuk a whip; virga. Meninski; who gives it as a turkish word). 

Chabur, to splash in water in swimming; to move through water with force or impetuosity. 

Chabut, to eradicate, to pull or pluck up or out; to extract, to select; to remove from 
a post or situation: to substract, to deduct. 

Chacha, a common man; in contradistinction to a person of noble birth. A man turned 



(31) Kabujutan are the places of worship of the ancestors found in every Balinese house. Buyut 
is thus taken in the sense of ancestors, pitara, and as an adjective means coming, derived from, 
enjoined by the ancestors. Fr. 



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76 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

out by the government to feudal service. A man subject to the orders of his superiors. 

Chachab, preparations used to make the hair grow. 

Chachabean, a plant growing wild in cool upland situations. Leonurus Javanicus. 

C ha chad, blemish, defect, accident, injury overtaking any one. Chachad tiwas, by ac- 
cident, overtaken by some accident. 

Chachadan, the two main side flooring pieces of a cart; the beam of a plough. 

Chachag, to chop, to cut in pieces, to hack; to cut at with a weapon. 

Chachak, like, as. 

Chachangkir, a cup, a teacup, any small earthenware vessel to drink out of. 

Chachangkiran, name of a plant; Panax Cochleatum. 

Chachangkiran, name of a small shell fish in sea: limpets; Patella. 

C ha chap, well accoutered; being provided with what one wants; coming it strong, pre- 
suming on a man's position. 

Chachar, to cut down jungle, bushes or long grass; to cut down the brush wood of a 
forest, previous to felling the great trees; the space so cleared. Chachar , though a 
Malay word in this sense is often also used by the Sundas for the small-pox. Tukang 
chachar a vaccinator. Chacharan, to vaccinate. See Kuris. 

Chachariwan, the knee-pan. 

Chaching, a worm. Chaching'an , having the worms , said of a child or of a young buff aloe. 

Chadang'an, prepared for, made arrangements for any one. Anything set aside for ano- 
ther person's use. 

Chadas, Tufaceous strata; any indurated matter that has set so as to become rock, es- 
pecially volcanic ashes which have set in the sea, and subsequently been upheaved in 
strata. It is sometimes almost confounded with rock. Chadas gantung hanging rocks; 
rocks standing boldly up and presenting an upright surface like a wall. Chadas ma- 
lela, a variety of coarse sedimentary rock, which it is difficult to break up even 
with crow bars. 

Chadong, a game in which the object is to knock down some sticks that have been set 
up for the purpose. 

Chaduk, excrement. 

Chad, name of a tree with pennated leaves , produces siliquae which contain pretty red beans. 

Chagak, a stick or bit of wood with a fork or division at one end. A forked stick; much 
used in fences and the construction of dams, in the mountain rivers. 

Chageur, well, in good health; in a sound state of body. 

Chah, a contemptuons expression of disapproval or disgust Chahl saha nu daik> who 
the deuce will be willing. 

Chahaya, bright, brilliant; radiance, lustre. Clihaya. C. 203 of same import. 

Chai, water; abbreviated into Chi, means a river, and as such is placed before the proper 
names of rivers as Chidurian, Chidani. 



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Chai-iyan, to put water upon, to inundate. 

Chakar, to scratch, as a fowl or any bird. The claw of a bird. 

Chakarub, dipped in water , plunged into water. 

Chakchak, a house-lizard, such as are seen so plentifully on the walls of all dwelling 
houses. (ChZchak at Batavia). 

Chakeup, sufficiently provided with, as with courage or will to set about anything, or 
with the means of accomplishing any object in view ; Confident of success. 

Chakung, a small frog which is sometimes found in houses; it has the faculty of sticking 
to a perpendicular wall, or to an upright plank. 

Chakra, a word often occurring in the composition of proper names. C. 191 a wheel, 
a circle, a discus; a weapon in the form of a discus, having the outer edges exceeding- 
ly sharp , besides many other meanings. (The discus of Wishun). 

Chalakutik, the short bits of stumpy hoof at the back of the foot of a buffaloe. 

Chalang'ap, open- mouthed , gaping , ajar. 

Chalik, to sit down; to take a seat. A refined expression used by an inferior to a superior. 

Chalik-ang'in, the name of a tree, literally the „Seat of the wind", and from this cir- 
cumstance, its bark is torn in shreds and hung up about the humahs, when the wind 
is very strong and is doing injury. Rottlera Paniculata. 

Chaluk, a straight iron implement for cuttiug brush-wood: when crooked it is called an 
Arit. 

Chalung, a rude musical instrument so called, being half a dozen slips of bambu fas- 
tened to a string , like the steps of a ladder, and when hung up , tapped with a bit of wood. 

Cham, a Chinese wood ; a tally, a bit of bambu or wood given to a man as proof of work done. 

Chamara, a tree so called, Casuarina litorea, its leaves resemble those of the fir of Europe. 
False hair worn by women. A chowry, or whisk of hair to drive away flies. Cha- 
mara, C. 196. a whisk. (The tree is certainly so called from the appearance of his leaves. Fr.) 

C h a m a t , a petty title of distinction in some of the Sunda districts. 

Chambal, said of Jampd which does not take effect; inefficaceous, when said of Jam p^; 
only used in this sense. 

Chambor, mixed, of different sorts. 

Chambuk, a whip, to thrash with a whip. A modification of the Persian word Chabuk. 

Champa, name of a Country on the East coast of the gulf of Siam, the site of a Malay 
Colony of long standing. Putri Cliampa, the Champa Princess. The queen of Ang- 
ka Wijaya, the last sovereign of Majapahit. This Putri Champa may however, have 
been from the Champa on the Ganges, which will bo more consonant with the Hindu 
religion which existed up to her time on Java. Champa C. 195 the capital of Carna, 
and the modern Bhaghalpore on the Ganges. 

Champaka, the name of a tree which bears a smelling yellow or white flower. Michelia 
Champaca. Champaka , C. 195 a tree bearing a yellow fragrant flower, with which 



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78 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE. 

th^ altars in the temples of Buddha are covered every morning. (Used for the same 
purpose on Bali). 

Champ da, name of a large private Estate near Buitenzorg, celebrated for its limestone 
hill , which abounds in caverns where the edible birds nests are found. ChSmpeyya , C. 
197, the Champaka tree, another form of the word Champaka. 

Champur, to mix, to mingle, to confound. 

Champur-bawur, to intermingle, to jumble together, to mix indiscriminately. 

Chanar, the name of a creeper in the jungle which has an edible root; Zanonia Indica. 
Chanar-babi, is another variety. 

Chandak, to bespeak, to have made arrangements to appropriate. Geus di cliandak ku 
aing , I have bespoken it. 

Chandi, a mausoleum, an old burying place; an old Hindu temple or relick of antiqui- 
ty. — Durga the wife of Siwa was much worshipped in Java and had temples raised 
to her. In Clough's dictionary Chandi is given at page 193 as the name of the god- 
dess Durga, alluding especially to her incarnation for the purpose of destroying Ma- 
hesasur , the demon of iniquity. Probably from Chandi being thus a popular goddess , 
and having many tempels, these tempels themselves, and all temples eventually came 
to be called Chandi. Chandi on Bali according to Mr. Friederich, Bat. Trans: Vol. 
22 is a small pyramidical temple attached to the houses of the chiefs. 

Chandi Sewu, the thousand temples, one of the principal groups of ruins at Prambanan. 

Chandra, the moon; the more usual word is Bulan. Chandra C. 194 the moon. See 
Sangkala. 

Chandra Kirana,a princess of Kediri, the wife of the celebrated Panji of Javanese 
romance. Chandra, moon. Kirana C. 124 a ray, a sun beam, and thus Chandra-ki- 
rana, moon-beam. See Inakertapati. 

Chandu, Opium prepared ready for smoking. In appearance it resembles treacle and is 
thus a black sluggish liquid. 

Chandung, to marry a second wife, whilst a first one is still in existence, and thus to 
have two or more wives at once. The law of Mohammed allows its votaries to have 
four legal wives at the same time. 

Changchang, to tie, to fasten with a rope or string, as a horse or a buffaloe put out 
to graze; to tie anything with a string. The shreds of bambu prepared as string to 
tie ataps on a roof. 

Changchangan, anything that we have fast by a rope or string; 'figuratively anything 
that we have made arrangements to appropriate and which we hold, as it were, fast 
by a rope. 
Changchangan, a part of the native weaving loom, viz. the stand which consists of 
two uprights each long 1\ to 2 feet, with a notch or mortice cut at the top, so as 
to admit the Totogan to lie horizontally upon it. 



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AND ENGLISH. 79 

Changchi, a buckle. 

Changchi, an ear of paddy or of any grain. 

Changchorang, the Mantis, or the praying insect. An Insect -with long legs and wings , 
said to turn itself always to the rising sun. There are three kinds, green, white and 
black ; said to permanently keep these coulours , of which green is the most common ; 
called also Chdnggdh. 

Chang'ered, a running noose or loop. 

Chang'eredken, to tie with a running knot. 

Changgah, a term of relationship, or descent. See the word Bauh. 

Changgehgar, a wild fowl, a jungle fowl. Spotted and speckled and larger than the 
Kasintu. 

Changgeum, as much as can be taken up at once in the hand; a handful. 

Changgogo, squatting down or cowering down on one's hams, with both knees up to 
the chin. 

Changkakak-Alcedo, a bird, the kingfisher, of which there is great variety in Java. 

Changkal, a very scarce fish; it is flat and broad like the Raranchak. 

Chankang, the husk or skin of fruit, Paddy or any grain. 

Changkaruk, boiled rice which has been put out in the sun to dry and desiccate so 
as to be able to keep it. Those who go on the pilgrimage to Mecca, generally take 
with them Changkaruk of Ketan> which in bad weather being soaked in sea water, 
serves as food. 

Changkcd, a notch cut in a tree; a step cut on a steep bank; an indentation made either 
for climbing or affixing anything, as a rope to prevent its slipping. A nick, a notch. 

Changkel, benumbed, cramped. 

Changkeng, the waist of the body. 

Changkeo, a shrub with a small , sweet , white flower , something like hawthorn in Europe. 
Nelitris Polygama. 

Changker, stiff- built, as a man; stout and strong. 

ChangkSrema, feasting, eating and drinking; keeping up merriment 

ChangkSur awok, name of a bird , prettily coloured , fond of devouring soft fruits , as plan- 
tains &c. 

Chang k.eur ilung, name of a bird, dark coloured, with white under toil and wings. 

Changkeuteuk, name of a variety of bambu, Bambusa. Makes neat bambu work, being 
thin in the wood. * Much used for fishing rods. 

Changkok, a method of propagating fruit- and other trees by scarifying a branch, and 
tying it up with a little earth and leaves. The scarified part then shoots rootlets, 
when the branch may be cut from its parent stem, and then planted out. 

C ban gko long, to cut off an account, to deduct, to receive something on acconnt, as 
Paddy or any other objects on account of monthly wages, to be settled for at the end 



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80 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

of the month. To receive something in advance on account of wages which are being- 
earned. 

Changkore, a small and crooked variety of bambu. Bambusa serpentina. 

Changkudu, Morinda Citrifolia; the bark of the root of this plant gives the red dye 
every where used by the Sunda people for dying their cloths. They make plaptations 
of the shrub for the purpose. Changkudu is reduced to a powder for use. It is cal- 
led in Malay Cangkudu. Marsden Page 42. Cfchati, C. 201 pure, clean. Cang in 
Javanese is red. Kudu, C. 128. powder, dust. If this interpretation is correct, we 
must conclude that Chang-kudu was introduced to the Eastern Isles by the people of 
Continental India, who began by bring the dried pounded root-bark, in the shape of 
a powder. And when they introduced the tree, the islanders continued to call it „the 
pure powder tree", after the article which was already known to them. (At Bataviait 
is called MengJcudu, so that it appears, that the first syllable is a preformative. Fr.) 

Changkudu Badak, Fagrea morindifolia , name of a tree growing wild in the forests, 
and resembling the true Changkudu in leaf and stem , but it does not give the dye-stuff. 

Chang kwang, Pandanus horridus. A variety of Pandan with a long narrow leaf, some- 
times made into a kind of rude matting called Salasar. 

C h a n g' o r , open and dry , not adhesive ; the opposite of glutinous. 

Chang'ri, a variety of Tepus or Geanthus, only with greener stem and leaves The fruit 
grows in the ground like the Tepus, but it is deeper in the ground and of a swee- 
ter taste. 

Chanir, the large projecting buttresses or roots of some trees, which act as props near 
the ground, and out of which solid wheels for Carts or table -pieces are cut. Called 
in Malay Banir. Marsden Page. 34. 

Chantel, the crooked bit of iron fixed to the end of the pole of a Chinese plough, on 
which is hung the splinterbar by its Katimang. 

Chantigi, a shrub in the jungle, or in open poor land , with leaf like that of the tea plant. 

Chantilan, a small hut for occasional use. 

Chanting, a small empty Cocoa nut made into a Gayung or dipper. 

Chap, supposed to be a Chinese word. A seal, a signet; mark of a seal or stamp; any 
mark put upon anything to recognize it again; a brand or stamp. Surat chap y any 
paper with a stamp on it. Paper stamped by government, in order to raise a tax. 

Chapang, said of Buffaloe horns which expand much; which are not curved quickly up. 

Chap^, tired, wearied, fatigued. # 

Chap^o, Portuguese, a European's hat. 

Chapeuh, a wild herbaceous plant Conyza graveolens. The same plant is also called 
Sumbung. 

C h a p i n g , A silver plate worn by female children to conceal the nudities. It is sometimes 
but rarely in use among the Sunda people. See Ampok. 



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AND ENGLISH. 81 

Chapit, jammed between, caught or hooked by. Chapit hurang the name of part of 
the apparatus by which Carts or Pedaties are fixed to the wheels which revolve with 
the axle. 

Chaplak, a joining of wood, by cutting a little off the ends of two pieces, so as to be 
able to fit them together. 

Chara, like as, resembling, similar to; method, fashion, mode. Chara batur, in the same 
way as the neighbours. Chdra orang Bogor , after the fashion of the people of Buiten- 
zorg. Chara , C. 19 7 , going , motion. Chara, C. 835 to go. Acharana C. 61 walking. (32). 

Chara, a trap set to catch monkeys. Quere Chara, 196, a spy- a secret emissarry or 
agent (sent to catch the monkeys?). (Chdra , a prison, a house of confinement. Wilson.) 

Charak, a powder-flask. 

Charallang, a kind of squirrel, found in forests, but not about homesteads. 

Charaman, to forbid, to prohibit, to interdict. 

Charana, a betel stand or dish; a salver; such as used by great men. Charana C. 195 
a foot; the root of a tree; (probably from resembling a wooden platter, and compared 
to a tree stump, as being used by a great man). 

Charang, scarce, not often met with; far apart, with intervals between. (Batavian and 
Malay jdrang.) 

Charangka, a rudely made but rather large basket for holding anything bulky, as Pad- 
dy, Cotton &c. &c. (Seems to be Skr; Angka, gremium, pectus; cf. Bali- angka, the 
womb of heroes, or the womb of offerings. Fr.) 

Char^che't or Cher^ch^t, a bit of cloth to wipe the face with, carried hung overthe 
shoulder. See Cherech^t. 

Char^ham, the after teeth, the molars, the large flat teeth in the after part of the jaw. 

Chardk, saying, speaking. Charek na, and he said; what a man says. 

Charekan, to grumble at, to scold, to be angry with. 

Chareuh, the Viverra Musanga of Horsfi eld. Called in Malay Luwak , a wild animal which 
is fond of stealing poultry like the fox in Europe. It also feeds upon ripe Coffee , the 
pulp of which alone is digested, and the beans are voided clean. These are collected 
in the gardens, as they are of the ripest and finest description, and are called Tax 
Luwak or Tax Chareuh, Chareuh voidings. 

Chariang, a plant with succulent cabbagelike stem growing in moist and soft ground. 
Aglaonema Simplex. 

Chariang Beureum, a plant; Homalonema rubrum. 



(32) It is rather dchdra, an established rule of conduct, an ordinance, an institute, a precept. Wil- 
son. This form occurs yet in Bali , but the shortened chdra has also there become the common form. 
Chdra Bali, in the way of the Balinese, according to the instates of Bali. It is translated by good 
Mohammedans into the Arabic adat. Fr. 

11 



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82 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Charieu, a liane in the jungle, producing a long big pod, set full of seeds of size of 
Spanish dollars. The fruit resembles Peuteui only it is much larger. Entada mono- 
stachya. 

Charirang, name of a large forest tree. 

Charita, a relation, a tale, a story, ancient legend. Charita and Charitra, C. 195 a 
fixed institute , a proper or peculiar observance , an observance , a custom , a mode. (33). 

Charitaken, to relate, to tell the story, to narrate. 

Charulang, a gramineous plant with fine seeds upon it like pin's heads; it is sometimes 
eaten by man, but frequently given to cage birds. The head of the plant splits into 
5 — 6 or 7 divisions, and each is covered with the seeds. 

Chat, the idiomatic expression of climbing , or getting up anything as a tree , a hill , the 
top of a house &c. Up he went. Manuk chat ka luhur imah , the bird perched upon 
the top of the house. 

Chat, Chinese, Paint. 

Chatang, a log of wood; a tree which has been cut down , and had its branches lopped off. 

Chatangan, said of running water. Chai chatangan, running water, river water, sweet 
water as distinguished from Sea water. Chatangan is properly like a Chatang or log. 

Chato, a kind of bill-hook used by natives, a bedog with square, blunt end. 

Chatok, to cut a piece of wood or other material so that there comes a step or hitch in 
it. To notch at the end. 

Chatur, dry and clean. Said of land which after having been swampy or boggy in wet 
weather, has become dry and firm with the return of fine weather. 

Chatur, Chess, the game of chess. Said to be Sanscrit. Chatu C. 196 cheating, decei- 
ving, misleading. [Chatur is four; the name of the game of chess is in Skr. Chatur- 
angga , the four parts (of an army) , being elephants , war- charriots , horse and foot- 
soldiers. Fr.) 

Chatut, Tweezers. The native has often tied to the corner of his handkerchief a variety 
of little conveniences called collectively Ambar - ambar , and the Chatut forms one of 
these, with which he pulls out any hairs which may be found growing on his face 
or chin. w 

Chaung, name of a fish in the rivers; he is a filthy greedy beast, and swallows all he 
finds floating , which in Indian rivers is often none of the nicest, as they serve the 
natives for Cloacae. 
Chaur, that part of the weaving apparatus which fixes to the lower part of the back of 
the woman who weaves, so that when she sits back she streches the web into a pro- 
per position. 



(33) Charita, as a participle means also what ifas happened, id quod actum est; so it could be 
taken in the meaning of history, tale. Fr. 



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AND ENGLISH. 83 

Chaw, a plantain, called in Malay Pisang, the Musaof Botany. The mountaineer distin- 
guish the 43 following varieties, of Chaw. 

1 Ambon, stem tall and dark coloured, fruit large and green even when ripe. One 

of the most common varieties. 

2 Badak, thick short tree, name means the Rhinoceros. 

3 Banting, or wild bull which is black. Fruit short and thick; has a darkish skin, 

and is good for Kueh or cooking. 

4 Buhaya, or the Alligator, has very long Jantung , reaching almost to the ground , 

being ripe at top and unripe below. 

5 Beuleum, or the roasting plaintain, must be either toasted or else steamed, di 

seupariy before it is fit for use. 

6 Beusi or Iron, tree short and thick, spotted dark; fruit large and green. 

7 Burut, the hydrocele Plantain. 

8 Churuk, the forefinger. 

9 Gading, the Ivory. 

10 Gembor, a common variety. 

11 Hanggasah, name of a Scitameneous plant. 

12 Hi hid, name of a cooking fauner. 

13 Hoih, a Ratan. 

14 Honje, name of a Scitameneous plant. 

15 Hurang, the shrimp. 

16 Karok, one of the most common wild sortsif stem reddish. 

17 Kapas, or cotton, common, must be steamed. 

18 Koll«S, the most common of the wild sorts of plantain; stem slender, and leaves 

smaller than those of cultivated sorts. The leaves are often striped or blotched with 
brown or green which gives them a very distinguished and pretty appearance in the wil- 
derness. Its fruit is called Keu-eus, and is full of seeds. It hardly has any pulp. 

19 Kolle monyet, the monkey koll^, is a variety of No. 18. 

20 Kapokan, fruit small and short, must be steamed. 

21 Kosta, properly from the coast of Coromandel. 

22 L^mpeneng, of yellowish skin, long and thin. 

23 Lubang, the eel; a very rare variety; the fruit is said to ripen in the stem be- 

fore it is protruded, hence called the eel- from being in a hole. 

24 Lumut, the pulpy. 

25 Lutung, the black monkey. 

26 Manggala, Batu, Siki, Raja Gendeng, or Kulutuk five names for same sort; 

common but not eatable. 

27 Mas or Golden; this is the most common of all the plantains. The fruit is small 

and sweet. 



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84 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

28 Pal^mbang, common. 

29 Pinang, the areca nut. 

30 Pok(S, wild and like kolle. 

31 Raja, or the King, has a ruddy skin and is rather large. 

32 Raja beusi. 

33 Raja-Pandan. 

34 Raja-Pakuan, small tree and fruit. It is acidulous. 

35 Rangrang. 

36 Ruju, tree low, fruit long and thick. 

37 Sambatu, has hoy as , but the individual pulp-pods are grown together, as if the 

fingers were glued to one another. 

38 SepSt, green stem, tree middling size; very common and acrid. 

39 Sewu, the thousand, very small and insipid. 

40 Sukun. 

41 Susu, or milk, one of the most delioate of Plantains. 

42 Tanduk or Gal^k, the Horn, long fruit curved like a horn. Very common 

but must be toasted or steamed. 

43 Warangan, or arsenick. 

Chaw Asak, the ripe plantain, name of a river fish. 

Chaw Kipas, the fan Plantain, called in Malay Pisang ayer, the water plantain. In- 
troduced from Madagascar. Ravenala Madagascarencis , formerly called Urania Spe- 
ciosa. It is known in English as the „ traveller's friend" — from the quantity of water 
which can always be got from it. 

Chawat, any cloth twisted round the loins, of which a part or slip hanging down in 
front is taken up, and passing between the legs is tucked in fast behind. The Chaioat 
was probably the oply dress of natives in days of old, before they learnt the use of 
cotton, and the art of spinning. Sunda chawats, in old times, were no doubt made of a 
bit of bark as , to this day , is the case with the natives of some parts of Celebes. 

Chaw^l, to bite or snap at- as a tiger bites at its prey. 

Chaw is, ready, prepared. Ceunang nyawisan, made ready. 

Chaya, also heard as Chahaya, bright, brilliant. Radiance, lustre. ClChaya, C. 203. an 
image or picture. The wife of the sun. Radiance, beauty, splendour; lustre. (See Cha- 
haya; which means also shade). 

Chayur, a forest tree, Pterospermum Lanceofolium. Makes good planks. 

Chayut, a temporary sort of basket made of the leaves of any palm tree platted together. 

Che, used only with na after it, and thus as Chena, he said, said he. 

Cheb, the idiomatic expression of sticking in, as a stake in the ground, a needle in cloth 
or the like. Cheb bai di pager , he stuck a fence round it. Cheb bai di kaput , he sewed it up. 

Cheblok, the idiomatic expression of slapping a post or large stake into a hole in the 



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AND ENGLISH. 85 

ground, in which it is to be set. Imah cheblok, a house made of posts stuck in the 
ground and made in a hurry , not set together carefully with joist work. 

Chebluk, to splash in water; to make a hollow sound by slapping water. 

ChSchardkan, a vow; some obligation which a man has put himself under when in dif- 
ficulty or in sickness, to make some offering or do some act, in case he gets well. 

Chech^mp^, a small nyiru or flat rice basket. A small bambu tray to shake or clean 
rice or any other grain on. 

Chech e'nd^t, a small skein of Haramai threads of the thickness of a man's thumb. 

Chechep^h, a small nyiru, or flat rice basket. 

Checherahken, to cause to split or crack. See Ch&rah. 

Checho-elan, anything eaten as Cho-el 9 which see. Greens eaten with Sambel. 

Checho-oan, any living animal or even person whom we have in keeping, which we 
keep for work &c. 

Che da, a scar, the mark of a wound. (Skr. CKh&da y cutting, dividing; ch?hidra> hole, 
perforation). 

Chegah, to warn against, to forbid, to give orders that some act shall not be done; to 
restrain, to hinder. 

C b 6 g e r , a bit of young jungle cut down and planted with paddy ; a small humah made 
in young forest. A small paddy plantation in addition to some greater piece of cultivation. 

Chdhch^ran, to drop out grain by grain, like rice out of a torn bag. 

Ch^kchok, chattering, much petty talk; grumbling and snappish at each other in con- 
versation 

Chek^k, to throttle a man or animal; to size by the collar or neck; to kill by tightening 
anything about the neck. Figuratively to oppress, to deal hardly with. 

Choke* 1, to hold, to lay hold of, to seize, to arrest; to hold in reserve; to have in hand, 
to manage, to administer. 

Chekelan, anything which we hold, or administer; administration. 

C h e k e r , a sort of diminutive of Chokor which see. The foot of a small animal , a small paw. 

C h e k o n g , said of wood which is not cut or planed even ; a post with unevenness in its surface. 

Chel, the idiomatic expression of floweu or grain coming ont and expanding. 

Cheladi, a woodpecker; the bird woodpecker; Picus in varieties, hasup lea Hang cheladi , 
it went into the woodpecker's hole, 

Chelaka, a calamity, ill- luck, misfortune, an affliction; disastrous; a wretch. Kshulla- 
ka, C. 157, low, vile, mean, wicked, malicious, abandoned. (34). 



(34) Chcda, trembling, tremulous, unfixed or unsteady; as substantive also trembling, shaking; 
fern. Chald the goddess of fortune. Here from is dirived Chalaka, which means with reference to 
things, $ trembling, unfixed state, and refenjgg to man, an unsteady person shaken by every 
accident. The 6 in stead of a for reason of the accent, and also of the following I Fr. 



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86 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Che Ian a, trousers, such as reach down to the ankles; pantaloons. Chulna, short knee 
trousers. Moore's Pantheon. 

Chelecher, any mark or sign set up in the ground in marking out work. A bit of 
cut and stuck in the ground for the purpose of a mark. 

Cheleguk — Chelegok, said of fish which keep coming up to the surface of water to 
draw breath, and then go down again immediatly. 

Chelek, the act of getting on, jumping upon, seated, perched. Chelek ka na Jcuda, he 
jumped on a horse. 

Cheleng, a pig, swine; properly Javanese, but occasionally used along with so many 
other names by which the people designate the arch- enemy of their cultivation. 

Chelochchor, to plant seeds, especially paddy, in drills or rows. 

C h e 1 o n g , not full , deficient in quantity ; said of any measure or receptacle which has 
been partly emptied; gaping. 

Cheluk, cry, call. Cheluk na harus, his call is loud. 

Chelukan, to call, to send for. 

Chembawul, a variety of Chokrom or Solanum Melongena, of which it has a similarly 
indented leaf. The fruit of the Chembawul is as big as a common apple or usual sized 
orange, being also round: it has an appley substance for fruit containing a few small 
seeds in the middle. 

Chembul, showing grey; Chembul bai huwis, he shows quite grey in the head. 

Ch^nang, a scab, over a wound or sore place. 

Chendana, Sandal wood; Santalum album. Chandana C. 194. Sandal. It implies either 
the tree, the wood or the unctuons preparations of the wood held in high esteem as 
perfumes. 

Chendil, a large wart or excrescence growing on the skin. A lump of skin and flesh 
growing out unnaturally on any part of the body. 

Chendukul, squatting in a heap, cowered down by oneself, from grief or trouble. 

Cheng'al, a large forest tree which gives a gum. The bark of this tree is used for put- 
ting in the bambus which collect the toddy from Palm trees to make Sugar, as it pre- 
vents the juice from souring. 

Che'nggdh, a term of relationship, see the word Bauh. Also called Changgah. 

Chenggeh, another name for Changchorang which see. A mantis. 

Chengkal, to prop up, or prop open anything, as the lid of a box, a piece of atap in 
a roof to admit temporary light, or the like. 

Chengkar, dry upland soil, in contradistinction to swamp. Sawah chengkar , Sawahs made 
on upland soil which can be irrigated. 

Chengke, cloves- the spice cloves. Myrtus Caryophyllus , or Caryophyllus Aromatica , or 
Caryophyllum Aromaticum. Theng~hio> cloves in Chinese, literally odoriferous nails, 
supposed to be the original from which the natives have made ChtngkS. The Chinese 



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AND ENGLISH. 87 

having of old traded for this spice. See Crawfurds Indian Archipelago Vol 1 Page 497. 
The clove in some dialects is known by the name of Bung* a lawang. Lawanga , C. 605 , 
the clove tree. The English word Cloves is evidently a modification of the Frencli 
Cloux, as heard in Cloux de gxrofle. The Dutch call this article Nagelen, nails, so 
that all nations appear to have agreed to call this fruit by the name of nails, from 
the resemblance which it bears to that small iron article. 

Chengke'l, hair which has got interwoven and frizzled together so that you cannot comb 
it straight. 

Chengkir, a young Cocoa nut which has not yet got any pulp. 

Chengkir, a variety of Mangga so called. 

Chenteng, a watchman, a guard; this word is probably of Chinese origin. 

Che'ntong, a large spoon, a ladle; a mason's trowel. 

Chentrang, clear, transparent, unclouded. LangHt chintrang an unclouded sky. Chin- 
trang ka barat, it is clear towards the west. 

Chepak, level as land; a level place. 

Chepat, in a straight, unswerving direction. Seems to correspond with the Malay Tepat, 
a term annexed to the East and West points of the corapas. Marsden P. 77. Chepat 
bai ka barat, straight towards the west. Chepat bai ka na tangkal kalapa, straight 
on towards the Cocoa nut tree. 

Chepat, to cut off, to lop off small branches. To cut through or oft at one stroke. 

Che pel, adhesive, clammy. 

Che per, flat, not curved or very slightly so. Flat like a flat dish or waiter. 

Chep«t. quick, active. Be quick! look sharp! 

ChSpuk, a small brassbox; a cup with a cover, generally found on a betle stand and 
containing tobacco. i 

Chfirah, split, gaping a little; a crack. 

C h e r 6 , a variety of Paddy which grows with little water and will thrive in bad land or 
where better sorts fail , but the grain shakes easily from the straw. 

ChSrechet, a handkerchief which is worn hung over the shoulder, often with Seureuh 
materials or the like tied up in one corner of it. 

Ch$r6dik, wide awake; unfairly taking advantage of another's ignorance. Shrewd, acute. 

Ch8r«l6ng, squirting out, as a liquid tapped out of any vessel, or juice flowing natu- 
rally, from a tree or plant. 

Ch*r6me', a tree and its fruit. Cicca nodiflora. 

ChwrSme', name of the great mountain of Cheribon, high 9731 Rhineland feet. 

Che're't, the splash of water. 

Chere't, to scribble, to write; indicative of scratching marks or writing on anything, aft 
paper, a bit of bambu &c. Cheret bai di tulisken, and scribbling he wrote it down. 

Ch*rewet, quarrelsome, finding fault about every little trifle; a matter of dispute. 



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88 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Ch6$, the idiomatic expression of cutting an animal's throat. 

Chetik, millet, a kind of grain. Sorghum. 

Chetok, a variety of Dudukui or native bambu hat, made somewhat like a haseupan or 
rice boiler ; not very broad but deep , and much used for boiling water , being of a 
shape which makes it serviceable as a bucket. 

Chfiuchfiub, nettled, taking offence at; inwardly vexed with. 

ChSudSm, cloudy, overcast, threatening to rain. 

Cheuli, the ear. Chulikd, C. 200, the root of an Elephants ear. 

Cheuli Badak, literally Rhinoceros ears Opuntia polyantha ; the Cactus plant on which 
Cochineal are kept. 

Ch6uli Wangking, name for a Rhinoceros. 

ChSumpal, to take up anything dirty or disgusting in a leaf, a bit of paper, or other 
object, so as not to dirty the fingers. 

Cheumpal, to surrender, to submit. 

Chetiri, the name of an inferior sort of wild Mangosteen. Garcenia Dioica. 

Cheurik, to cry, to weep. 

Chi, a contraction of the word Chai, water or river. As Chi it is used in composition 
and prefixed to the names of rivers, as Chidani, Chidurian &c. 

Chianjur, mostly heard pronounced short Chanjur. The seat of the Resident of the Prian- 
ger Regencies , and a large native town. The word is compounded of Chi , river ; and 
Anjuty an instrument, vide voce. Probably so called from the river being small and 
within the compass of being baled out. 

Chianten, a river which after running between the Champea and Lui Liang Estates falls 
into the Chidani. Anta, C. 32 a boundary, a limit; final, ultimate, and sometimes 
death. Chi-anta-an, Chiantan or Chianten, Boundary river; or Yanta to go, the in- 
finitive mood of the verb Yanawah , go Chi Yantan , would denote , the far- going ri- 
ver , and would then have a parity of meaning with Chidurian. 

Chichariwan, also Chachariwan, the knee-pan. 

Chiche'kolan, the hollow at back of the knee. 

Chichiap, a variety of fig tree, Ficus leucopleura. 

Chichibluk, to splash in water, by striking with the hand, or by flinging in a stone. 

Chichiken, to pour out, especially a liquid, to spill about; to pour from one vessel to 
another. 

Chiching, quiet, not moving; the order- Stand still! dwelling. Di mana sia chiching , 
where do you dwell. 

Chichiriwis-an, impudent, insolent in speech, foul-mouthed. 

Chidani, name of the river of Buitenzorg, called also Chi Sidani. The natives may have 
given the river the name of Widani which would be the feminine of Widana , as flowing 
past and from their ancient Capital of Pajajaran , and being the main river of this part 



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AND ENGLISH. . 89 

of the country. For the meaning of Wi y see voce. Dan, C. 255/6 a gift, adonation, 
an offering; Paddy; clothing to cover the Pudendum muliebre; the name of a tree 
(Calyptranthes) of which there are several species and yield a fruit much eaten by the 
natives. Dana, C. 256, riches, wealth, property, possessions; people, mankind; birth, 
origin. Chi Sidani; the Si may be the ordinary Sunda preposition which see: and in 
this case prefixed to the feminine of Banazl Dani. Sidani, she who gives wealth, 
prosperity, by inundating the rice fields in the neighbourhood of the old capital of 
Pajajaran, where tradition relates that the first Sawahs were made, and it will be seen 
above that one of the acceptations of Dan is Paddy, and in this sense Chi-Si-Dani 
would be the river which gives or has, produces or appertains to Paddy. 

The Hindu people who cut the Sanscrit inscription on the rock on Jambu , at Pasir 
Koleangkak, might have introduced the system of irrigated rice-lands, and called so 
large a river as the one in question Si Dani, or her of the Paddy, personifying the 
river which gave the water, as the grain-producer or Ceres. 

Dhani, C. 298, is a rich and opulent man, and Chidhani or Chi-Si-Dani would be 
the river typical of opulence either from irrigating the land or from admitting foreign 
traders at its mouth. (Ddnin, Nominative case dani, would be possessing, affording 
gifts. Fr). 

(Jhiduh, spittle, saliva. 

Chiduhan, to spit upon with contempt. 

Chidurian, The name of the great river of Jasinga. It rises very far back amongst the 
Ksndang mountains, and discharges itself into the sea at Chikando near Tanara. The 
etymon of the word cannot be Durian, the fruit so called in Malay, Durio Zibethinus 
as this, in the Country through which it flows, is called Kadu. As however, in the 
Mountainous part of the Country where it exists , many Sanscrit names are used to 
designate the objects of nature , as districts and mountains , so also perhaps a Sanscrit 
origin must be sought for to elucidate its meaning. Dura, C. 282, far, distant, remote. 
Ta, C. 572 going, proceeding. Ya is the crude form of the verb Yanawa to go, and 
forms Yanta to go, Yana, going: thus Dura-yana, and with suppression of the final 
vowel, Dura-yan, would be the river which goes remotely, which has a long course, 
and which will apply very well to this river which travels, in the early part of its 
route, through such distant and sequestered mountain ravines. The transition from 
Dura-yan to Durian or Duriyan with a people who were not conscious of the etymon 
of the word, would be very easy, and is heard also similarly in Mada-yonzi Madion. 

C h i h , a word of contempt , for shame ! Pshaw ! fie ! 

C h i h u j a n , rain water. 

Chik, the idiomatic expression of interrogation; how now:* how is it to be? a persuasive 
interrogatory, as we would say, come! Chik kumaha? come! how is it to be. Chik 
also means, said, affirmed as Chik batur, my companion said so. 

12 



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90 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Chika, gripes in the stomach; any sudden and violent pain in the stomach. 

Chika-chika, the fire-fly. Elater noctilucus. 

Chikal, the first born, the eldest child; the first or prime of anything; one of the chief 
divinities of the Badui is called Chikal. 

Chikaniki, name of a river which flows from the Gunung Kendang over the Xan^jrunn' 
and Jarabu Estates , into the Chidani. Kaniki is not Sunda , so we are driven to at- 
tempt an etymology in Sanscrit. Kanyaka, C. 104», a girl, a maiden. The word is 
further rendered female by making it termate in i. Chikanyaki ^ Chikaniki , maiden 
river. See voce Kaniki. (Kani means also a girl, Kanika is very small; cf. kana and 
kanaka (both with the cerebral n) small. Only a form kaniki or kaniki seems not to 
exist in Sanskrit. Fr.) 

Chikeneh, just now, a short time ago. 

Chiki-ih, piddle, urine, stale. Also some liquid compounds especially for soaking thread 
which has to be dyed; a mordant in this latter sense. 

Chikuah, name of the ingredients for dying thread of a red colour, after they have been 
boiled together. 

Chikur, an aromatic plant of which the root is much used when bruised in all native 
medicine. Kaemferia Galanga, called in malay K&nchur. 

Chiladaeun, name of a river in Bantam falling into the Chiberang. See Ladaeun. It 
is warmer than the Chiberang. 

Chilegok, holding open the mouth, pouring in water and swallowing it as it falls. 

Chile nod, swept away by water, floated away. 

Chilepot, just done, just let go, this instant finished. Just started. 

Chilctu, said of paddy when just a few heads or ears begin to show themselves. In the 
act of coming into ear. 

Chileuh, the mucous matter which forms in the eye. 

Chileungchang, rain water on the surface of the ground ; rain water which soon drains away. 

Chileungchangan, said of rain which has been hard enough to run on the surface of 
the ground. 

Chilik, a petty mandor iu Bantam. -Chili, little in Javanese. (Chilik is also Javanese Fr.) 

Chilingching, a liane or creeper in the jungle, lasts well in water. 

Chimata, a tear, literally „ water of the eye". 

Chimata-an, crying, literally „ giving out water from the eye". 

China, a Chinaman; the country China. 

Chinchang, to chop, to cut in small pieces. 

Chinchsratan, a species of Nauclea; a good timber tree. 

Chin chin, a ring, either to wear on the finger, or for any other purpose. 

Chindawa, Saltpetre. Chindawa is probably a corruption of Sindudbhawa, C. 734* rock 
salt, derived from Sindu C. 733 the ocean, the sea, the Indus; the Countrv alon<r the 



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AND ENGLISH. 91 

Indus, or Siiidh: and Udbhawa, P. 820 produced: abbreviated into the more smooth 
shape of Chindawa. It is called Sindawa y and Ckendawan in Malay. (The more sim- 
ple form in Skr. is Saindhawa, a patronymic from Sindhu, originating from Sindhu. 
We should prefer to derive Chindawa from Saindhawa. Fr.) 

Chind^, a variety of cloth with peculiar pattern used for belts. Name of a" pretty red 
flower, called also Kapas-chindi > from the cottony shape of the fibres of the seeds. 

Ching, an interrogative particle, how now? come tell me? what say you? 

Chinggir, the little finger. 

Chingk«d, awkwardly walking in fits and starts. 

Chingkir, a young Cocoa nut which has not yet got a hard shell. 

Chinta, to love, to have a tender regard for. Chintaya, C. 199, reflection, consideration, 
thought, meditation. [Chinta Skr. id., it has got the meaning love , in the same way 
as the Latin cura. F.) 

Chipamali, name of a river in Tagal, which was of old the boundary between the Sun- 
da and Javanese districts. It means the river of Prohibition , or which it is sacredly 
forbidden to pass. 

Chipansalu, name of a place near Bandong in the Prianger Regencies, where Mr. 
Junghuhn in August 1843 discovered some images of Siwa. Chi y Sunda, river. Pan- 
silu , C. 345 , one of the celestial choristers or a musician of Swarga. A name of /Si- 
wa. A name of Wiswakarraa, C. 666 from Wiswa, universal, Karmma y act, action; 
the son of Brahma, and artist of the gods; the Sun. (Pancula, Wilson; a name of 
Siwa; a weapon of Siwa.) 

Chipati, called in Malay Santon. A milky matter got frpm the maceration of rasped 
Cocoa nut. 

C h i r e b o n , name of a Residency in Java. Chi , river : Rebon , small shrimps. See voce. 

Chiri, mark, sign, a mark by which anything may be again recognized. 

Chirian, to put a mark upon. 

C h i s , the idiomatic expression of contempt. Said when the speaker wishes to express disgust. 

Chisapu, the water of burnt paddy straw, which is used as a lye; also much used in 
washing the head of hair, which it cleanses. (At Batavia the Javanese word in&rang 
is used for paddy straw to be burnt for the above said purpose.) 

Chisusu, milk; literally water of the nipple. Milk is also frequently called Sum alone, 
which means nipple or teat 

Chita, Chintz , a printed cloth so called. Chitra , C. 198 a painting , delineation , writing &c. 

Chita, an affection of the mind, sensibility, sometimes used with Duka as Chita-duka, 
sadness, melancholy. Chitta, C. 198 the mind or faculty of reasoning, the heart con- 
sidered as the seat of intellect, thought, conception. 

Chitak, to cast in a mould, as iron or bricks, to mould, to impress, to print as a book 
or a cloth. 



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92 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE. 

Chitakan, anything that has undergone the proces of moulding. A mould, a form, a 
casting. 

Chitrgs, compassion; condescending and friendly feeling towards any one. 

Chium, to kiss, or rather take a sniff at any one, as natives would do all over the Ar- 
chipelago, the nose rather than the mouth being the organ in requisition. Even the 
distant natives of New-Zealand seem to salute each other in a similar way, which is 
called OngH, rubbing of noses. The word Chium is probably derived from Simbima 
or Simbinawa to kiss, C. 734. The latter syllables of these words are constructive 
parts peculiar to the Singhalese language. (Skr. Chumb, to kiss; Chwnbana, kissing.) 

Chiung, the name of a bird usually called by Europeans a Minor. This bird is black, 
with some white in the wings, and has a yellow flap or earlike appendage hanging 
down on each side of the head. This bird is easily taught to talk and the word 
Chiung is a representation of its usual cry. It is called about Batavia , Beo. In Sumatra it 
is called mina, Marsden Page 34*3. Gracula religiosa. (At Bali he is called Siung). 

Chiung wanara, a character in ancient Javanese history, connected with the founda- 
tion of Majapahitand Pajajaran, and brother of Ariya Banga. He settled at Pajajaran. 
Raffles Vol. 2 Page 100. Wanara, C. 621 a monkey, from Wana a forest Rama to 
play, what plays in the forest, and thus in this case must be the Chiung which de- 
lights in the forest. As a young lad he was known as ki Jaka. As an infant he had 
been, like Moses set adrift on a river, either the Krawang or the Chitandui, in order 
to get rid of him. See Ban yak wSdi. [Wanara is derived from wana by the affix ra; 
forest — a forester). 

Chi wit, to pinch a bit off, lo take a small bit off anything by nipping it off with the 
nails, 

Choba, to try, to make an attempt or effort, to endeavour. 

Chobong, a whore, a woman of bad fame. 

Choch^ng, scabby, any wound producing ichorous matter. 

C h o c h o , to press down with the end of the finger , to stick the end of the finger against 
anything. 

Chochog, hit heavily against with the foot; struck endways with a stick or piece of wood. 
Rammed down. 

Chochok, to stop up, to bung up; a stopper, a bung; anything put into an aperture to 
close it, as a cork in a bottle or a wisp of straw or leaves stuffed into abambu &c. 

Chochong'o-an, the upper and thin ends of sticks or bambus cut off. A derivative 
from Chong'o which see. 

Chochopet, the ear- wig insect. Forficula. 

Chochorot, a sort of pastry of the consistency of hasty-puddiug , much eaten by the 
natives. 

Cho-el, young and delicate leaves or vegetables eaten mostly uncooked with rice; a lit— 



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AND ENGLISH. 93 

tie red pepper is generally nipped up with the leaves before they are stuffed into the 
mouth , and are called cho-el sambZl. 

Chohai, a frog which is sometimes found in houses, and which has the power of sticking 
to a perpendicular wall. 

Chokel, to dig or scratch out with a bit of stick or iron; to dig down or into a small 
hole by stamping something into it. 

Chokolada, European, The Cacao tree, Theobroma Cacao. Chocolate. 

C h o k o r , the foot , the paw , particularly of a beast ; when applied to the foot of a man , 
which is often the case , it conveys and idea of indignity put upon the man who owns the foot. 
(At Bali it is a honourable name for foot; there from comes Chokor-da, your foot, 
cf. Jav. sampSyan^ a title given to the highest R&jas. Fr.) 

Chokot, to take, to lay hold of. Lay hold! 

Chokrah, to make a hole in a bank of earth, in a bit of wood, or any other substance, 
by scooping out or twirling a knife in it 

Chokrek, small sticks for fuel, small firewood. 

Chokrom, the egg-plant, Solanum melongena. Called Terong in Malay. 

Cholat, a white mark or star on a horse's forehead. 

Chologor, the seed branch of an Ar&i or Kawung tree whilst yet young and unfit 
to be used for tapping to gather toddy to make sugar. Such seed branches , which af- 
ter properly beating and preparing refuse to give toddy are called Chologor. 

Cholok, shoved in between; inserted in; jammed into; to insert an instrument into an 
aperture. Mata na Jcacholok ku awi y his eye got run into by a bambu. 

Cholong, to steal, to take covertly, to abstract. 

Cholongchong, a bambu conical basket in which tame pigs are caught and transported. 

Chomas, name of a place, amongst others of an Estate near Buitenzong. Evidently com- 
pounded of Chi 9 river, and Omas, the name of a variety of Rattan, or it may be an 
abbreviation of Katomas , the gold and green leaved Justicia. 

Chomas, heard in Hanjuang chomas , a variety of Justica and is probably an abbreviation 
of Katomas. 

Chomblang, a pimp, a procuress. 

Chombrang, an unexpanded head- bud of the Honje, Geanthus speciosus. 

Chom^l, grumbling dissatisfied; to murmur. 

Chomot, a lump, a pinch of anything taken in the fingers. 

Chompiong, a small tin measure in which salt is retailed; considerably less than a gan- 
tang; of various sizes. 

Chondong, inclined, tottering, about to fall. 

Chongchot, said of rice cooked by steaming , and just as turned out of the bambu stea- 
mer. Rice which has not undergone the process of Akeul which see. 

Chonggang, deficient, as if something had been taken out or away. 



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94 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Chongklang, to gallop, to trot, run away quickly as animals. 

Chongkok, name of a plant, Curculigo latifolia. 

Chongkok, some small kinds of tigers or panthers are also called Chongkok. (The ma- 

chart chongkok is not larger than a wild cat.) 
Chongkok, is also the name of a tree, otherwise called HambZrvuta. 
Chong'o, the extremity of a branch; the branches or the small upper end of a tree or 

of a bambu, in contradistinction to the lower and thick end which is called JPuhu. 
Chonto, a muster, a sample, a pattern, a model. 
Cho-o, to have in keeping, to give food and wages to servants or labourers. To keep 

and feed animals for use. To keep as a garden , or more properly the plants therein. 

To look after and keep in order. Kebo kudu di cho-o. Buffaloes must be taken care 

of. Kebon di cho-o deui, the garden is again kept in order. 
Chop, the idiomatic expression of a thorn, needle or anything sharp running into any 

part of the body. Aduh chop loba chuchuk y mercy on us how the thorns prick. 
Choplok, fallen out, displaced, separated from its usual position. 
Chop on g, having a hole through, open, gaping, not shut. 

C h o p o t , fallen out , displaced ; of the same meaning as Choplok but not quite so strong. 
Chore'ham, the jaws, the chaps; the after teeth, the molars otherwise also called Cha- 
rd ham. 
C h o r 6 t , to make a mark or streak ; a mark made by way of a tally to daub in streaks. 
Chorogol, a large tree; a variety of wild Rambutan or Tundem which later word see. 
Chorok, to stick in or between, as a carrying stick into anything that has to be carried 

on the shoulders. Pachorok, taken by mistake, confounded. 
Chorong, to pass through a funnel. 
Chorongan, a funnel. 
Chos, the idiomatic expression of shoving in, or inserting one thing within another. 

Chos di adukZn, and he shoved them into one another. 
Chowak, an opening cut in a forest or jungle, as where a road might pass through; a 

g a P- 

Chowdne, a young marriageable woman; a maidenhead. Yowioana, C. 578, youth, man- 
hood; an assemblage of young women. The Sunda word looks like a corruption of 
this expression made feminine. 

C h u , Chinese , ardent spirits , arrack. 

Chua, not pleasing, not convinced, of no avail, disappointed. 

Chuan, D'ont, be sure not to; also frequently used as Pachuan which see. Chuanayanu 
nyokoty be sure that no body takes any. 

Chubit, to pinch, to nip. 

Chubluk, a pit fall; a hole dug in the earth aud lightly covered over with branches &c. 
into which any wild animal will fall if he steps upon it, especially Rhinoceroses. 



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AND ENGLISH. 95 

Chuchuk, thorns, sharp spines on plants, or in the gills of some fish. 
Chuchunduk, flowers or ornaments stuck in the handkerchief above the ear, when worn 

by men. See Wiraga. 
Chuchung'uk, a cock -roach, a variety of the cock-roach insect. 
Chuchurut, the musk rat, called in Malay Ghinchurit. Chu?icAu y CAuchichundari , C. 

200, the muskrat. (At Batavia Chrurut). 
Chuchut, a shark, which are very large and very plentiful in the seas round Java. 
Chuhchur, a variety of ku^h or native pastry. 

Chuhchur, a bird which makes a loud noise, particularly on moonlight nights, soun- 
ding like a carpenter dubbing or squaring a piece of wood , to which the natives com- 
pare it. A Goat-sucker. Podargus Javanensis of Horsfield. 
Chuka, vinegar. Chukra, C. 200, sour, acid; acid seasoning; also the Tamarind tree; 

sorrel. Chuka in Sanscrit is vinegar, Crawford's dessertation Page 117. (?). 
Chukang, a bridge. Anything as a stick or bambu laid across running water or a gap, 

over which a man may pass. 
Chukangkang, a liane in the forest. Hoya multiflora. 
Chuk-chelok, first in one place and then in another; often removing or changing place 

of abode. Erratic. 
Chuke, tax or toll paid to government. The proportion of the crop which a landholder 

gathers in kind, as the corp comes off the ground. 
C h u k i t , to put or yoke an animal especially a buffaloe , to a cart or plough , and start him off. 
Chukul, getting what one wants; abundantly rewarded, successful. 
Chukup, sufficient in number, or quantity; complete-Possessing the means to accomplish 

any end. 
Chukupken, to supply all that is wanted, to complete. 
Chukup-lumur, hushing up a story, or impleasant occurrence. Hayang minta chukup- 

lumur bai, I am desirous of having the matter hushed up. 
Chukur, to shave. Pe'so-chukur, a knife to shave; a razor. 
Chul, the idiomatic expression of throwing away or abandonning; of letting go anything 

which we hold. Chul bai di picheun and away he ftung it. 
Chula, a Rhinoceros horn, or any single horn projecting from the snout. An opprobrious 

name for a good for nothing fellow. Chula, C. 200, a lock of hair left on the crown 

of the head; a crest; a peacock's merest (35). 
Chulak-chilek, staring about; peeping and peering every where. Confused and looking 

wildly in all directions without knowing what to do. 



(35) Chudd (with cerebral d> which in pronounciation resembles to I) has in Skr. the meanings 
given by Clough, besides that of top, summit etc. Fr. 



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96 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Chulak-tanggul, name of a tree which is often found parasitically growing upon some 

other tree. Aralia Kigida. 
Chulamega, the dregs of Cocoa nut pulp from which oil has been expressed or boiled out. 
(Megha, is a cloud, originally making water!?) 

Chulan, Aglaia odorata, name of a shrub with bunches of small flower buds, which are laid 
amongst clothes. The plant is orginally Chinese who call it Chiulan , and is mixed with tea. 

Chulanggok, lifting and darting forward the head, as a snake, bird or animal about to 
bite or start off. 

Chulik, a fabulous or fancied animal or bird heard at night time in trees, and thought 
to forbode evil. It is no doubt some night- bird which has a sharp shrill cry. The 
natives have also an idea that the eyes of children buried in any dam or water- works 
will ensure their not giving way or breaking down , and men who go about the coun- 
try for the sake of gouging children for this purpose are called Chulik. They are 
much talked about and much dreaded, but a real actual occurrence of the kind never 
came within my knowledge, even during a 12 years residence amongst the natives. 

Chum ah, of no use, useless, helpless. 

Chamanggah, said of young growing paddy when it first gets two leaves. 

Chumbu, to fondle, to caress, to pet. Chumbana, C. 200 , to kiss, kissing. (Vide Chium.) 

Chumi-Chumi, the cuttle fish, Loligo. 

Chumplung, a Cocoanut which has been eaten by the squirrels, and is thus empty. 

Chump on, just sufficient for any purpose; sufficient and none over. 

Chunduk, obeying, submitting to, reverencing. Chunduk ka ratu, sacha ka mhxak, sub- 
mitting to the king, cleanbreasted with the nobles. 

Chunduk, arrived at, come up to the time. Geus chunduk ka bulan na> we have arrived 
at the month. 

Chungchurungan, the rump bone, the fundament. 

Chunia, a variety of cargo boat. It is Chinese Shun a boat. 

Chupang, name of a fish, found especially in pounds; it is somewhat like Gurami, but 
much smaller. 

Chuplak-cheplak, smacking the lips in eating; enjoying what is eaten. 

C h u p u , a small metal vase or 'case with a circular lid fitting to it ; often used for hol- 
ding part of the siri engredients, as Tobacco &c. A casket. 

Chupu, a variety of Mangga so called. • 

Chur, the idiomatic expression of pouring out water, grain, sand or any thing that will 
run; said also of rain; Chur hujan, and down the rain came. Chur di chichiken , and 
out he poured it. 

Churi, to steal. Chowri C. 201. Stealing, theft. (36). 



(36) Skr. Chur to steal; Chium and chur are two of the few words taken from the Sanskrit, which 



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AND ENGLISH. 97 

Churug, a water- fall, a cascade. A word compounded of Chai> water, and urug, to 
tumble down. 

Churuk, the fore-finger; any finger of the hand. 

Churuk bugang, the middle fiuger, literally the carcass finger. Also called Si Jang- 
kurujy the long chap. 

Churuluk, the fruit bearing stem of the Kawung Palm tree, in contradistinction to the 
other fructication stem called Leungan or hand, which does not bring its fruit to per- 
fection, but which gives abundance of toddy, which is with difficulty extracted from 
the Churuluk for the purpose of making Sugar. The small nuts which grow on the 
Churuluk stem are also known by the name of Churuluk. The Churuluk is thus most 
probably the female, and the leung'au the male part of the Palm. 

Chut, the idiomatic expression of disappearing, of vanishing. 

Chutak, a small division of a Country; the officer over such division. 

Da chin, the Chinese steelyard for weighing pikuls, catties and tails. It is on the prin- 
ciple of the steelyard of Europe, but made of wood. 

Da da, the breast. JDada, C. 254 the belly. 

Dadak, to do any work hurriedly, to improvise, to get up on the spur of the moment. 
Pagawian ari ngarah pageuh ulah di dadak , If you want strong work , do not do it 
hurriedly. 

Dadali, called in Javanese Kedhali; a variety of swallow which collect in flocks on sun- 
ny afternoons. It roosts in caverns of limestone rock, and is often mistaken for the 
Kapindis or the swallow which makes the edible birdVnests. The nest of the Dadali 
is not eatable. It is also different from the Walet or house swallow. 

Dadampar, a stand, as a tray for tea-things, the saucer of the cup, and the like. (Also 
a seat). 

Dadap, a tree, the Erythrina Indica. This tree is planted in Java among coffee trees for 
the sake of its shade ; it grows quickly from cuttings. 

Dadara, said of the female young of animals which have not yet borne young. Not said 
of human beings. See Dara. 

Dad as, clean swept away, or taken away so as to expose the bottom of anything, or lay 
it bare- as earth cleared away from the surface of rock. Bendungan geus dadas sakali 
kadasar, the dam is swept clean away to the bottom. 

Dadaulatan, to venture, to make an effort, to try. To trust one's luck. Derived from 
the Arabic word Daulat, prosperity, welfare, fortune. 



are not Derivata (Substantiva) in that language, but the real roots. For the sake of pronounciation is 
of Chumb the b dropped (it appears again in chumbu, where it is not final) and an i inserted; in c/*m- 
ri an i is added to the naked form of the Skr. Chur. It will be not easy to find much more such 
roots in the Polynesian languages, but they show, what the people of India once attempted, when 
they brought their language into the Archipelago. Fr. 

13 



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98 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Dadaun, that part of a kris sheath, which sits cross ways and holds the broad hilt of the 

kris; it is often curled up in ^n ornamental manner. 
Dadawuhan, to have periods, or be subject to periodicity, as a tree which becomes bare 

when it changes its leaves. A period when any particular fruit comes into season. Said 

also of birds which appear to migrate , and are only seen at certain seasons , as snipe , 

or plover. (At Bali it means the measuring of time by a kind of clepsydra). 
Dadu, Dice; Mata-dadu, Dice pattern, said of a cloth with pattern in small squares. 

Portuguese Dados, dice. Dadu is also Singhalese. C. 265, a kind of nut or large 

seed used as dice in playing a certain game. The Singhalese , no doubt , have the word 

also from the Portuguese. 
Dadung, a thick rope for tying a buffaloe. 
Dadut, weighty, bunchy and large- 
Da f tar, Arabic, a list, inventory, register. (A word of Persian origin, introduced into 

Arabic Freytag). 
Dagang, to trade, to buy and sell. Tukang dagang, a merchant, a trader. 
Dagangan, merchandise, goods for sale. Anything which we wish other people to take 

over from us, as to adopt our views &c. A choice of alternatives, 
Dagangken, to put up for sale, to expose for sale. To try to induce other people to 

join our views and do as we do, 
Dag£, the fruit of any tree, as of Cocoanut, Pichung, or of the pulse called Kachang, 

which is set aside to mellow and soften or even to partly rot, as in the case of the 

cocoanut, that the oil, by such process, may be easily separated, Pulp. 
Daging, flesh, animal substance. The grain of wood. 
D aging, a variety of mangga so called. 
Dago, to wait, to tarry, Di dago wat to datang, we waited but he did not come, Kami 

kudu di dagodn, you must wait for me, 
Dagoan, to wait for any one 

Dagor, hit, struck, rapped. Dagorken, to rap, to strike. 
Daha, name of an ancient kingdom of Java, of which the capital was in the province of 

Kediri , called in Javanese Doho. It was one of the numerous petty states , into which 

Java was divided , on the de&th of D^wa Kasuma in the 9th century. J)aha , C. 263 

a lake or pond in which the lotus grows. 
Dahar, to eat, to partake of; a fine expression and said of great men's eating. Kiai Zukeur 

dahar, the old gentleman is taking refreshment. 
Dahdar, presents of clothes, of eatables &c, but not of money. 
Daheuan, a brother or sister of our wife, who is older than her. 
Dahi, as di dahi, to cut and trim the eyebrows, as young coquette native girls do. 
Dahu, period, precise time, the moment when anything is to occur. Gens datang ha da- 

ku na, its time had come. (See above Dadawuhan). 



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AND ENGLISH. 99 

Dahu, name of a tree, Dracontomelon mangiferum, formerly called Paupertia Dulcis. 

Daik, to be willing, to wish to, to will. Daik ka mana, where are you going to? Daik 
balik, I am going back. 

Daik-daik, malicious, willingly doing wrong, wayward. 

Daik- ken, to be willing, 

Dai rah, ar: Circuit, region, province; district, jurisdiction. 

Dak-dek, the idiomatic expression of being actively employed on any work. Dak also 
alone sometimes occurs. 

Daki, scurf, dandriff, any dust or foulness about the skin, such as the foulness which 
collects in a currycomb after being used on a horse. The dust which adheres to rice 
or other grain after pounding or grinding. 

Da Ian g, the man who recites the story at a Wayang. A Bard. 

Da la pan, Eight; literally „two folded down", see Up. Dualgpanz: Dalapan. (Another de- 
rivation is from dua and alapan „ taking away two" (from ten); herewith corresponds 
salapan „ taking away one", which is used in Sundanese for nine Fr.) 

Dalapanblas- Eighteen. 

Dalapanpuluh, Eighty. 

DaUm or dalam, a title of respect for a high native, such as a Regent, and as such 
is prefixed to their name of rank , as Dalem Adipati , DaLem Tumunggung. Such men 
of rank are also spoken of familiarly as the Dalem , and the word Padaleman implies 
the place where the Dalem lives. Dalem is no doubt the same as Malay Dalam , within 
as in the estimation of natives, inner arrangements or a withdrawal from public view 
is considered consistent with a great man's dignity. 

Dalem, as di dalem, individually, distributively , within the compass of. Didalem sa orang 
kabagian sapatong sc'wang individually each man got a little bit. Didalem is also Ma- 
lay, and in that language implies, in, within, as well as the meaning attached to it 
in Sunda, The Sunda people retain the word only in a sort of metaphorical sense, 
as given above, and use di jero for in, within. 

Daiil, ar: proof, argument; guide, direction. This is not a word in common use, still 
it is not unknown. Many years ago a scoundrell who caused a disturbance in Bantam 
had himself called Pangeran Adipati Dalil, the Pangeran Adipati who is a Guide. 

Da lima, the pomegranate, Punica granatum. Darima, C. 259 an kind of pome granate. 
(D&lima, with cerebral rf, is the Sanserif word.) 

Dalu, rotten with ripeness, over- ripe. 

Daiuang or Daluwang, paper. Probably originally the bark of certain trees macerated 
and used for clothing as in the South seas, or used as paper, as is still the case in 
a few places in Java, as in Madiun. Daluwa, C. 260 The young shoot of the leaf, 
a bud. Is this the young shoots of the Palm leaf used for writing on , with ng suffixed ? 

Da lung, a copper cooking pot, short and round, not tall like the se-eng. 



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100 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Damar, rosin, dammar. A torch, a candle, a bundle of split bambus used as a flambeau. 
Dummala, C, 77 a kind of resin. 

Damaran, to throw light upon, to bring a damar to light up a place. 

Dame, peace, tranquillity, friendly feeling between parties. To do anything with mutual 
understanding , of one accord. 

Dam pa, the munchang or kamiri fruit, when there are two stones in one fruit. See 
Geudul. A game of chance depending upon the number of stones in one fruit. 

Dam pal, the sole of the foot; the palm of the hand. Dampal suku, sole of the foot; 
Dampal leungan, palm of the hand. 

Dam par, a throne, a royal seat. 

Dam pas, to cut off even with the ground, as the stump of a tree. 

Dang, a designation for a young female attendant about great people. Heard only in Pan- 
tuns as Dayang Dang , a damsel who is a handmaid; a maid of honour. 

Dang" ah, looking upwards towards heaven; resupine; with the head and eyes stretched 
upwards. 

Dangdanan, to construct, to build, to form in order; to dress, to put on accoutrements. 
Preparations. Pidangdaneun , materials. 

Dangdang, to clear a space in jungle which has been felled, so as to prevent fire sprea- 
ding, which may be applied to other parts; cleared up in order; to prepare, to get 
ready. (See the preceding). 

Dangdang, is properly a cooking pot made of earthenware , but in shape like the cop- 
per S4-4ng. In Malay the copper pot of this shape is called Dangdang. Tukang dang- 
dang in Sunda, however, is the man who makes copper Se-engs. 

Dangder, Janipha manihot; a shrub which gives an edible root, a variety of manihot; 
also called manihot utilissima. 

Dangka, anything that attaches to people or times before the introduction of Mahomeda- 
nism; unenlightened; almost corresponds to our heathen or Pagan. There are also 
Dangka people , such as have not embraced Mabomedanism , as the Badui of South 
Bantam and Dangka mountains where some heathen superstitions are still in vogue. 

Dangka in Bali is the name of a petty village official under the Gaduh or Mandor , 
and are Sudras by birth. Bat. Trans. Vol. 23, On consulting Mr. Friederich regarding 
this word Dangka , he writes me „ Dangka is not Sanscrit , (37) nor can I find any word from 
which it could be corrupted. It can hardly be expected to be a corruption from Tangka , 
in these parts. Tangka, after all means- axe, crow, stone-cutters chisel; grief 
upon separation from a beloved object; fear, terror- root tax, to live in distress. To 



(37) It does not occur in the Amara Cosha, in Wilson, and in Bopp's Glossarium. The other 
Sanscrit dictionaries are not at hand. Fr. 



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AND ENGLISH. 101 

Dangka I have further to add, that it appears in Javanese in the form Dangka (Dong- 
ko) and means according to Gericke Page 544 „the abode or dwelling of a Buta ; a 
common miserable house. Iladadangka , to have an abode (of a Buta) ; to live in a 
bad house". 

Dan tan, a female buffaloe which has not yet had a calf. 

Danu, a lake, a large swampy lake in Bantam north from the Gunung Karang. (See the 
following. Jav. ranu). 

Danu, Prosperous, abundant. Tahun danu, an abundant year. (Danu, Skr. a donor, 
a giver. The lakes or tanks (in India) might certainly be considered as donors of 
the means of existence. Pr.) 

Da pit, to fasten anything together by tying them between two sticks, slips of bambus so 
used, called in Malay Japit. 

Daptar, ar: a register, an inventory, a written list of things. (See daftar). 

D a p u r , a kitchen , a cooking place , a fire place for cooking. An oven. A stool or bush , 
as of Bambus, Sugar cane or similar plants. 

D a r , a r : mansion , abode. Only heard in the religious expression Dar- al- Salam , the man- 
sion of bliss, of peace. 

D a r a , a young woman who has just got her first child. J)ara C. 266 , a wife. See Dadara. (38). 

Dara, a tame pigeon, columba, rarely used; the ordinary word is Japati which see. Manuk 
Dara or wife bird no doubt alludes to the pigeon let fly by the wife who commits herself 
to the flames on the death of her husband , as is still the case in Bali. (Japati ^ Jagapati , 
victorious.) 

Darajat, to obtain an encrease of title, rank or the like. To get riches, to obtain pros- 
perity. Daradjat Marsden 131 is Arabic and means steps of a stair case, or ladder; 
a degree of honour ; rank. 

Darangdang, Ficus Heteropleura , one of the numerous varieties of wild figs. 

Darapon, at random, any how, as long as you can get it; without selection, the first 
that comes. 

Darat, land, in contradistinction to water, dryland, the shore. Dara, C. 258 the Earth. 
May be derived from Addara, C. 23, the edge, border, margin; and Rata, C. 581. 
a country, a district, and be thus the margin land. (Dliarat, participle of dhri with ri 
vocalis; from the same root is dhara, which means also the earth. Fr.) 

D a r d u r the idiomatic expression of loud and successive claps , as of thunder , or the fre- 
quent discharge of cannon. Any other loud noise which is frequently repeated at short 
intervals. Violent disputing between parties attended with noise. 



(38) Ddrd and D&rdk, in the plural form of the masculine gender means a wife; Ddraka, a son; 
a child, an infant, or young animal (see Dddara); Ddrikd, a daughter, (also a whore). Ddrakarman, 
marriage. Wilson. 



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102 ^ DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Daro, the ancient name of the Sultan's Canal cut from the Chidurian by Sultan Tirta 
Yasa. Perhaps this name is the Sanscrit Baru, C. 267, a giver, a donor, one inclined 
to make gifts : a liberal and munificent man , thus conveying an idea of the munificence 
in causing such a work to be accomplished. [Bdru is Skr.) 

Darurung, the rafters of a flooring , to which the planks are nailed , and in a native's 
house the round bambu rafters on which are laid the Palupuh or flooring of the house, 
and which are tied together by the sarang, or slips of split bambu. See Sarang. 

Dasar, custom, habit, practice. Dasar na, because, for the reason that. 

Dasar, bottom, the floor of any place; the lowest layer of anything. The bottom. The 
bottom of water, the bed of a river. The floor or ground under any water. To nepi 
ka dasar, It does not reach the bottom. 

Dasar, name of the flat ground which surrounds the Bromo in Probolingo. The Bromo 
is the crater or central mount in this extraordinary Volcano. Probably it has its ori- 
gin in Dahasara, C. 268, from Baha> burning, Sara to go, a place where dead bo- 
dies are burnt. Dahasara would easily contract into Dasar. Offerings are still made 
irt the Dasar by the Tenggerese to the ancient heathen gods of Java. In Hindu times 
the Bromo may have been looked upon as a natural burning place made by the gods. 

Daster, Persian, a turban, such as worn by Hajis. 

Dat, devine essence, substance. Properly zat which is arabic. 

Datang, to come, to arrive. Unto, until. Gem datang , he has come. Batang ka anggeus , 
until it is done. 

Datangken, to cause to come, to produce, to bring forward. 

Da tar, flat, in contradistinction to hilly. 

Datu, chief, chieftain; used of foreign chiefs, not those of Sunda. Datu Palembang , such 
a chief of Palembang. It seems to be a modification of the more usual word Ratu. 

Daud, arabic. David. 

Dauk, iron-grey, the colour of a horse. 

Daulat, ar: Prosperity, welfare, fortune, wealth; Prosperons, fortunate. Crawfurd. See 
Dadaulatan. 

Daun, a leaf; also sometimes heard as Dawon. The word is probably derived from Baku, 
a period , a particular time , or season , and compounded with an is Bahuan , which by 
usual contraction would become Bakon or Bawon, and would then signify anything 
having a periodicity. This idea of periodicity has been applied to leaves from seeing 
them fall off and change , whilst the stem or tree remained permanently. Many trees 
in the tropics cast their leaves entirely before getting a new crop, though the usual 
rule is, that the change is made imperceptibly. 

Daun aksara, the alphabet leaf. A small but very curious and pretty leaf which grows 
on a humble plant, generally on a lump of rock in a moist mountainous position. The 
marks are thought to represent the Alphabet. 



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AND ENGLISH- 103 

Dawa, ar. a lawsuit; a dispute carried before a court or authority to be adjusted. 

Daweuh, a small variety of rattan , used for cords or whips. 

Dawuh, period. Daxouh kiwari, at this present moment. The same as Dahu. Dadawuhan, 
to have periods, or be subject to periodicity. 

Day a, to deceive, to persuade to anything under false pretencos. Artifice, trick. Pro- 
bably the same as Daya in the following word Dayang y and thus deceiving by a show 
of affection. 

Dayang, damsel, maid of honour. This name is much applied to females in ancient story , 
as Dayang Trusnawatu The word is probably derived from Daya, C. 258 with a nasal 
twang to it. Tender, compassionate. Love, affection, tenderness. 

Dayeuh, a chief village, a chief town; a Capital, 

Payung, an oar, a paddle; to row, 

Pedeg, rank, position in life; stature, height of a man. Luhur na sa dZdtg , it was as 
high as the stature of a man, 

D 5 d 6 1 , to press down , to force down, A post or piece of wood , a block , or chock jam- 
med in so that it forces and holds some object down. 

Deder, to cast out seed op a seed bed; to raise seedling plants which have subsequently to 
be planted out. DZdSran kopi> beds in which young seedling coffee plants are raised. 

DedSr^k, a kind of plover or large snipe- like bird, making its appearance in the wet 
monsoon; it frequents upland grasslands rather than swamps. 

Pede's, a sort of musk cat which is plentiful in the jungles, and from which musk is 
extracted, when kept for the purpose in cages. Horsfield has called it Viverra Basse. 
Rass^ being the Malay or Batavian name. The musk of the D£d& animal. 

Ded^skSn, to shove down; to stamp down. 

DSdSuyan, to repeat, to do or say again. Derived from Deux again. 

Dedewan, derived from D/wa> a pagan deity. A sort of deceptive trick or mystification 
practised by the Sunda people. It is in some respects analogous to Biology, only the 
operator pretends to be invested with the power of a Dewa. Kasurupan dedewan ,to be 
possessed of a divinity. A divinity has taken possession of his body. Di jampean ka na 
dedewan, to use incantations so that a divinity may take possession of his body. 

Dsdog6ran, to work hard at difficult work; to toil; said also of an animal walking or 
running through boggy land, where difficulty is experienced in pulling out the feet. 

De-eng, raw flesh cut in strips and dried in the sun till it can be preserved without de- 
composition. Called in Malay Dengdeng. 

De-6t, shallow, not deep. 

Dfcgdeg, occurs in „Batara DSgdSg Buwana , \ the name of an ancient supernatural po- 
wer or divinity, but of which the natives can give no distinct account. It appears to 
mean: the divinity who encompasses the world, who has the world at his disposal, 
or who pervades the universe. 



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104 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

D e g e 1 , unhairy , beardless , short - cropped. 

Dehe'm, a hem, a suppressed cough to call any one's attention. 

Deheman, to call any one's attention by a hem. 

D e k , the idiomatic expression of striking or cutting. Dek di kadek he gave a slap at with 
his chopper. 

Del, the idiomatic expression of breaking or snapping as a rope. Del bai tambang na pegal , 
and the rope snapped short off. 

D£lan, called in Malay Trasi; a native condiment prepared from rotten fish and shrimps. 

Deleg, a variety of the Gabus fish, but smaller. 

Deles, the wick of an oil lamp or of a candle. 

Delu, the zodiacal sign Aquarius. 

Demak, name of a district East from Samarang. The word is a contraction of Demalakan , (?) 
which in Javanese means an extensive swamp. Eaffles Vol 2. Page 124. 

Demang, a native district police officer; a petty district officer under a Regent. This word, 
like almost all other titles of rank , is probably of Sanscrit origin. The first part being 
an abbreviation of Adhi, C. 24, chief, superior; and Mang may be Man, an Elu form 
of Manushya, or it may be derived from Mana, C. 514, to know, to understand, the 
mind considered as the seat of thought or reflection. The termination is made in ng 
in conformity with a frequent Polynesian predilection: and the whole word will then 
indicate a person who is chief, or who is conspicuous for reflection. The D^mangs were 
the leaders of their countryman, as instanced in the well known case of Demang Lebar 
Daun, who led the Malays from the interior of Sumatra. This clipping of the initial 
letter of Adhi in composition is heard in Diyzng ; and adhipati is frequently heard pro- 
nounced Dipati. 

Demi, by; as Demi allah, by God. Demi rami allah by the Apostle of God, by 
Mohammad. 

Demp<3t, jammed, fast between two objects. 

Dempuk, squat and fat; obese. 

Dempul, putty, lime and oil made to a paste. 

D£nda, fine, penalty, mulct. Danda, C. 254, fine: forfeit, chastisement. 

De'no-dek, inclined, sloping, aslant. When said of the Sun, it implies some hour after 
noon. Mata-poi geus dengdek, the sun is aslant, it is past noon. 

De'ngdeng, to cut the end off a bit of wood, or other object fair and square, so as not 
to be sloping. Cut off square at the end. Cha-ah dengdeng , a flood that comes down 
all at once , in a great mass of water all of a sudden , some two to four feet a breast ; 
like what in Bangal is called the Bore, when applied to the tide. 

Dengdeng, repeatedly, for all that; notwithstanding some cause which ought to prevent 
it; nevertheless. Beunang omdan dengdeng to meunang di pake, after mending it, ne- 
vertheless it is not fit to use. 



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AND ENGLISH. 105 

Deng^, hear, listen, audible. To kaderufe, I could not hear it. (39), 

D^ng'eken, to listen, to pay attention, to obey. 

Dengki, envy, malice. 

Dengkleng, with the back curved inwards in a man or downwards in a beast. 

Dengkleung or Dengklung, a tune in singing, especially with angkulungs. 

Ddnok, fat, in good flesh, in good case. 

Be pa, reposing, crouched down as an animal when lying on the ground or asleep. 

Depdt, a batten; the slips of bambu, or other substance used for securing anything to- 
gether. 

Deregdeg, riving and tearing away. Slipping helplessly down a bank or any other steep 
place. 

Derek, relationship. Saderek , of one relationship , descent or family. 

Derep, a portion of paddy given to the reapers for their trouble in assisting to cat, which 
is J of what they cut. 

Deri gam a, having suspicion; being awake to some occurrence. On the qui vive. The word 
is evidently Sanscrit. The nearest solution to be found in Clough is Dhairyya , C. 303 
steadiness, firmness, strength, courage, boldness. Ayama, C. 61 an approaching, a 
coming. An approaching with boldness (from being aware of deception). (40). 

Derma, benevolence, charitable feeling, liberality, moral propriety. Dharma y C. 299 of 
previous import. This is a great word amongst Buddhists and implies a variety of mo- 
ral obligations , and the word very likely implied formerly , what it now implies in In- 
dia, but since the conversion of the natives to Mohammedanism, many of these obligations 
have become obsolete and forgotten. 

Des, the idiomatic expression of cracking or breaking, as when a thick piece of wood 
breaks or snaps. Des bai injin pedati , the pedaty axle broke slap in two. 



(39) In Kawi exists the forms &3 ts d8ng8, and o£}iv r8ng6; the tarung / n ) indicating that a letter 

is suppressed; this letter r, which occurs in Malay 2j dSng'ar, and Javanese ^^ or n<u>Ql\ den- 

gfir, danger, in Kawi and Sundanese is suppressed because the first letter of the word is al- 
ready an r or the cerebral d, which resembles in pronunciation (at least in former times) to r. 
The Javanese has also felt this, and we find there runfu <nm\ and £u>3*sn3s mi-dang6t, to hear; 

in the first the r is omitted, in the second supplanted by t; aSa> x mi-r8ng, is an abbreviation of 

Kawi u fin. With n ,n N corresponds in Kawi ^,p X rfingua. To the Sundanese dengi is the next 

in form the Javaneso „ w ^ de'ngvr, but the last has got the meaning to understand, which if 

naturally derived from to hear, to listen. Fr. 

(40) More probable is a derivation from dtrgha % long, far, and ma (from md) measuring, where 
with the meaning in Sundanese correspond; Jav. drigama or dirgama (see Gerickei, means to deny, 
to declare oneself faultless: also this meaning might be perhaps elicited from dirghama, but is much 
farther off, than the meaning attached to d&rigama in Sundanese. Fr. 

H 



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106 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

D£sa, country, region, village- little used, and not applied to the villages as in Javanese. 
Desa y C. 288, a country, a region whether inhabited or uninhabited. Guru-desa y the 
village monitor , the constellation Pleiades. (In Bali this constellation , KrUtikd y Skr., 
is also the monitor for rural occupations. Fr.) 

Duudeul, a stanchion, a prop, a shore. 

Deudeuluuhan, sight. See Deuluuh. 

Deudeur, beaten as a path, worn smooth by frequently passing over. 

Deuheus, near, close, in proximity. Ngadeuheusan, to approach, to draw near to. Deu- 
heus ka imah y near to the house. 

Deui, again, more. Siji deui y one more. Sakali deui, once more. Deui di peupeulihen y 
again I told him. 

Deukeut, near, close to, nigh. Deukeut ka lumbur, close to the village. (Malay dZkat; 

JaV. aS^wasr^v) 

Deukeutan, to go near to, to approach. 

Deukeutken, to bring close, to cause to come near. 

Deuleuh, to see, to view; behold! look! Deudeuleuhan, sight. 

Deung'an, other people, strangers; no relation, not of our family. Di chachag deung an , 
strangers have chopped him, or wounded him. Ka je'l&ma eta ma, dtungan bai y to 
that man I am no way related. 

Deung' deung'an, other folks, the rest of the people; some one else than ourself. 

Deupa, a fathom; as much as a man can embrace with two arms extended. (Malay depa). 

D e u r e u s , seeing that , taking into consideration that ; deureus hi anyar kineli , seeing that 
it is so new. Also said of any improper act that is presumingly often repeated, Deu- 
reus teuyn sia laldwa you too often repeat your monkey tricks. 

Ddwa, a heathen god, divinity. Deities of the Hindu mythology. Dewa y C. 285, a deity, 
a god, a divine being. In old Javanese history Dewa y is often applied, as is still the 
case on Bali , to Kings or supreme rulers. Dewa kusuma , is the name of a King of 
Janggala , celebrated in Javanese romance , and Dewa Agung , is still the nominal supreme 
king of Bali, and ruler of the petty state of Klongkong. 

Dewata, a heathen god, a deity; sometimes a demon. Dewata 9 C. 286, a god, a deity, 
any divine person. 

Dew<Sk, I, mine. Using this word the person neither puts himself very high nor very 
low. It is thus a rather independent appellative of self. 

D£wi, a goddess; the feminine of Dewa which see. Detoi, C. 287, the feminine of Dewa. 
Dewi Sri, the goddess Lakshmi, the deity of prosperity, Ceres. 

Di, a particle prefixed to a verb, by which it becomes passive, in the same way as in 
Malay. Di fc^re, it was given. Di gitik y he was thrashed. Di buka y it was opened. 

Di, the preposition- at , in, upon. Di handap , below. Di imah, at home; Di jero , inside ; 
Di luar y outside. By seeking in the dictionary for the word which follows di y the 



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AND ENGLISH. 107 

meaning will be traced. This particle Di is of extensive use and occurs in almost every 
sentence uttered. Di in Singhalese is used as a suffix signifying during, while. Lara- 
brick's Singhalese grammar, Ceylon 1834 Page 110. 

Di at as, in consideration of, seeing that, as for, Di atas sia budak ngoraera, considering 
that you are a young man, you ought to be ashamed. 

D i d a h i , to shave and trim the eyebrows , so as to make them handsome in a native's opinion. 

Di dinyo, on that very spot; there with emphasis; at that critical period. 

Di ditu, there, alluding to some spot at a distance. 

D i d i y o , here , in this place. 

Diga, as, like as, resembling, like. Diga nu idan, like a madman, 

Dikiran, to sing in praying, or in reading the Koran. The word is Arabic Dzikir and 
implies praise, thanksgiving to God. See Tahlil. 

Dikso-Diksha, C. 273 sacrificing, offering oblations, engaging in a certain course of re- 
ligious austerities. NB. at the village of Dixo on the Progo river , Dipo Negoro made 
his first stand in the great rebellion of 1825/30 , being considered a place of mystic 
authority and importance, which its name seems to indicate. (Dikshd Scr. in the sense 
given by Clough. Very useful should be paying attention to the fact mentioned and 
similar ones. These fools and impostors remain the same always and every where. Fr.) 

Di luar, outside, beyond, without. 

Di luhur, above, on the top of. 

Dim, an inch, a measure of length; the 12 part of a foot or kaki which see. Derived 
from the Dutch word Duim, an inch. 

Di na, at, at any particular place. Di na gedong , at the chief dwelling house. Di na 
imah na, at his house. Di na chai, at the river. The na is the possessive pronoun, 
only placed before and not after the substantive. 

Din, arabic, faith, religion, worship. Occurs constantly in the composition of proper names 
as Kamarudin, Samsudin, which see. 

Dingding, anything perpendicular and flat, like a curtain, a piece of wall &c. Lancha 
dingding , the curtain or wall-spider from its weaving its web perpendicularly in front 
of caverns or other apertures , which it appears to wall up. 

Dinyo, spot, place- time, moment. See Di dinyo and Ti dinyo. 

Dio, and Diyo, here, this place. Di, at, Iyo, this. Ti diyo ka ditu , from this place to that. 

Dipa, a word often occuring as a man's name, or in the composition of proper names of 
places, or chiefs. Dipa, C. 270. an elephant. See Jambu Dipa. Adhipa, C. 24 a lord, 
a chief ruler. (41). 

(41) Dwipa, two times drinking; an elephant; an island. But Dipa a lamp, from dip, to shine, 
to have a lustre. Where the word means island, it is naturally a corruption of Dwipa. In the pro- 
per name of man it might mean the sun, or be the same as adhipa. Fr. 



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108 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Dipati, an abbreviated form of Adipati which see. 

Diri, self, our own person. Diri na , your own self or person, his or herself. 

Dite, the first day of an ancient Sunda weak of seven days, but derived from India. Dite 
is probably the same as Aditi, C. 23 the wife of Kasyapa, which is one of the names of 
Aruna , the charioteer of the Sun. She was the mother of the gods , and also some- 
times represented as the mother of the Sun. The following is a list of the names of 
the days of this ancient week. (42). 

Dite is the present Achad or Sunday. 

Soma „ Senin „ Monday. 

Anggara „ Salasa „ Tuesday. 

Buda „ Rebo „ Wednesday. 

Kaspati, „ Khemis „ Thursday. 

Suprah „ Jumahat „ Friday. 

Tumpek „ Saptu „ Saturday, 

see each word voce. In Ceylon Sunday is represented by Irida the day of Ira, the 
Sun. C. 70. (Supra must be Sukra\ Raspati is Wrihaspati. Cf. Transact. Bat. Soc. 
on Bali. 23. p. 51.) 

Ditu, there, that plaee. Ti mana? ti ditu, where do you come from? from that place. 

Diya, you, thou; a milder and more friendly expression than Sia. 

Diyem, properly Malay, but often heard as an order to be quiet; Silence! 

Diyeng, the highest part of the Gunung Prawu, inland of Pakalongan, and where the 
chief monuments of Hindu antiquity in that range, are still found. The word is evi- 
dently derived from Adhi C. 24, chief, superior, over, above and Hyang, divinity 
see voce. Adhi- hyang — Chief-divinity, in same way as Adhi-pati, chief lord, is formed. 

Diyeuk, to sit down, be seated. Diyeuk di dinyo, sit down there. (43). 

Doa, arabic, prayer, invocation, benediction. Ngirim doa, to invoke a benediction. 

Dobol, with a hole in it; in holes; burst out. (At Batavia it means also opened, widened, 
where there ought to be no opening.) 

Dodol, a sweetmeat made of rice flour, brown sugar and cocoanut. 



(42) Aditya, child of Aditi is the common name of the sun. In Dite the first syllable is cat and in 
the last the ya in the usual way contracted to e. Another form is JZSditi; where I am inclined to 
believe that the re is only a misrepresentation of the independent commencing sound d. (g^- m) Fr. 

(43) Diyeuk might be related to the Malay duduk; the Sundanese is the simple form with a pro- 
longation of the vowel; dudok, seems to be a reduplication, and has not altered the vowel, just for 
reason of the reduplicating syllable. (Diyeuk, shorter pronounced yet, than it appears from the wri- 
ting, is rather monosyllabic. So (monosyllabic) are all the ^idiomatic expression" of this dictionary, 
and they will turn out to be the real roots of the greatest part of the languages of the Archipelago. But 
this is no sign that these languages represent a broken Sanscrit Fr. 



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AND ENGLISH. 109 

Podol, a variety of mangga so called. 

Doja, to tempt, to try, to lay temptation in the way of any one. 

Dokdok, a kind of fishing net attached to two sticks; it is made of fine matting so as 
to retain small fry. 

Dokom, a small stumpy fish found in swamps or stagnant water. 

Dolog, a jungle tree with a good bark for rope. Trichospermum Javanicum. 

Domas, Eight hundred; literally twice four hundred. According to an old fashioned me- 
thod of counting China cash, Domas is equal to 32 Dutch doits. See Samas. Domas 
is dua-mas=3 Domas. See Mas. Domas seems to be employed to denote sometimes any 
indefinite great number, as Barcha domas the 800 images or gods spoken of in old 
Javanese history , (and shown on the estate of Gadok in Buitenzorg). Kawa domas , one 
of the craters of the Tangkuban Prahu. 

Domba, Persian, a sheep. 

Dompet, a small pouch of matting for holding the ingredients of Seure'uh , especially to- 
baco and gambir. 

Dongdang, a cage or contrivance made of bambu to carry out eatables with dishes &c; 
also to carry about boxes of clothing &c. to preserve them from sun and rain. 

Dongdoman, a variety of grass which bears sharp seeds in abundance, which adhere to 
the trousers of a person walking amongst it 

Dong'eng, a story that is told, an amusing tale; to relate laughable occurrences. 

Dongkap, accomplishable, within one's reach, anything which we have in our power to 
do. To bisa dongkap ka anggvus I could not bring it so far as to accomplish it. 

DongkcH, a kind of pick-axe for digging out roots of trees: a narrow strong pachul. 
To grub up roots of trees , stones &c &c. 

Dongkol, said of a buffaloe's horns which are pendent on each side of the head; such 
horns look loose and shake but are nevertheless fast to the head. 

Donglak, to have obtained some injury on the body, as to have put the leg out of joint; 
a nail torn from its place, or the like. 

Doraka, accursed, damned, vicious, malevolent, giving cause for trouble. Doraka ita je- 
l&ma batvfor amat, that damned follow is very obstinate. Dur> C. 277 a prefix to words, im- 
plying bad, vicious, vile. Rakkha. C. 578. the Pali form of rakshd, to preserve, pre- 
serving, protecting. (Durdka a barbarian ; cf. dhurtta and dhurttaka, a rogue, a cheat.) 

Dosa, sin, crime, guilt. Dosa, C. 289, crime, gu^t, sin, offence, defect 

Do sol, a lump or excrescence growing out from the body, particularly the belly, which 
often becomes an unhealing wound. Buffaloes frequently have them on the belly. 

Doyong, inclined, threatening to fall. 

Dramaga, an earthen dam to contain water; an earthen dam serving as an aqueduct. 
Probably derived from Druma, C. 294, a tree in general, and Ga from Gama C. 167. 
going, moving: thus Druma-ga going in a tree, slightly altered to Dramaga, passing 



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110 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE. 

along a hollow tree or a spout. I am indebted to Mr. Friederich for this suggestion. 

Dua, two. J)uwa, C. 280 the number two. Very likely derived from Ruwa, C. 597, an 
image, and modified to mean similarity, parity. In many Polynesian languages this 
word becomes Rua; it is even heard in Javanese in the word Loro, two. Rua is the 
word for two in the languages of the Lampungs, Makasar, Saparua, Timur; and Le- 
maire gives it as occurring in New Guinea, and the Isle de Moyse. Wilson and Keate 
found it in the shape of Oru at the Pelew Islands. Mariner gives Ua for the Tonga 
Isles, and Ua is heard at the Marquesas, and lua at the Sandwich Isles. Bourgaine- 
ville gives Aroua for Tahiti. (Rua might be the original Polynesian word; but dua is 
certainly introduced by the Hindus , (duo , two) , whose numerals are yet known in the 
more civilised part of the Archipelago. Fr.) 

Duablas, twelve; also Dua welas. 

Duapuluh, twenty. 

Duduh, to accuse, to impeach, to indicate as, to charge, to point out as having done 
any particular act. Di duduh mating , he accused him of stealing. 

Duduk, seated , habituated , to become settled , accustomed. Di gaxce eta geus duduk ayeuna , 
he has now become habituated to the work. Batu na geus duduk, the stone is seated 
fixed in its place. (See DiySuk. The meaning here given to duduk will not contradict 
to his being a reduplication. Fr.) 

Dudukui, a cover for the head made of bambu, called in Malay Tudung. 

Dudul, as Kuda si dudut, the war steed of Bagind'ali or His Highness AH, the son in 
law of Mohammad. 

Duduluran, to treat as a brother; to be on brotherly terms- see Dulur. 

Dudur, a piece of wood in a roof which occupies the centre of tie beams, reaching from 
the apex to the middle of the base. 

Dudut, a bird so called; the Centropus Bubutos of Horsfield. 

Dudut, to pull the feathers off a bird, or the hair off an animal, as preparatory to cooking. 

Dudutan, to put in order, to arrange. 

Dug, the idiomatic expression of fixing oneself down to any place, of taking up one's 
abode. Lug di imahan, and there he put up a house. Also of striking a drum or 
Bedug: Dug ngabedug , and bang he struck the drum. 

Duga, to undertake, to reckon to be able; power or ability to do anything. To guess. 

Duga-duga, to calculate the chances; to think to be able. 

Dugal, a lump, a clod. 

Dugel, a bundle of Paddy in some places, particularly in South Bantam. 

D u h u n g , the kris of a great man. Duhung kiai Tumunggung the kris of his honour the 
Tumumggung. 

Duit or Duwit, a doit- Dutch , Duit. The word is used to express „Money" generally. 
To bogah duit, I have no money. 



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AND ENGLISH. Ill 

Duka, sorrow; Duka, C. 275, sorrow, pain, misery, distress, affliction; derived from 

Du or Dur, C. 277, a prefix to words implying-bad , vicious, vile, and Kha, C. 743 

an affection of the mind , an organ of sense. Duka , means also in a polite way, I do 

not know. (Skr. duhkha in the sense given ; dull 4- kha , bad heaven , as if we would 

say bad weather ; opposite sukha , good heaven , a fine sky. Fr.) 

Duku, the name of a fruit tree and its fruit Lansium Domesticum. 

Dukuh, a grove, a small plantation of fruit trees: a dwelling in a grove apart from the 
regular village. A hamlet 

Dukun, a native doctor who is mostly an old woman. A midwife. A person, mostly a 
man , who says incantations for the success of any work. In Bali , a Sudra who has 
obtained some sanctity by fasting, and can cure disease, or do the village religious 
service. Tijds. voor Ned. Indie 1849. 3. Page 322 and 358. 

Dulang, the wooden trough or bowl in which warm and fresh boiled rice undergoes the 
process of Akeul or kneading. 

Dulhaji, the twelfth or last month of the Mohammedan year. The month in which at 
Mecca, the pilgrims to the Kabah become Hadji, which see. 

Dulkahidah, the Eleventh Mohammedan month. This month is also more generally cal- 
led Bulan Hapit. 

Dulpakar, the Sword of Bagind'Ali, the son inlaw of Mohammad. Properly zul-fakar, 
Marsden 141 , the famous double bladed sword of Ali. 

Dulur, a brother or sister. Often used in a vague sense towards a person who is not 
really a blood relation. When they explain themselves the natives say- Dulur te- 
m&n sa indung sa bapa, a real brother of the same mother and father. Dulur 
may be derived from Di ulur. Ulur , to ease off, to slacken off, to let loose. The 
word also sometimes occurs as Sadulur , which will mean- „of one easing off"- or „of 
one letting loose"- in allusion to coming from a common parent. The Sudara of Ma- 
lay for brother or sister is the Sodara of Clough Page 767. Sa with or common, 
udara, belly; a brother of the whole blood, a uterine brother. 

Duminian, insect found in old forests which makes a loud screaming noise. 

Dunak, a large rice basket, such as used in rice mills. 

D u n g ' u k , to be seen in a heap ; looming in a round heap ; a slang expression for residing 
or living at. Di mana dung'uk na where does he hang out, or more literally where 
is he seen coiled in a heap? as the natives frequently are in their houses, folded up 
in their Sarungs. 

Dung' us, a clump of trees standing by themselves. 

Dunya, arabic, the world, in contradistinction to heaven. Earthly desires or goods. 
Geus to ngurus dunya, he no longer pays any attention to worldly matters. 

Dupa, perfume, a composition of various sweet semlling materials, which are burnt in the 
houses as a perfume. Dhupa, C. 753, incense. Dupa, C. 277 smoke. (Dhupa Scr.) 



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112 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Dupak, to kick down or away, to stamp on; to kick under foot. 

Dupuh, ill, so as not to be able to get up. Stretched in sickness. * 

Dur, the idiomatic expression of the report of a gun; the clang of quarrelling; the dull 
report of any weight, as a stone rolled down a hill. (See dardur). 

Durga, C. 278. A goddess of that name, also called Kali; the wife of Siva, and mother 
of Kartikeya , the Indian god of war and of Ganesa , the Indian god of wisdom. She 
is also called Uma, and Parvati &c. and as Durga she is a goddess of terrific form 
and irascible temper. Derived from Dur, difficult, Ga, going, or to be gone C. 278. 

Durias, Telinga- coarse Muslin, lappels, stuff for bed curtains, open enough to admit 
air, yet close enough to keep out mosquitoes. 

Duruk, to pile and burn. After a piece of fallen forest has been set fire to, the boughs 
are heaped together, and then burnt- this is Duruk. 

Durukan, a place where wood has been piled and burnt. 

Dusta, false, untrue. Dushta, C. 280, low, vile, wicked, bad, vicious. (Therefrom 
comes the Malay justa, to ly. On Bali the original form is used.) 

Dusun, stupid, clownish. In Sumatra the villages are called Dusun, and no doubt the ori- 
gin of the word Dusun in Sunda is derived from villagers being clownish, as com- 
pared with people from towns of larger places. 

Duta. a messenger; occurs in Samuiraduta , a character in old romance. Samudra, C. 711 , 
the sea, the ocean; Duta, C. 281, a messenger, a carrier. 

Du-ugan, a young cocoanut in which the pulp is hardly set, but of which the milk is 
fresh and pleasant. 

Du-um, to divide, to portion out. 

Du-uman, a share, an allotment. 

Duwit, a doit, a small copper coin; money. Dutch Duit. 

l£ang, very olden times, of which the memory has nearly passed from man. Alam cang, 
in very old times. See l£yang. 

l£ar, the shrill cry of an animal, as the neighing of a horse; the sound of the splash of 
a waterfal. 

iSbdg, the weather cock tail of a KoUchir, which see. The l£beg or tail acted on by the 
wind keeps the kole'cher in the wind's eye. 

l£breh, visible, what can be seen, manifest. 

iSbrdhken, to produce, to cause to see. 

ICchag, to set down as a weight or load; to let go; let fall. 

£chdk, scanty, few and far between. 

lichen g, a broad leafed, succulent weed in Sawahs, the presence of which indicates good 

soil, well watered. 
I<]dan, foolish, mad, infatuated. 
I^dan-e'danan, playing the fool, making a fool of oneself. 



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AND ENGLISH. 113 

Edeg, to shake or swing the legs about while sitting. 

l5h, Eh! aye! £h ulah, aye d'ont. 

]£he, to have a stool, to have an occasion of nature. Said of a child. 

iShdan, to take a wife, to marry. A quaint term. 

l5ka, a festival made for the dead, by killing a buffaloe, or goat, under the idea that at 

the day of judgment, the dead person, in whose memory the £,ka is made, will have 

the animal to ride on. This is a Mohamedan institution which the Arabs also observe. 
l£k£k, Psittacus, a parroquet; the bird is only of the size of a thrush. It and the still 

smaller Serendit are the only two birds of the Parrot tribe in Java. (At Batavia and 

in Javanese betet, wfcn^^iasn^)- 
fiksel, poor, thin, having no flesh or eatable matter upon it. Said also of water which 

is in a very scanty stream. Buah iyo e'kse'l jasah owoh Zusian , this fruit is very poor , 

there is no eatable matter about it. Chai na eksel, the water is scanty. 
£la, a species of the genus Cardamoraum growing wild in the jungle. It is remarkable 

that &la is the Sanscrit name for the Cardamum of Malabar. (See Wilson s. v. and 

As. Kesearches vol. 11. p. 355. Eld.) 
£ldh, cowed, worsted in a fight, beaten, overcome. 
iSldhken, to overcome, to worst in conflict; to place in the wrong, 
filing, to remember; to have consciousness, to know what one is about. Maka Eling, 

keep your senses about you. 
filingan, to cause to remember, 
filingken, to put in mind, to cause to remember. 

fillo, European, an ell. A measure for cloth. The usual ell measure used by cloth 
dealers is the ell of Amsterdam 

Containing English inches 27.079. 

The Netherlands Ell or French metre „ „ „ 39.371. 

and the English Ell. „ „ „ 45. — 

filmu, arabic, science, knowledge doctrine, art, artifice, cunning, device; tllmu kitab y 

the doctrine of the Book, (Koran). Sia loba teuyn elmu na , you have to many artifices, 
fiman, often also aspirated Reman, to have an affection for, to feel love or regard for. 
Em bah, a grandfather or grandmother. 
Embd, a goat. See Wedus. 

Em boh, a weed in the mountain humahs called also Sayaga and I'esbong. 
fimbohan, to add to, to augment, to increase. 
Embol, to make appearance, to come in sight. 
Embul-erabul, to come crawling into sight, to show up; JilZma to embul - embul? is 

there no appearance of the people. See umbul-umbul. 
Embun-embun, the fontanella; the soft place on the top of the head of a new-born 

child; the crown of the head. 

15 



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114 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Em bung, unwilling, I w'ont; not being disposed to do anything. (The e is rather not 

heard) . 
£mes, a climbing plant found in gardens, or planted about the huts in humahs; acucur- 

bitous plant. Luffa Foetida. 
iSnipang, a fish pond. Any pond of water artificially made. 
Empet-empetan, a child's trumpet made of Paddy straw, something after the fashion 

of a Clarionet, and played by sticking one end in the mouth. See ole-olean. 
E m p 1 c k , a piece , a small bit. 

Empuk, soft like a pillow; giving way to pressure. 
En, only. En kari siji deui, there is only one left. En dua only two. 
Endah, good, proper, fit, excellent 
I^ndahan, to be friendly with, to respect, to treat courteously, to be good to. Nu gede 

kudu di dndahan, great men must be respected. 
Endeuk, to have a mind, to purport. (Cf. daik.) 
En dog, an egg. This word is of Sanscrit origin. Anda> C. 17 an egg. (Jav. idem. It 

is possible that this is formed from andaka; compare tandak with tandaka Scr. Fr.) 
En dog, a variety of mangga so called. 
Endogan, to lay eggs. 

^n^'ang, a sort of wasp among the forests in the mountains, which gives a very pain- 
ful sting. It is as large as the Tiyuwan, but quite black without yellow marks. 
Enggon, place, spot; a place to live in. (Jav. idem.) 
Enggonan, to make room for, to give place, 
fingke, to limp, limping. 
Enjot, to jirk, to move with a jirk. 
Enjot-enjotan, moving by jirks, lifting by bit and bit, first from one place, then to 

another, as a heavy weight which can just be moved. 
]£ n 1 6 1 , a small skein or hank of thread. 
l£ n t e n g , moderate , light in the sense of not oppressive- not in that of not heavy , which 

is hampang. Di penta pajeg sapuluh gedeng pare , enteng , he demands a rent of 10 

bundles of Paddy which is light or moderate, 
f j n t e p , arranged in regular order , as bricks in a wall &c. laid in layers. Especially said 

of any things which are piled up, as Paddy &c. tlntip seureuh, piled like seureuh 

leaves. This is a simile which the native often employs to denote anything which is 

piled up in apple-pie order , as seureuh leaves when gathered for use are always neatly 

piled together. 
En tod, keeping in constant motion, always moving, never quiet 
Entod leunchang, a bird, a sort of water- way- tail which keeps moving its body even 

when it stands. 
Entol, a petty epithet of distinction for a man; a petty rank of birth. 



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AND ENGLISH. 115 

iSong-e'ong, to mew as a cat 

iSpok, a seureuh case made of rattan. A platted case for Seivreuh. A small bambu bas- 
ket worn by paddy-cutters for collecting the heads which have no stems. 

Era, ashamed, shamefaced, bashful. Modesty. Sia to bogah era sakali, you have not a 
particle of shame about you. Awewc ngora &ra-an y young women would be ashamed- 
would be too modest. 

Eraha, when, at what period, jfiralia datang na y when did he come. 

Erang, a variety of palm tree, with stem studded with sharp spikes. Oncosperma fila- 
mentosa. 

Erang-erang, the lintel of a door; a window sill. 

Er<*d, to haul as a drag net in water, to haul along, to pull along, to collect together. 

iSre'g, the ram- rod of a gun. 

ire' tan, a ferry, a rope or rattan stretched across a river by which a raft is hauled 
backwards and forwards for conveying passengers, horses, carriages &c. 

iSse*, piece, number, an expression used t in counting certain articles especially fish &c. 
Corresponds somewhat to our „individua^ , , but is not said of men. 

l5seng, to doctor Radang or the yaws with lime juice, lemon juice. 

l5stu, subjected to, following orders. Obeying with alacrity and to the purpose. Also heard 
as Ustu. (Cf. Jav. estuken y to give effect, truth to a thing; to obey. Both and more 
certainly yet usta to be derived from Scr. wastu , thing , matter , substance ; essential pro- 
perty, nature, essence Fr.) 

l5ta, that, the demonstrative pronoun. Eta jelema, that man. Ta, C. 836. That. At all 
events in composition. 

Etaun, an expression used in doubt or thinking of something, thingumy, what do you 
call it! 

I^tek, full grown and old Suureuh leaves. Become so, by allowing them to hang long 
upon the trees, as when growing in .the jungle or in an old paddy humah, and not 
in gardens near a house. 

iSte'm, the small blade fastened to a bit of wood, and which being held in the hand ser- 
ves to snap the straw of paddy when reaping it, which the natives always do straw 
by straw, about 8 or 10 inches below the grain. It answers rlio purpose of our 
sickle, in as much as it is the instrument with which paddy is reaped, but is a very 
different thing from a sickle. It is called in Malay- Pengatam , which name would seem 
to have a similarity of origin with the Sunda Etem. It is called Ani-ani, by the Ja- 
vanese. 

Eujeureug, right and in order; acting honestly, correct. 

Eukeur, about, in the act of doing something, whilst; taken in hand. Euheur naun sia, 
what are you about. Eukeur nyato, in the act of eating. 

Eun, a particle the same as en which sec above, and, only It is also much used in 



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116 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

making compound words , and occurs at the end of the word , when such is preceded 
by Pi which see. As Chagak, a stake. Pi-ChagaJc-eun, wood to make a stake of. Imah, 
a house. Pi-iVnaA-etm, materials for building a house. (Probably the same as the forma- 
tive suffix- an). 

Eiindeuk-eundeukan, said of a bird, butterfly &c. which is perched upon a branch 
or rope and swings to and fro with it. The act of clinging to a rope when shaken. 

EiindSur, shaking, quivering; said of any great mass in a state of tremulation. Bumi 
eundeur y the earth shook, as in an earthquake. 

E tin tan, a handful of Paddy as it is fresh cut: half a ranggion. 

Eiinteung, a looking glass , a mirror. 

E ii n t e u p , perched as a bird , seated on. The plural of this and some other words , beginning 
in same way is made by prefixing eur-eureunteup , they were all perched. Eureureun , 
they all stopped. 

Eiinyeuh, fallen down, tumbled as a tree, a house, or any high matter. The plural 
becomes eureunyeuh, they all fell down. 

Eurad, to drag water with a net in order to catch the fish. 

Eiirih, the long grass called in Malay Alang-alang ; Saccharum Koenigii or Imperata Ku- 
nigii. See Palang. 

Eiirihken, to pour over; to pour from one vessel, bag &c. into another. 

Eii si, contents, anything which is held within another, as liquor in a bottle. To inhabit 
or occupy a country, village or district, a house, a hole &c. The flesh on an ani- 
mal ; the edible part in a fruit. Eusi beuteung , the contents of the stomach , the guts, 
the intestines. (Malay Isi. B£ut$ung is the Balinese batang, the belly). 

E u s i a n , to put into , to place in ; to fill up ; to load as a gun. Makes in the plural eureusian. 

E ii t e u n , a running weed which soon shows itself after the jungle has been burnt off; 
called Areui-euteun. 

Ewa, having an aversion or hatred of; detesting; bearing malice against. Said of any 
subject with which we are disgusted, and will hear no more of it. Makes in the plu- 
ral Harariwa. 

Ewe, a wife. Ilwe sia geus Icolot, your wife has become old. 

iSwean, to take a wife. Said of a man who marries. (See ihean). 

Ewuh, confounded, confused, troubled in mind. 

flyang, the same as Eang, very ancient, olden times. It is a refined expression for grand- 
father, it or eh 9 and eya> C. 85 — 87. the pronoun he. J'/tisa Singhalese demonstra- 
tive pronoun appropriated to represent a person or thing spoken of before. Lambrick^s 
Singhalese grammar 1834 Page 21. In conjunction with Hyang will be- He the divinity- 
that one who has become divine ; as in early times ancestors were thought to become divini- 
ties. Nine iyang , ancestors , progenitors. The same as Nine moyang. See Hyang. (44). 



(44) Jav. He'yang, grandfather or grandmother; also title of honour given by the native princes 



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AND ENGLISH. 117 

Eyor, moist, watery, sloppy. 

Ga-ak, a crow, the common black crow. Cornix, corvus. (Batavian and Balinese Go-ak 
or Gotoak.) 

Ga-ang, a variety of cricket, gryllus. An insect so called. 

Gachong, a portion of paddy given to the reapers for their trouble in assisting to cut, 
which in this case is only T \ of what they cut , whereas when £ is given , it is cal- 
led Derep. 

Gabag, a disease resembling measles. 

Gabel, a fish found in stagnant water, has no scales. 

Gabiag, said of Paddy when the whole crop of ears has shot out and show themselves. 

Gab leg, to own, possessed of; a coarse and sneering word. Naun sia to gab leg pok6k, 
what have'nt you such a thing as a pair of short breeches. 

Gab lug, falling with a heavy sound; falling helplessly and heavily. Buah kadu gablug 
bai ragrag, the Durian fruit fell with a heavy bang. 

Gabras, the idiomatic expression of stabbing; to launch at and stick; to hit with some- 
thing sharp pointed. Gabras bai di teuweuk, slap into him he stuck him. 

Gabrul, to slash and cut the top off grass; not to cut off short by the ground. To cut and 
clear away grass and brush wood roughly. 

Gabug, said of any fruit which does not fill, especially Paddy- said of man or animal 
which has not the power of procreation. Pari gabug, empty paddy. Jelema gabug, a 
person who has not the power of procreation. 

Gabus, a fish found in stagnant water, and in the still parts of streams. He is ravenous 
and eats other small fry. Ophicephalus striatus. There is a wood called Kayu gabus, 
with soft, spongy texure found near the sea shore. 

G a dang, to tie or secure anything with a bit of string. To tie temporarily. To tie any- 
thing as it were with a Martingal. 

Gade and Gaddken, to pawn, to pledge, to mortgage. 

Gadil, to butt as a goat. 

Gading, ivory, the tusk of an elephant. A variety of Bambu so called. (45). 

Gado, the chin. 

Gadog, name of a large forest tree, called also GirUung. Bischoffia Javanica. 

G a d u h , and gaduhan , pledge , pawn , a deposit for mutual benefit. Ngala gaduhan , to 
take in pawn. (See gade.) 



to the Governor General; themselves being the children, the Resident the father and the Governor 
General the grandfather. Any derivation from the Ceylonese is very improbable. Fr. 

(45) Gading \ means yellow at Bali. On Java is known bambu gading and Tcalapa gading a yellow 
kind of Cocoanut. It is remarkable that the ivory, which is white, but with a yellowish hue, 
should be called gading, Fr. 



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118 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Gadu liken, to give an animal, especially a female buffaloe, to another person to keep 
and look after; the person having such charge, has for his trouble, a share of the 
calves born , or interest in the hire of the buffaloe when let out to plough sawahs or 
the like. 

Gadung, the name of a plant with large bulbous root. Dioscorea triphylla. Much used 
at certain seasons of the year when rice is scarce. It requires to be rasped and soaked 
well before cooking or else it is deleterious. 

Gadur, talking at random. Chattering. 

Gaga bah, careless, heedless: not observing necessary ceremony or respect. 

Gagajah, the main body of a natives house; that part which is under the roof which rests 
upon the chief frame work of a house. The centre of the house. 

Gagak, a crow, the same as Ga-ak. 

Gagal, doing wrong, inadvertently wrong, doing wrong by mistake. Not doing what is 
expected. Tilok gagal, never wrong, you may always count upon it or him. 

Gaga man, attendants, followers, people brought to help at any work- also Soldiers. Ga- 
gaman in Javanese, both weapons and men armed with weapons, derived from Gaman, 
a weapon. (Gamana , march of an assailant. ? Fr.) 

G a g a n g , the handle , the shaft of any implement ; the stalk or stem of a plant or flower. 

Gagaruan, to scratch in the earth, as a dog or other animal. (Cf. garuk, Malay and 
Batavian.) 

Gagasah, to rub the body against anything; as an animal, say a horse or buffaloe, 
against a tree. 

G a g o b e r , the dewlap. The thin piece of flesh hanging along the throat of a cow. See Geber. 

Gagu, stammering, stuttering. 

Gahar, sweet and pungent-denotes a taste of sweet mixed with pepper or pungency. 

Gahil, disappointed, not getting one's wish; one of the numerous names for a pig. 

Gairu, perplexed, confused, not knowing what one is about. 

Gajag-gajig, running and skitting about without doing any real work. 

Gajah, an Elephant. See Liman. Gaja, C. 162 an Elephant. The Elephant is not found 
wild in Java, but exists in that state in Sumatra. Elephas sumatranus. The word 
Gajah occurs in a certain form of Jampd , and means a great man. See Suku. 

Gaja ma da, the second general of Majapahit who with Arhja Damar conquered Bali. 
Gaja C. 162, an Elephant. Mada, C. 510, joy, pleasure, delight, the juice which 
flows from an Elephants temples when in rut. The Elephant rut. 

Gaji, pay, salary, wages; the word is the Dutch Gayie. 

Gajih, fat on animals or man, fat, tallow. 

Gakang, savage as a dog; fierce. 

Gala, a pole; a piece of wood, but mostly of bambu used for propelling a boat in shal- 
low water: a boathook. 



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AND ENGLISH, 119 

Gal a dag, to floor with sticks; to lay down sticks in even order to serve as a foundation 
of anything, as of Paddy, grass &c. To lay down sticks on a muddy road so that 
a cart may be able to pass along. To make what the Americans call a corduroy road. 

Galadag, a hack-horse, a pack-horse. A horse got from the authorities to perform a 
stage of a journey; often heard pronounced Gladag. 

G a 1 a g a r , cross sticks or beams used in any rough work made of wood , as in a bridge &c. 

Galai, to mix, to knead, to trample down. 

Galak, fierce, furious, savage as an animal, daring, venturesome at any work or enter- 
prise. Orang galak, fierce people. Anjing galak, a fierce dog. Aw face galak, a women 
who makes overtures to a man. Galak meuli tui ari murah, people will buy venture 
somely when it is cheap. See Lak. 

Galang, a chock or block placed under any object to keep it from the ground. 

Galangan, the partition or small earthen embankment between the different divisions or 
petaks of Sawahs. 

Galar, a cross piece of wood in a timber framed house. 

Galar-gilir, to come frequently to any place; to keep walking round; to frequent much. 

Galek, a variety of Chaw or plantain; it is the same as is sometimes called Chaw 
Tanduk. 

Galeong, to turn round. 

Galdr, a piece of split bambu tied transversely on other bambus or pieces of wood, so 
as to hold them at proper distances a part , especially on roofs of houses. 

Gal ih, the heart wood of trees which is generally hard and enduring. The heart and hard 
part of any substance, wood, stone or other object. 

G a 1 i n g , curled , crisped , said of young paddy which grows luxuriantly , which throws out 
abundant leaves which spread out and soon cover the ground. Curly hair. 

Galinggem, a shrub planted about fences of roads and gardens. Bixa orellana. 

G a 1 u , name of a district in the interior of the residency of Cheribon , from whence Chiung 
Wanara and Raden Tanduran , the founders of Pajajaran and Majapahit were descen- 
ded. Raffles Vol. 2 Page 99/100. Galu in former times appears to have been a place 
of some note, and held sway even over the eastern part of the Prianger Regencies. 

Galuga, another name for Galinggem, Bixa orellana. 

Galugur, the trunk of a tree fallen on the ground. Galugur kawung the palm kawung 
fallen on the ground, blown down. 

Galunggung, name of a volcano south of Bandung which had a great eruption in 1822. 

Galur, the beaten path, or even, only trace of a wild beast in the forest, or through 
j ungle. Any jungle or grass beaten down by an animal passing. 

G a m a h , frightened , disturbed , on the qui vive ; as a man at an improper act , or a wild 
animal in the jungle. 

Gambang, a native musical instrument, being a wooden trough, across which bars of 



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120 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

hard wood, mostly teak, are laid, longer at one end than at the other. When such 

bars are struck with a small mallet ', they give out musical sounds. Another variety 

of gambang has brass bars instead of wooden ones. 
Gambar, a picture, a representation. An historical table or account 
Gambir, Nauclea Gambir, a shrub, the leaves of which are boiled down and yield an 

inspissated juice which dries, and is then cut into small cakes. This material is also 

called Gambir and is eaten every where in tbe Archipelago along with the Seureuh 

or Siri, which see. It is produced in large quantities at Singapore and Rhio. 
Gam bos, soft and yielding; not hard and firm; said of softish vegetable materials. 
Gam elan, a set of native musical instruments, of which the Gambang and Go-ong form 

part. A native band. 
Gam elan Sal^ndro, a full assortment of native musical instruments is so called. 
Gam pang, easy facile. Eta gampang, that is easy. 
Gampangken, to make light of any matter; to trifle with. 
Gamparan, a wooden sandal or sole of thick wood, held to the foot by a peg with 

a round knob, which passes between the toes. 
Gampleng, conceding or giving way; doing something rather unadvisedly. Gampleng 

bai di jual, he threw it away in a sale; he slapped it off at a sale. 
Gamudra mupu, a main receptacle; a place where every advantage exists. Quere is 

Gamudra a wrong expression of Samudra y C. 711. the sea, the ocean? Mupu is to- 

gather up, and would then mean- „the sea which gathers up or acts as a receptacle". 

The sea being large receives all rivers and all they bring down into it. 
Gana, C. 164. One of the names of Ganesa. The troops called Gandharwa, a kind of 

inferior deities considered as Sivas attendants , and under the especial command Gane'- 

sa , the Hindu god of wisdom. 
Ganchang, quick, fast. Ganchang lumpat na, he ran fast. 
Ganda, shalots, a kind of small onion grown in the humahs amongst the mountains 

Ganda, C. 165. smell, odour, perfume. Whether om Sunda word has any more than 

resemblance of name to boast of, it is hard to tell, as the shalots are not particularly 

noted for smell. (Gandha, smell; means also Morung a hyper anther a; Aloewood; and the 

bud of the Champaka Jlower; a diffusive fragrance). 
Ganda rusa, a fruit resembling a mangga. (Rushaka is a plant, Justicia Ganderussa). 
Gandasoli, name of a plant growing among grass with a small yellow flower. The word 

sounds Sanscritical. Ganda, C. 165 smell, odour, Suliya C. 755. the curve or groove 

of a screw; mischief, deceit. It is a variety of Hedychium. 
Gandeng, making a noise or disturbance; boisterous, noisy. 
Gandet, cut but not quite through; cut with a notch. A notch or catch of any kind. 

A ridge or impediment. ^ 

Gandol, to carry anything, as a bundel or the back folded up in the Samping or 

Sarung. 



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A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 121 

Gandol, one of the names for Rhinoceros. Ganda and Gandaka C. 162 are both, a Rhi- 
noceros, and have much resemblance to Gandol. 

Gandola, a weed found in mountainous situations. It has a feathery flower which helps 
to blow about the seeds, whereby it propagates itself very rapidly and makes it dif- 
ficult to eradicate. (Gandholi is a fragrant grass, Cyperus rotundus). 

Gandu, name of a tree in the jungle, the astringent fruit of which is eaten by women 
who have been in childbirth. 

Ganesa, the god of wisdom. C. 165. derived from Gana, a troop, Isa> a lord or chief. 
The Hindu god of wisdom ; he is represented in the temples as a short fat man , with 
the head of an Elephant ; he is the son of Siva and Parvati , and is considered the re- 
mover of obstacles ; hence in the commencement of all undertakings , and in the ope- 
ning of all composition , he receives the reverential homage of the Hindus ; he is con- 
sidered as the chief of the various classes of subordinate deities, who are regarded as 
Siva's attendants. 

Ganggang, to leave brush- wood, felled forest, cut grass &c to dry and wither in the 
sun, preparatory to burning. 

Ganggang, a kind of grass growing under water, especially in ponds , and amongst which 
ducks are fond of grubbing. 

Ganggarangan, an animal of the ferret or squirrel kind climbing up trees. (Cf. Sang- 
garangan.) 

Ganggawang, ajar, gaping a little, just open. 

Ganggong, ancient, primeval. Leuweung ganggong, primeval forest, where the trees are 
large. 

Ganggu, to annoy, to molest any one; to be troublesome to any one. 

Gangs a, a goose. Hansa- C. 784. a goose. 

Gangsa, the metal of which Gongs or Go-ongs are made, and of which copper is the 
chief ingredient. Bronze. Also filings of such metal which is given to people as a 
slow poison, said to take effect upon the throat and causes at least loss of voice. The 
husky cough caused by this poison. ; 

Gangsal, of uneven number , an odd number as 3. B. 7. 9. (Jav. and Balin. five). 

Gangs or, said of an animal's belly which is so large that it trails on the ground; one 
variety of the Rhinoceros has especially a belly of this kind, and is hence called Ba- 
dak gang8or. 

Gangsor, to shred or cut up yams or other roots with a sharp bambu instrument called 
Panggangsoran . 

Ganitri, name of a shrub the seeds of which are much used for rosaries. Elaeocarpus 
Angustifolia. Crawfurd. (Cf. The Guduha ganitri or Bali.) 

G an jar an, reward, recompense, especially as given by chiefs in reward of services done 
by inferior people. Clemency of God for good deeds; happiness hereafter; grace. 

Ganjel, to support or lift up by placing a chock, block or other object underneath. 

16 



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122 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Ganjil, of oneven number, odd, not corresponding. (See Gangsal.) 

G an tang, a measure for rice and any other grain. About ten gantangsof rice weigh one 
pikul. The gantang is a trifle short of one English Imperial peck. 

G an tar, a piece of bambu or tick stiff rattan on which clothes &c are put, especially 
in the sun to dry. 

Ganti, to change, to exchange, to take one thing or person in place of another; to shift; 
to repair by using fresh materials. A substitute, a successor. 

Gantung, to hang as a person who is executed; to hang as an object suspended; to 
suspend from an office or service; withheld as payment. Relatives high. Said of a 
water way which wants deepening to allow the water to flow along it. 

Gap, the idiomatic expression of biting at, of snapping at, as a dog does. Gap bai ku 
mating , and the tiger snapped him up. 

Garaha, an Eclipse. Grahana, C. 187 literally taking, seizing, an Eclipse of the sun 
or moon , because of the idea which Indian astrologers have of an Eclipse. Rahu , one 
of the inferior planets , having in consequence of certain unfair actions committed against 
him both by the sun and moon conceived an eternal hatred against them, at certain 
seasons takes the advantage of laying hold of them with his mouth , or hand , threa- 
tens them with destruction , and the darkness is caused by his gripe. Clough voce. 
Eclipse. (The word is in Scr. Graha, eclipse; also Rahu himself; we find in several 
Sundanese words the tendency of placing a vowel sound between two consonants fol- 
lowiug each other; see above derigama. Fr.) 

Garai, to gammon a rope, viz. after twisting a round and round, to lash those strands 
again at the middle, so as to draw them still closer and faster together. 

Garang, as di garang , to fry or roast on hot embers. 

Garanggang, a bambu sharpened at one end, and thrown as a spear. The tamiang is 
especially used for this purpose. 

Garap, to speak quickly; speaking so fast that the words run into each other. 

Garembul, eating more than common; voracious. 

Garet^k, vexed, boiling with anger, enraged. 

G a ring, dry, perfectly dried, desiccated. Garing expresses a higher degree of dryness 
than Tuhur or Tu-us. 

Garinjel, any surface which is not perfectly smooth; having small inequalities. 

Garintul, having knobby projections; Garintul is in a higher degree what Garinjel re- 
presents in a smaller one. 

Gar is, a mark, a scratch; to make a mark with a pointed instrument. A limit assigned. 
Utah ngaliwat garis, do not exceed the limits assigned. 

Garisul, high and low places adjoining each other. Deep and shallow places, side by side 
in a river. 

Garombol, small thick* set bushes. Thickets. 



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AND ENGLISH. 123 

G a r o t a n , old , ancient , primeval ; said of an old forest. Leuweung garotan , a primeval forest. 
Gam, a harrow, an implement of agriculture, a large rake. To harrow, to rake. 
Garu, the name of a kind of perfumed wood called generally Lignum Aloes. Agaru , 

C. 7. the name of a plant , Dalbergia Sissoo- Aguru C. 8. from a privative , and Guru heavy- 

the name of a fragrant wood- Aloe wood. 
Garu an, to scratch any part of the body; to harrow. (See Garuk.) 
Garuda, the Griffin, C. 168, the bird the Vehicle of Vishnu , he is generally represented as 

being something between and a bird , and considered as sovereign of the feathered tribe. 
Garuk, to scratch with the nail, to scratch any part of the body. 
Garung, said of cultivation which is not taken proper care of, not weeded. Said also of 

fallen forest which cannot get burnt for wet weather, or some other cause, and thus 

the ground cannot be cultivated or planted. 
Garungsang, steep and rugged, precipitous. 
Gasal, an uneven number, 3. 5. 7. more usually Gangsal. 
Gasik, quicK, expeditions; be quick! 

Gasir, to undermine: to sap a house or wall for the purpose of getting in to steal. 
Gatapan, afraid, shying as a horse. 
G a 1 6 1 , a portion of Paddy levied as tax , given to the village chiefs for their trouble in 

collecting revenues. 
Gatet, name of a tree, Inocarpus edulis. 
Gati, difficult, causing trouble, intricate. Unwilling, unless on hard terms to comply 

trouble, intricate. Unwilling, unless on hard terms to comply with our wishes. 
Gat oh, that part of a white ants nest which contains the Queen ant. The Queen ant 

herself, who is vastly larger than her subjects, being an inch an a half long and J 

of an inch thick and very helpless. The natives eat her Queenship as a delicacy. 
Gatrah, trace, mark of. The trace of something commenced and then abandoned for some 

cause as a bad job. The mark on the ground of some work begun and then abandoned 

as a slokan which is not carried through. Gatra, C. 172 the body, a limb, a member. 
Gauk, to cry out in a rage: to roar; to bellow. 

Gaul, a long drum like tube of wood, set in dams in rivers to catch fish. 
Gaur, to scramble for, the confusion made by scrambling. Pari na di gaur fcoi, they 

quite scrambled who should have the paddy (by buying). 
Gaw£, work, occupation, trouble. To work. GZrrah di gaxce set to work. Quickly to 

work. Gaw6 tia to hade, what you are about is not right. Matak gaxo6 eta , that will 

cause trouble. 
Gawe, is also a grand feast or jollification such as natives get up on occasions of marriage 

or circumcision , which they thus appear to consider as labour or a piece of work. Daih 

bogah gawe , I mean to hold a festival. (In the same way used as Balin. Kdrja; ma- 

kdrja is originally to work, but employed to denote festivals of the natives.) 



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124 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Gawing, hung up, suspeuded, swinging clear of the ground, 

Gawir, a steep bank, a precipice. 

GaySm, to chew, to chew the cud. 

Gayot, swinging backwards and forwards. 

Gayung, a ladle made out of the segment of a Cocoa nut shell with a wooden handle 

fixed to it. 
G6 y an expression of remonstrance or taunting; see there! what now! an expression which 

often occurs in sentences but is difficult to translate, as the sense will often read in- 
telligibly without it. Siji bai gS hadd> even only one will do. Perhaps even y only , 

is the nearest approach to its meaning. 
G$bah, to frighten away; to drive away cattle or birds from cultivation, or the like. 
Ggbang, name of a Palm tree as a Cocoanut Its young leaves are pulled in shreds and 

made into Kadut or bagging. Name of a variety of Paddy. The Palm is Corypha 

GSbanga. 
Gfcbgg, to fan, to cause a current of air to move. 
Gebeng, included in, belonging to. 

G 6 b 6 r , to wiggle waggle about ; to flap backwards and forwards. Gageber , the dewlap of a cow. 
Gsbiug, all together; working simultaneously. 
G fib leg, a fool, a stupid fellow; foolish. 
Gfcblig, stamping on the ground; springing up so as to come down with force upon the 

ground. 
GSbluk-gfibluk, frequent knocking or striking. An intensitive from of g*blig. 
G^bog, a fold of shred tobacco as put up for sale, called in Malay Lempeng. A fold 

or piece of Cotton cloth or prints. 
Gebrggan, a short but hard tug at any work; a tussle at any thing. Sagvbr&gan, for 

a short period , while an effort is made. 
GSbug, to thrash with a stick or whip. 
G&bur, said of the flaming up of a torch; the blazing up of a large fire. Lambent as 

flame. 
G^dag, to shake, to cause to move. 

Gedang, a tree with a fruit called in Malay Papaya. Carica Papaya. 
Gsd£, large, big, great. 
Ged£, as Am g&dS> the large bambu; a most useful variety, splits up for palupuhs, and 

is in universal use about house building. 
Gsdsbog, the pliant stem of a Plantain torn in strips to envelop anything. The stem it- 

seld of Plaintain when cut down for any use. 
Gedsbong, a plant with largish heart-shaped leaves, rough with veins. Leaf used as a 

medicine for worms in children. 
Gsdsbus, ganmes in which are exhibited feats of address with various sharp weapons, as 



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AND ENGLISH. 125 

stabbing the body with krisses or knives &c, but which are merely clever sleights of 

hand. These games are mostly practised by men who pretend to be great proficients 

in the knowledge of the Mohammedan religion, and thereby to have attained their 

skill. 
GSdeg, a flooring of split bambns wattled together, and used in any way on bridges, 

ferries , any passage or road &c. &c. 
G^deng, a bundle of paddy consisting of two smaller bundles tied together and of a 

certain weight. The most usual size is of 16 catties weight. Each half of this gendeng 

weighs 8 catties and is called Sapochong. 
G^d^ng, steep, precipitous. 
Gedengeun, on the side of, near the side. Said of men of high birth. When said of 

common people it is gigireun. 
G £ d e r , the noise of a quarrelsome dispute ; a continuous noise. 
Gdddr, startled, frightened, discomposed. 
Gedig, a big chap, a big person; any person or thing which is large and makes much 

pretension. 
Gddog, to shake together, to joggle together, as grain or any other loose material in a 

basket or measure. 
Ggdogan, a stall for a horse, a native stable which consists of a kind of cage under a 

roof, into which a horse is turned in loose and then barred in. 
Gedong, a mansion, a great man'shouse; the houses of Europeans are called GSdongs, 

especially in the country. Gedong BZchara the Town Hall the Mension House , where 

public business is conducted. 
Gedor, to strike, to hit, to hammer at; to strike with a heavy mallet 
Gedubus, to put a man to work to pay off his debt by his labour. 
Gedug, occurs as a name as Gedug Leng^ur- a designation of some ancient Mythological 

character. It is not otherwise heard in Sunda. Gericke's Javanese Dictionary gives* 

G$dug, in order that, entirely; the extreme, the last; and G&g$dug> the pre-eminent, 

the first in rank; chief, leader. L&ngur has not been traced. Friederich. 
GSduk, shaking, agitated; thumping on the ground or on any other object. 
G egad in g, the horizontal bars in a wooden building, to which are nailed the planks or 

attached the bambu pagars. Gading - gading in Malay are the floor timbers of a ship. 
Gegah, mighty, valliant, spirited, full of activity as a young horse &c. active and pleased. 
Geganden, a mallet, a large hammer made entirely of wood. A maul. 
Gegandet, a mark as of a cut or notch. A ridge or impediment See GandSt 
Gegasah, to rub the body against any object, as a tree, a wall &c. Said of a horse or 

animal which rubs itself against a tree , a post or the like. 
G3ged6n, Big folks, great people. Derived from G£d4 % great. 
Gggel, to bite, to layhold of with the teeth; also to lay hold of in general. 



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126 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

GegSlang, ancient name of a place in the district of Pranaraga in the residency of Madiun. 

Gegfcndhir, a long stout staff, as long as a man, carried partly for support and partly 
for a weapon of defence. Called at Batavia Limbuhan. 

G.eg£p, pincers, a forceps; a blacksmith's vice. 

Geg£r6nt£lan, having curly hair, curly locks. Said of anything which is put in small 
round bits or in pellets. 

Geggroan, roaring, crying, bellowing. Di gegeroan, to roar at a man to call his attention. 

G^gStuk, to mash up taleus, or the fruit seeds of the Nangka Beurit; this bein^ mixed 
with Jaggory Sugar and cocoanut is eaten as a delicacy or treat. 

Gegolak, to boil up as hot water, to be in a state of ebullition. 

Geh^ng, burnt clean up; said of fire which makes a clean sweep and consumes all it 
comes against, as in the humahs. 

Gehge'r, giving the alarm, crying out; showing discontent. Uproar, tumult. GtShgeran , 
the sensitive plant. Mimosa Pudica. 

Gejeg, attendants at a native feast; servants at a festival. 

Gek, the idiomatic expression of sitting down. Gek bai diyeuk, and down he sat. 

Geladag or Gladag, as Kuda geladag, a hack-horse: a horse used for carrying goods 
o r other rough purposes. A Pack - horse. 

G6lap, contraband, what cannot bear the light of day; unlawful, forbidden. 

GSlap, a thunder bolt, a stroke of lightning. 

Gelas, a glass, a tumbler. Derived from the Dutch word Glas. 

Gelatik, the Java sparrow. A pretty little bird so called, with red bill and leo-s. The 
general colour of the body is a pretty slate colour , with white spot on breast. Frin- 
gilla oryzivora. 

GSlatik mung'ut, perhaps originally Purufut which is in Malay to gather up. A sort, 
of game in which the players of the Angklung bambu music pick np with their mouths 
money or other objects thrown to them by the bye standers. 

GelSbeg, a pedaty wheel made of one disk of wood. A small cart on such wheels. 
Pansmat gelebeg , those Spanish dollars which bear two circles or spheres on them, 
which are taken for representations of Pedaty wheels , and not as indicative of autho- 
rity over the two worlds. 

Geldd^g, Lightning. The flash of light attending thunder. 

Geledeg, indicative of the impetuos rush of fire, of water, or of a flood. Said also of 
people or animals running off hastily in numbers. Geledeg bai cha-ah , down rushed 
a flood. Seuneuh geledeg bai ka imah, kahuruan y and the fire rushing up the house 
in a lambent flame , burnt it. Kebo na geledeg bai lumpat , and off the buffaloes ran 
with impetuosity. 

GSl£nt(Sr, to spread out one by one in the sun to dry. Said especially of new cut pad- 
dy so treated. 



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AND ENGLISH. 127 

Gelgel, the name of the ancient capital of the island of Bali, destroyed upwards of 100 
years ago by the people of Karang Asam. It was the capital of the Dewa Agung 
or Supreme Lord of Bali when Europeans first became acquainted with the country. 
Friederich, Bat. Trans. Vol 23 Page 26. 

Gelo, foolish, stupid, giddy, heedless. 

G along, to swallow, to bolt down the throat. Di g*long buted, he swallowed it whole. 

GSlung, to top-knot of a woman's hair. To dress the hair of women when of low degree. 
Vide Sanggul. 

Gelut, to roll or tustle playfully as children. To struggle and roll together in fighting; 
to hug, to wrestle. 

Ge in bong, a variety of Bambu with long joints. 

Gembor, a variety of Chaw or Plantain. 

Gerabreng, a metal dish or plate struck by a public crier to call attention or to give 
notice of a public auction about to take place. 

Gemes, vexed, irritated, gnashing the teeth with rage. 

Gem par, prostrated, cast down, especially by sickness. Fallen ill. 

Gemparan, wooden sandels. A wooden sole with a peg in the front part to pass between 
the toes, whereby to hold it to the foot. 

G e m p e 1 , to cut paddy close below the ear , and thus without any of the straw to act as 
a handle ; this is done especially with bad paddy , which is then collected in a basket , 
and not tied up in bundels. 

G fc m p u r, to cut down small jungle, bambus &c ; to clear a bit of ground of bushes, long grass &c. 

Gemuh, having plenty, getting abundantly, especially something to eat or for personal 
use; exuberant. 

Gen, an argumentative or remonstrative particle; well! hew comes it? Gen to dataiuj , 
he's not come. 

Genanan, an argumentative expression of remonstrance or expostulation, as- well after 
all! nevertheless! and then. Ari chitr hvjan, genanan minggat, and when the rain came 
on, then away they ran. 

G€nap, six. This word is probably derived from Ganapang, the imperative of Ganinawa y 
to add up, to count, to reckon, Clough 165. and as such indicates a step in the na- 
tive method of counting, when the five fingers of the hand had been used up, and 
thus Genap would mean- a counting , a score. In Malay Oenap means complete , full, 
even in number. 

GSnapblas, Sixteen. 

Gfcnappuluh, Sixty. 

Genchet, to tie together with a bit of string, to tack together. Tn conjunction. 

GendSng, to be peevish, to find fault with, to chatter in a rage. 

G£nd€s, longing to get at any one to thrash him. See Gemes. 



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128 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE. 

Gendul, the fruit of the Kamiri or Munehang tree, when only one and thus a large 

stone contained in one fruit When there are two stomes, they are called Dampa. 

Games or chances are taken upon these stones. 
Genggaing, a variety of the Durian or Kadu tree, Durio Zibethinus. The fruit of the 

Genggaing is smaller than that of the real Durian, its thorns softer and longer, and 

its fruit much more stinking. 
G^ngg£, small round bells or brass castinets, worn by children round their ankles. 
GdnggcSh^k, a river fish resembling the Regis. At Buitenzorg the Regis is called 

G6ngg6hek. 
GSnggem, to carry in the hand, to clasp in the fist, to clench, to clasp hold of, as if 

about to give a stick or thrust. Ngagenggem peso, to carry a knife in the hand. 
Ggnggerong, the thrapple, the main duct of the throat 
G^nggong, uneven as a bit of land; rough with stones or stamps of trees. 
G e n j a , a variety of Paddy which comes soon to perfection , but is not so nutritive as sorts 

which require longer time to grow. 
G6nje, a variety of hemp, the leaves of which can smoked like opium. It is imported 

from the continent of India, and used to adulterate opium. 
GenjSlong, top heavy, crank, heavy in the upper part so as to cause to totter. 
Genta, brass bells carried tied to front part of pedaties or carts. A bell in general. 

Ganta, C. 165. a bell. 
Gent^ng, a tile, more frequently Renting which see. 
Geong, the circular flight of birds when in flocks. 
Gep^ng, flat and thin; flattened by treading or pressing on. Ari di tinchak to daikken 

gepeng , when you tread on it , it does not flatter. 
Gepok, Two quantities or two lots made into one, as when two baskets of Tobacco are 

put face to face and lashed into one package, such package then becomes one Gepok. 

Also said of two lots of bambus, each lot generally consisting of a dozen sticks fas- 
tened in a row, lashed one upon the other, for the purpose of easily floating them 

together down a river. 
Ger, the idiomatic expression of doing anything with energy. 6rer bai pasia , they turned 

to and had a fight. Ger bai lumpat> and away they scampered off. (Cf. seger) 
Geredeg, indicates quick and impetuous motion. Running rapidly. GerZdeg bai lumpat, 

and off he ran with all his might Krita geredeg bai datang , the carriage drove ra- 
pidly up. 
Gere man, to growl at, to snarl, as a wild animal does in the forest; to pretend to snarl 

at a young woman when wishing to call her attention for purposes of love. 
G3r6t, to make a mark or scratch, as with a knife on a bit of wood. To scratch a mark. 

This word appears to be a sort of diminutive of Gurat. 
Gergaji, a saw. To saw wood. (Skr. Krakacha; the tenues commuted into mediae.) 



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AND ENGLISH. 129 

GSrimis, drizzle as rain, slight rain. (Jav. and Batav. idem.) 
Goring, ill, sick, out of health. (Balm. idem. In Javanese it means the pest.) 
Gsrrah, be quick, look sharp; to proceed to do any act. Gerrah di taburken, now pro- 
ceed to pour it out. (Probably Skr. $ighra(m), quickly swiftly; the ft, *i, having 
been misunderstood, and considered as the Sundanese word si. Fr.) 
Gerraheun, as if its likely. Most assuredly not. GerraJieun di'biri, most assuredly he 

will not give it. 
GSrro, to scream, to roar. (Jav. The roar, for instance of a tiger.) 
Ggrtak, to make afraid, to threaten. (Jav. To show oneself angry.) 
Gerus, to collander cloth, to rub cloth with anything smooth so as to give it also a 
smooth polished appearance; for this purpose the Cyprea sea ^hell is used. (Jav. id.) 
Ges^h, moved, altered, displaced. Geseh poina, the day is changed. (Jav. id.) 
GSseng, black with burning, grimed. (Jav. Gosong and G&seng, id.) 
GfcsSr, to file the teeth, as is done with those of all Javanese, by taking the enamel off', 

and rubbing in some preparation to make them black. 
G€tah, gum, sap, the milky or gummy exudation from trees when the bark is cut. 
GStah Pgrcha, known only as a foreign product on Java. It is the gum of the Iso- 
nandra Gutta. Getah Percha is found on Sumatra, Borneo and Adjacent isles. It is 
found, apparently as the gum of various trees, of which the Balam or Isonandra is 
the most prominent. 
Getapan, frightened, shy, skittish as a horse. (Jav. GHappan, id.) 
GStas, fragile, brittle. (Jav. id.) 
Getgk, notch, mark to come up to. Said also figuratively, Liwat getek> he has gone 

further than he ought. 
G6t6k, a raft of wood, of bambu, or other light materials, either kept for crossing water, 
or a river, or for easily transporting the materials by water, lashed together. (Jav. id. 

Gdt6k, to tickle, a sensation of tickling. 

Gstih, blood -gore. (Jav. blood.) 

G^tol, active and persevering at any work; hardworking, energetic. 

GSugSuh, as di gZugtuh, to protect, to render assistance. Often applied to supernatural 

protection , or the favour of some genius. 
G 8 u g 6 u s , a bundle of paddy. 
Gsuingkfin, to shake or rouse up. 

G « u 1 a n g , rings of gold , silver , brass , ivory or other material worn about the wrists, (g'lang.) 
G^ulfiuh, bearing malice to any one, vexed at, provoked against, said of a person in 

whom ill will is festering. 
G^ulis, pretty as a woman, handsome. Not said of a man who is Kasep which see. 

This seems to be the root of the Malay word Majellis , beatifiil. Elegant. MarsdenPage 320. 
G«un«uk, swollen as from a contusion; said of aiyr part of the body which has been hurt. 

17 



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130 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Geuntak, to work with impetuosity for a short time; to make an effort. To frighten 
by making a sudden demonstration. Sa geuntak , for a short time, viz. so long as a 
Geuntak or effort lasts. 

Geureuh, chattering, much small talk. 

Geureung, a worm, the common earth worm. Name of a variety of Rattan which is 
thin and used for lines in houses to hang clothes on. 

Geus, the short for Anggeus, which see. Geus anggeus, it has been completed or accom- 
plished. The abbreviated form Geus is of very frequent occurrence. 

Geus aing, an expression of doubt, of not believing. Geus aing sia to lumpat, you would 
most undoubtedly take to your heels. Geus aing hadd as if 1 can believe it is good. 

Geus -an, in order to, for the purpose of. Answers often to the Malay word Buat. Geusan 
diyeuk, something to sit down upon. Geusan jamang , fit to make a jacket of it. 

Geutah, the same as Gfetah, which see. Gum, sap of a tree. 

Geyot-ge'yot, swinging to and fro, pendulons. 

Geyotan, a tandu or sort of sedan chair to carry a person in. 

Ghaib, arabic, concealed; not within the ken of man. Said of futurity and such like. 

Ghalib, arabic, victorious, overcoming, prevailing. (c^aSU) 

Giatken, to hurry on, to expedite. (Cf. Kagyat Kawi, and Kaget, Jav. Batav.) 
Gigih, half-boiled rice, which is then taken off the fire, undergoes the process of akeul 

or kneading, and is then boiled again till fully cooked. 
Gigir, side, edge. Nyimpang ka gigir> to step on one side. Gigiran imah y along side the 

house. 
Gigir Sun, on the side of, near the side of a person. 

Gila, to have an aversion, to abhor anything, to make the flesh creep, to loathe, to nauseate. 
Gilang, to shine, to glitter; Batu gilang , a glittering stone, the Diamond &c. 
Giler, to turn the head aside and cast sheep's eyes. To loo kat slyly, as at a woman; to 

ogle. 
Gili, an earthen bank put up on each side of the road. An embankment so called when 

on a road side, 
Giling, to turn round as a wheel, or mill. To revolve, to grind. 
Giling We si, the name of an old empire in Java; situated some where near the Gu- 

nung Smeru. Raffles vol 2. Page 72/73. 
Gilir, to turn, to change, to take by turns; to take first one and then the other. 
Gili ran, a turn, an opportunity to do anything, a change. Giliran kami ayeunah, it is 

now my turn. 
Gilir ken, to give a turn, to change, to take in turn. To cause to take or do by turns. 
• To turn over, to twist round. 



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AND ENGLISH. 131 

Gimbal, large graind, round, rotund- said of grain, as paddy. 

Gin ding, proud, overbearing. 

Ginggang, Gingham; a variety of coloured cloth with pattern in stripes. 

Ginggeung, in a state of trepidation. 

Gin tun g, name of a large forest tree, called also Gadog. 

Girang, up the river, higher up a river than the place where we are, or of which we 
speak. Elevated in spirits, pleased, selfsatisfied. (In the last meaning at Batavia.) 

Girang Puhun, the chief of the Badui tribe in South Ban tan. Girang in this sense 
means chief. There is an old and ancient idea prevailing among the Sunda people 
that dignity is associated with not having any one living higher up the same river 
than yourself. Some years ago there was an old man who lived in this way on the 
Chidurian, and who would not allow any one to live higher up the river than him- 
self. If his self- imposed law was violated by others he deserted his home and re- 
moved higher again than the intruder. Vide Puhun. To laku kagirangan, you must 
not live higher up the river than he does. 

Girang S6rat, the second man in authoriy among the Badui; he has charge of super- 
intending the Humah Strang, or common field on which is planted the Paddy made 
into rice for the yearly offerings, and must at the stated intervals take care that the 
people perform their customany acts of heathen worship. See Sarat. 

Giras, wild, skittish- as a young horse. (Jav. shy.) 

Giri, a mountain, a hill. Used in the composition of proper names. Thus in old pan- 
tuns or ballads, the Gunung Gede of Jasinga is known as Mandala Giri. Girikh, 
C. 174 a mountain, a hill. Giri is the name of the range of hills which terminate 
at Grisse near Sourabaya. (Skr. Giri a mountain.) 

Girik, to bore, to pierce. A native boring instrument. 

G ir ik, a tally; a bit of wood or bambu given to people at work to keep count of what they do. 

Giring, to drive, to chase, to run after, to drive cattle. (Jav. and Bat. id.) 

Girintingan, name of a variety of grass. 

Giruk, vexed, enraged, pettish, peevish, having an abhorrence of, having a malicious 
feeling towards any one. 

Gisik, to rub the head or body; to chafe, to rub. (Cf. Gosok.) 

G i t i k, to strike with a stick, to thrash. To levy contribution. To impose an award. (Jav. Bat.) 

Giwang. an ear- ring with only one stone or ornament. (Batavian.) 

Gladak, a hack- horse- see Galadag. 

G lam, name of a forest tree, with red soft spongy bark, by which it can easily be distin- 
guished; it grows only among elevated mountains. The Malays have also a kayu glam, 
Gordonia, the epidermis of which is used for caulking- Crawfurd : but it may be fairly 
doubted whether the two glams are the same tree. 

Go ah, the cooking place in a native house; that part of a native house where cooking is 



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132 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

carried on, and may thus be generally translated Kichen, though not a separate room. 

(Perhaps Skr. Guhd, a cave, a cavern; a pit, a hole in the ground. Fr.) 
Goarken, to stir up, to stir round any liquid. 
Gobang, a native sword like instrument carried only as a weapon of defence. Called in 

Malay Golok. 
Gobiog, a kind of bambu fence or wainscotting, made of palupuhs fixed together with 

other bambus. (Jav. Gvbiog the same; a polished plank.) 
Gobiog, working all together. Doing any thing smartly with a lot of people. 
Goblok, stupid, dull, wanting sense. Si-goblok, a stupid fellow. 
Gob rah, wide, as trousers or the sleeves of a jacket. 
Gocho, to strike with the fist, to box, to cuff. 

Goda, to deceive, to tempt, to entice to do something wrong- to seduce from duty. (Jav. id.) 
Go den, a large copper coin formerly in use, of value of eight doigts, of size of an English 

penny- not now in use. 
Godog, loose, shakey, not fitting tight; figuratively, unrestrained , having the choice of an 

alternative. Godog pilar, easy in thoughts. 
Gog, the idiomatic expression of a rencounter or meeting. Gog bai kapananggi, and they 

suddenly met, or they came face to face. 
Gogodan, to entice to do something wrong; to lead astray. Sprites or evil genii which 

seduce holy men from their devotions, especially at Kramats. (See goda.) 
Gogog, to bark as a dog. Di gogog anjing, dogs barked at him. See Gonggong. 
Gogol, to move any thing with a lever; to prize up. To move by inserting a stick or 

other object as a lever. 
Gogomplokan, in a heap, showing in a mass; hanging in clusters. 
Goji, to milk, to press the teats of cows or sheep &c. to get milk. 
Gole*bag, tumbled down, thrown down, stretched out 
Gol^nch^ng, to fling down. 

Gole*r, tumbling, or lying down any where; kicking about, laid out, laid down, laid flat. 
GolerkSn, to lay down any thing. To put down on the ground. 
Gole'trak, to fell or plump down. 
Golondongan, whole, entire- said of fruit or seed which has to be ground before using, 

as coffee beans. 
Golondongan- as Kolot golondongan, old and without manners; a rough old bear. Said 

of a rude old man, as if the husk had not yet been taken off him. 
Go long, a roll of rope or Rattan &c; anything made up into a round parcel. A bundle 

or piece of Palm Sugar rolled up in Pandan leaves. (Compare guling.) 
Gombong, a variety of bambu, resembling am gede. 

Gomplok, in clusters as fruit; said of bunches of fruit growing from a common inser- 
tion on the tree. 



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AND ENGLISH. 133 

Gompong, name of a tree, wood bad and much eaten by Bangbara. 

G on dang, a large fresh water slug fish in a shell. Ampullaria. 

Gondok, a wen on the throat, a goiter, frequently met with amongst the mountaineers. 

Daik gondok, may I get a goiter. A common asseveration when a person perceives 

himself disbelieved. (Jav. ^(rm^rmwKn^ id.) 

Gondok laki, the pomum Adami, or projection on the fore part of the neck of a man. 

Gone, a gunny bag. This word is from the continent of India where the gunnies are made. 

Gonggong, to bark like a dog. See Gogog. Anjing Sapeupeuting ngagonggong bai, the 
dogs kept barking the whole night through. JPuyu gonggong, literally the barking 
quail, Perdix Javanica. See Puyu. 

Gongs^ng, name of a creeper, from which is got a juice for the stomach ache. 

G o n t a n g , Jugglery. Certain ceremonies performed in order to ascertain the cause of disease. 

Go-ong, a Gong; a circular musical instrument made of brass and beaten with a soft mallet 

Goring, bad, vicious, spoiled, no longer fit for use. 

Gore'ngkSn, to speak evil of, to make ont as wicked. 

Gorogol, a fenced inclosure with a spring door to catch wild pigs, tigers or other 
wild animals. 

Gos^, an oar for a native boat, a paddle. 

Gosok, to rub, to wipe; to polish by rubbing. To rub clean, to scour. Figuratively- to 
find fault with, to keep worrying at, to egg on. 

Gosong, to run ashore as a ship, stranded. 

Gotong, to carry by two or more people, by means of the weight resting on the shoul- 
ders. Mostly, however, to carry by two people, with the weight suspended from a 
pole resting on each man's shoulders. 

Gotrah, agreement, common fortune. 

Gowat, quick, speedy; make haste! This word can also betraced to Singhalese roots. 
Gos — gohin -«— go Jala are absolute participles of the verb Yanawa to go, and mean 
thus — „having gone." Wat, C. 618 is an affix to words implying possession - having - 
and Gowat would thus imply - „having the property of having gone" having made haste. 

Go wok, a variety of the kupa tree. Called often kupa gowok. 

Go wo wok, gobbling up, tearing to pieces and swallowing as fast as possible; said espe- 
cially of tigers and dogs. 

Goyang, to shake, to move, to agitate. 

Greja, the church, the Christian place of worship. It is the Portuguese Igreja or Iglesia. 

Gris^ or Grisik, name of a place in the straits of Madura, noted for its ancient trade, 
and as having been one of the chief places where the early Mohammedan Missionaries 
established their religion- derived from Girikh, C. 174, a mountain, a hill- and Sikha, 
C. 731, a point, top in general. Grisd is situated at the extremity or point of the 
range of hills called Gunung Giri, where it projects into the strait of Madura. The 



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134 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

natives not being philologists enough to know that Giri in Sanscrit is a mountain, 
use the tautology of calling the range Gunung Giri, both words having the same 
meaning, only Gunung is strictly Polynesian. There is also a Gressik, 28 miles up 
the Moar river in the Malay peninsula, on high banks, but apparently not mountai- 
nona. The mouth of the Moar river is 25 miles south of Malacca. Singapore Jour- 
nal 1855 Page 104. 

Grobogan, a district in the Eastern extremity of the Residency of Samarang, anciently 
called Kuripan. 

Gubelan, the act of a woman seizing some part of a man's dress who has laid with her, 
in proof of such act; such article produced as proof to the priest necessitates the man 
to marry the woman. ( Jav GubU , to entangle something, to desire ardently from somebody.) 

Gubernement, Government-Dutch inparticular and European in general. 

Gubleg, shaking or rattling, as the contents of a rotten egg. 

Gubrug-gubrug, to shake with force, especially a post stuck in the ground, or the like. 

Gudang, a store, a magazine, a warehouse. 

Gudeg, shaking, as water in a bottle or any vessel which it does not fill. 

Gude'l, a buffaloe calf. 

Gugula-an, a shrub bearing a beautiful pure white and sweet scented flower. Tabernae- 
montana divaricata. 

Gugulingan, to roll about, to wallow. 

Guguntur, to wash away earth with water; an easy way which the natives have of re- 
moving earth or cutting trenches. A stream of water is conducted to the spot to be 
dug out, and the earth being loosened is thrown into the water, and so carried away. 

Gugur, to crumble and fall down, as earth on a fresch cut bank after exposure to the 
sun. To crumble away. 

Gugurah, to purge, a medicine taken to clear the belly and the voice. Young native 
lads take Gugurah in order to have a clear and sonorous voice either for singing to 
their loves, or for the purpose of reading the Koran or tapsir with a clear voice. 

Guguru, to learn from a Guru or teacher; to take lessons. Beunang guguru ti gunung, 
to have been taught it among the mountains; what has been learnt amongst the mountains. 

Guha, a cavern, a cave, a hole in the ground, or more commonly in limestone rocks 
where the edible bird's nests are found. Guha, C. 178, a cavern, a cave. 

Gula, Sugar. Gula, C. 178 food; juice of the sugar cane; raw or unrefined sugar. 

Gula-batu, Sugar candy - literally stone - sugar. 

Gulang-gulang, attendants of native chiefs. Runners or errandmen in attendance on 
native chiefs. 

Guling to roll over, to roll and turn like a wheel; to roll about when laid down. 

Gulingken, to cause to roll - to roll anything. 

G u 1 u d u g , the rumbling sound of thunder. Loud and heavy thunder. 



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AND ENGLISH. 135 

Gulung, to roll or fold up. To furl as a sail by rolling it up. To be rolled up in a 

heap; to get entangled and rolled together in a heap. (See Guling and Golong) 
Gulunggung, name of a mountain in the Prianger Regencies, S. E. from Bandung. 

The word implies rolled up in a heap, being a kind of duplication of gulung. 
G u m u 1 i n g , not yet fledged ; said of young birds which have not yet got feathers- Cal- 
low. Probably derived from guling to fall about, and thus not able to fly, with the 

peculiar urn inserted in the word. 
Gumunda, said of paddy when it covers the ground; when it has so far grown as to hide 

the ground, especially in Sawahs. It may be the word Gundra with the peculiar um 

inserted in it. Gundra , C. 177, a kind of grass, Sacharum Sara. 
Gumuruh, having a loud thundering sound. Derived from Guruh with um inserted in 

the word. 
G u n a , worth , use , purpose. Guna, C. 176, virtue, a quality, an attribute or property in general. 
Gundal, an attendant, a follower. 
Gun dam, to speak in the sleep. 
Gundik, a concubine. 

Gundil, paddy without awns, any object without a usual appendage or projection. 
Gun drum, wheat, the grain of which bread is made, called also Tarigo. Gutulum in 

Malay also wheat, is Persian. 
Gundul, bald, without any hair on the head. A clean shaved head. 
Gundulan, to shave the hair off the head, often by way of punishment or disgrace. 
Gunggung, to add up, to ascertain the total. 

Gunggurung, a drain under an embankment of earth. A drain under a road. 
Gunggur*utu, a kind of wild grape. Cissus Arachnoidea. Of the family of Ampe- 

lideae. Often given to ducks. 
Guntangan, to hold by some support overhead, as a rope or hook. 
Gun ting, scissars; to cut with scissars; to clip. 

Guntur, an impetuous torrent, a flood. Chai na guntur the river came down in a flood. 
Guntur, name of a Volcano in the Prianger Regencies south east from Bandong. Gunung 

Guntur would indicate a Volcano which poured out floods of lava. (Guntur in Jav. id. ; 

but means also the loud (thundering) sound of water — and of thunder.) 
Guntur geni, a flood of fire; name of one of the old pusaka or heir-loom guns on 

Java. Geni is fire in Javanese. 
Gunung, a mountain. The Sunda people call themselves Orang gunung, mountaineers, 

and their language Basa gunung, the mountain language, this is of course on account 

of the mountainous nature of the country which they inhabit. 
Gunung Kendang, the Kendang mountains, which extend the whole length of Java; 

wherever the mountains run in ridges they are called Kendang - vide voce. 
<i unung Sari, name of a place in the environs of the town of Batavia. Here we have 



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136 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

a pure Sunda word associated with what appears to be a Sanscrit one. See Sari. 
The mountain of flowers , of beauty. 

Gupai, to beckon to come to; to call with a motion of the hand. 

Gupak, to wallow as buffaloes in mud. 

Gupakan, a mud hole where buffaloes wallow. 

Gurami, a species of fish much reared and kept in ponds, often sent about in tubs as 
presents. The word may perhaps be the Javanese Grami, Trade and Lauk Gurami 
would then mean „the fish of trade," as it is reared in ponds for use or for selling. 
Or Gurami may be derived from Gramaya, C. 188, a village, a hamlet-implying fish, 
kept in the villages, in contradistinction to fish which swims at large in the rivers or 
in the sea. The word is often heard pronounced Grami, Ophromenus Olfax. 

Gurat, to make a mark on any hard substance as by engraving. To mark, to engrave. 
This word has a sort of diminutive in Ger&t, which see. 

Gurat Batu, literally engraven on stone, means figuratively any fixed tax or contribu- 
tion, especially a fixed tax on Paddy lands. 

Guriang, the mountain genii; the spirit of the mountains. Derived from Guru, C. 177, 
a preceptor; a religious teacher; one who explains the law and religion to his pupils. 
Hyang — See in voce — Divinity. I am indebted to Mr. Friederich for this solution. A 
designation evidently derived from Budhist or Brahminical times, though the wild 
fanciful idea may have been of a still earlier date. The name still lives among the 
Sunda mountaineers, and considerable supernatural importance is often attached to it. 
Beunang nanya ti guriang, to have enquired after it from the Mountain Spirit. 

Guriling, the act of rolling over and over again, as a stone down a hill. The plural 
of guling from the repetition of the act. 

Gurinda, a grind stone. 

Gurnita, known to all the world. Publicly known. (Seems to by the participle of gMrn, 
volvi, circumagi, volutari. Fr.) 

Guru, a religious teacher , as well in olden and heathen , or Hindu times , as now adays amongst' 
Mohammedans. A model to go by, a muster to work by. Guru, C. 177 a teacher, a 
schoolmaster ; a religious teacher who explains the law and religion to his pupils. See Batara. 

Gurudag, a rattling noise. To arrive with a fuss. The fuss of attendance about a great 
man. Gurudag bai datang, He arrived with much fuss. 

Guru D«5sa, the village Monitor. Called also Kereti which see. The constellation Pleia- 
des by which the villagers are guided in their yearly Paddy plantings. Guru, a tea- 
cher, Dfoa, village. Vide voce. 

Guruh, a thundering noice; a dull heavy roar. The noise of an impetuons torrent of 
water, or of many people or animals in motion. Giguru, C. 173, thunder. 

Gurumutan, said when work is to bedone by many people, every man just a handful 
of work. A simultaneons onset at work. 



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AND ENGLISH. 137 

Gusi, the gums of the mouth. (Mai. Javan. id.) 

Gusti, Lord, a very high title of respect, now adays almost exclusively applied to God, 
as Gusti Allah, the Lord God. On Bali it is still a title of distinction for man, viz 
chiefs of high rank, as many of the chiefs have the word prefixed to their names. 
The word is evidently of Sanscrit origin, but is not to be found in Clough. Mr. Frie- 
derich reports in Bat: Trans: Vol. 23 Page 15 that Gusti on Bali is a title of the 
Waisya caste , who on Bali are the kings of the country. The name is not exacty 
Indian, at least not clearly so. In India, the third caste — the Waisyas — are of 
no great note, and it is therefore not to bo wondered that they have no particular 
distinguishing title. The case is and was otherwise on Java and Bali wither few Ksha- 
triya8 appear to have come. Here the Waisyas became kings, and some title was re- 
quired for them, though even on Bali they rank inferior to the Dewa Agtmg ofKlong- 
kong, who is of Kshatriya descent. The Balinese restrict the title of Gusti to the 
Waisya caste. On Java it is still retained as a designation of the Almighty , Gusti 
Allah, and is also applied to the two native sovereigns, the Susuhunan and the Sul- 
tan. That , however , the princes of Solo and Yogyakarta are called Gusti is a strong 
presumption that also their families were originally of the Waisya caste. They preserved 
the title whilst the name of the caste was lost through the influence of Mohammedanism (46). 

Gusur, to drag along the ground, to trail. 

Guwis, an expression in preparing Jagory sugar; to stir and whip it up when it is 
nearly sufficiently boiled. 

Guyang, to bathe as brutes, especially as buffaloes in the rivers; by rolling and submer- 
ging themselves in the water. 

Habek, to strike with violence, with a will, with all one's might. 

Hab(*ssi, arabic, Abyssinian; an Ethiopian. 

Habot, heavy, rarely used, but sometimes it occurs. It is properly Javanese. The word 
is heard compounded with Para, JParabot, tools, implements: with which our word 
has evidently a common origin — things which are heavy (47). 



(46) Goshti, Skr. an assembly, a meeting; family connections, but especially the dependant or junior 
branches. Wilson. The Waisyas appear thus by this title as having been received and considered 
as adoptive junior members of the higher caste, the Xatriyas. We can see in this case, which is, 
at least apparently (perhaps by falsified laws of more modern times,) unheard of in India, that this 
mixture was possible on Java and Bali. Buddhism might have had some influence upon this con- 
descendance of the Xatriyas. But there might be also some doubt as to the time, when first the 
strict distinction was introduced even in India. At Bali Dewa* (Xatriyas) and Gusti s (Waisyas) 
intermarry. — Fr. 

(47) Ilaboty Jav. is the same as hawral, Mai. brat; the r being elided as in many cases (or 
perhaps added in brat, hawrat, — but this is not so likely!), cf. orang, Jav. wong y Bal. wwangx 
bras, Bal. ba-as , Sued, be'as; bring Balin. king and many others; the ha, rather a alters nothing. — 
Parabot or prabot I shoiiio derive from buat, to do; for the purpose or U3e of; prabuat, all what is 
for the purpose of doing , of working. Fr. 

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138 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Hadangan, a noise among the guts; a disease in the bowels. A grumbling in the belly. 
Crawford gives as common to the Malay and Javanese , Adang , intercepted , stopped 
in the way, way- laid, which seems to be the etymon of our word. 

Hadar-al-maut, arabic, the Region of death. That part of Arabia facing the Indian 
Ocean , and from which come most of the Arabs who are found in Java. (The Arabs 

themselves give the explanation t^jyj) SL^- Hadrat-ul-Maut, presence of the death, 

because they consider themselves and have shown sometimes in India, that they are 

brave fellows. CLjyJL-a^; Hadr-ul-maut , means the place of death. But so as stated 

derive the Arabs the word otherwise, and translate it in this sense into Malay.) 
Had£, good, right. Hade ning pare, it conduces to the success of Paddy. Mohal hade 
to di here, it will never be right not to give some. 
Hahar^wosan, to whisper, to speak in a suppressed voice. 
Haja, to do intentionally. Lain di haja, not done on purpose. In Malay it is 
Sangaja, Marsden P. 170, on purpose, wilfully. 
Sahaja, Marsden P. 194, purpose, design. 
The word may probably be some form of the Singhalese word Hadanawa C. 785, 
to make, to form, to build; the final nawa is only constructive. 
Hajat, a feast, to make a festival, as at a marriage or circumcision. The word is probably 
Arabic , and means necessity , necessary use or occasion : a feast being considered in- 
dispensable at a circumcision or marriage. QTrom the Ar. root U^ hSja, to be obliged. Fr.) 

Hajeli, a variety of Panicum, a gramineous plant bearing a hard seed, which can be 

steamed and eaten. Called in Malay Jali. 
Hajer6, somewhat resembles the foregoing, and is thus a Panicum. It has very hard 

blueish seeds which are sometimes strung as ornaments for bed curtains. 
Haji, arabic. A person who has made the pilgrimage to Mecca, and is always distinguished 

by wearing a white turban. Bulan Haji the 12th. Mohammedan month, and the one in 

2 * 
which the pilgrimage at Mecca must be accomplished. (^.U-, hajj; he wears a tur- 
ban in contradistinction to the common Javanese, who wear only a handkerchief on 
the head. Fr.) 
Hak, arabic, right, equity, justice, law, rule. Leungit hak, lost his right. Hak mutelak, 

arabic, the pure truth, the absolute right. (^^; ^jlk*)! <>^.) 
Hak an, to eat. Quere from Hakka, the jaw, C. 784. Kanawa, C. 103 to eat; the lat- 
ter part of the word is only constructive. In Malay it is makan, the ma being evi- 
dently a usual verbal prefix. 
Ilakan-hakanan, eatables, provisions; whatever is served up at table. 



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AND ENGLISH. 139 

3 * 

Hakim, arabic, learned, erudite, a Doctor, a philosopher. (*$W) 

Hal, arabic, state, situation, business, affair, circumstance. (JU-.) 

Hal na, rightly, from its circumstance, considering that. Hal na buruk, the matter being 

that it is rotten. Hal na lain sia nu bogaA, rightly it belongs to you. 
Halabhab, famished, very hungry. 
Halal, arabic, lawful, legitimate, permitted, clean; blessed, not forbidden, in opposition 

to Haram , interdicted , accursed. Lauk na halal, the meat is lawful, may be eaten. ( J3U-.) 

HalalkSn, to make lawful, to legalize. 

Halangan, impediment, intervention, any circumstance which prevents a person doing 

any act. Ari to bogah halangan, if nothing comes in the way. (Cf. Mai. Idrang and rdtrang.) 
Halimun, mist, haziness hanging about mountains. Gunung Halimun % the mountains of 

mist — name of the range between Jasinga and the Prianger Regencies. 
Haling, placed between like a curtain, intercepting view. (Jav. idem.) 
Halir, a shout of irony. 
Ha lis, the eye brow. (Mai. Javan. idem.) 

Haliwu, disturbance, uproar, a great noise. Confusion in arrangements. ^ 
HalokSn, to designate, te speak of, to consider as. 
Halu, a pestle, particularly for pounding out paddy. It is a long straight staff of 

hard wood , about 5 or 6 feet in lenght , and as thick as a man's wrist. (Mai. Javan. idem.) 
Halur, a furrow, a trench , a groove. The beaten track of animals in the forest. SeeWaluran. 
Ham, the idiomatic expression of biting at, of snapping at, as a tiger or dog would do. 

The act of pouncing at with the mouth. 
Ha ma, any thing which is prejudicial, disease, complaint, indisposition. Hama beur&um, 

the red disease. Hama putih, the white disease, two diseases which attack the blades 

of young growing paddy. (Ar. ^. humma, laboravit febri?) 

Hama- an, troubled with some disease. 

llama t, a designation for a quantity of paddy, of a weight varying in different parts. 

The people inland of Batavia do not count by Hamats. 
Hambal, the rundle or step of a ladder. 
Hambar, tasteless, insipid. 
Ham bar u, post and plank driven in to contain an embankment, to prevent the earth 

from slipping down. 
Hamberang, the name of a tree which is a variety of fig. Ficus nivea. It has been named 

Nivea, the snowy, because when the wind catches and turns the large leaves, the under 

part which is white comes into -view. The leaves are given to horses where grass is scarce. 



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140 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Hambereuta, name of a tree, otherwise called Chongkok. 

Hamberichin, an inferior variety of Duku or Lansium. 

Hambirung, name of a tree, Eupatorium Javanicum. 

Hambur, of nouse, useless, grod for nothing; any artide of which many or a great 
deal is used for any particular work; not going far; soon used up. Di Batawi kara 
hambur duwit, you must remember that at Batavia money will not go very far (where 
every thing has to be bought.) Hambur gawe *ta, your work is good for nothing. 

Hamburasut, scattered about in confusion. 

Hamdulillah, arabic. God be praised. (*JJ ly^^Jt, praise be to God.) 

Hamham, uncertain, not defined, not definite; neither clearly yes nor no. 

Hamo, no, it w'ont, d'ont be afraid, no fear. Hamo ngegil y it w'ontbite. Hamo, mohal 

di charekan , D'ont be afraid , I will not scold you. 
Ham pal, name of a river fish; famous for jumping up out of the water. 
Ham pang, light, not heavy. Easy to be done. (Mai. Gampang see above.) 
Ham pas, the residue of anything from wich the valuable part has been extracted, as 

cane-thrash after it has passed through the mill. Ampa in Malay, empty, void, hollow. 
Ham p os, not of agreeable taste, unpleasant- said of tobacco which when smoked has a 

bad flavour- of sugar cane which though externally good , is bad when eaten- and the like. 
Hamprau, the gall, the bile; the gall- bladder, the gizzard, the maw. In Malay it is 

called Ampadu or Ampadal. (Ampadu,\he bile ; Ampadal , the gizzard. Jav. ampvru the bile.) 
Hamprau badak, name of a tree- literally Rhinoceros bile. 
Hampura, to give pardon. Pardon, grace. (Jav. Hapura, idem.) 
Hancha, a row or direction to work in; division or assignement 
Hanchang, said of fish. Lauk hanchang y fish which swim near the surface of the water, 

and cast their spawn by Mija. Vide. 
Hanch^r, slow, backward, devoid of energy. To work with indifference. 
II an dam, a creeping trailing plant very common in the jungle. The stem is seldom thicker 

than a quill and it grows fast into thick bushes. Paku handam, a variety of fern. 

It is found only high up on the mountains and resembles the brecons of Europe. 
Han dap, low, lowly. Tangkal na handap , the tree is low. Di handap, below. (Jav. idem.) 
Handaru, echo; resonant. Anda> C. 17. Voice, sound- Dharuna, C. 299. one of the 

names of Brahma ; Swarga , the paradise of the gods. It may thus mean literally 

the voice of Brama , or of Heaven 1 ' — from being repeated constantly afresh. Daru y 

in Malay, Marsden 132 is roar, to make a loud noise (as the waves of the sea.) In 

Sunda, see voce, Dar-dur, is making an uproar. Thus Handa dar-dur, the sound 

which is repeated again and again , elided into Handaru. (Jav. Daru, lustre, resplendence.) 
Handarusa, also sometimes called Gandarusa, Justicia Gendarusa. Name of a plant 

common in fences about houses. Anda> C. 17. an egg, a testicle or the scrotum. 



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AND ENGLISH. 141 

Rosha , C. 600 , anger , wrath- but in Sunda Rossa means strong. It may thus mean 
strength to the testicles, under the idea of manly vigour or power residing therein. 
Ganda is also a form in the conjugation of the verb ganawa , to take , and would thus 
be giving strenght or taking strenght. In Ceylon they have a plant called Atarusha 
the Justicia Adhenatoda. C. 61. The Sunda people use the leaves of the Handarusa 
worn in the belt under the idea of strengthening their loins , when they carry great loads. 

Handeong, name of a small tree, Guazuma tomentosa. 

Handgu-eul inwardly vexed; provoked; vexed without giving vent to your rage. 

Handeulcum, a shrub with a dark crimson- coloured, or purple leaf. Justicia picta. 
It is often planted over the after birth. 

Handiwung, Areca Rubra or Globulifera, name of a Palm tree found on the South 
coast of Bantam , and covered along the stem with needle- like prickles. 

Haneut, warm, not quite hot, which is Panas. 

Hanggasah, a plant, a variety of Geanthus. 

Hanggasah gede, a plant. Amomum maximum. 

Hangkeut, a short bit, a little bit left; nearly done. A short distance; short. Evident, 
clear, not profound. 

Hangseur, of an oSensive smell, stinking of urine, 

Hang'u-hang'u, to try to get what belongs to others; hankering after. 

Hangyir, smelling of corrupt meat. The smell accompanying the commencement of rot- 
tenness. Tainted. 

Hanja, name of a tree. 

Hanjakal, vexatious, provoking from some little circumstance not being in order. 

Hanjat, to come up from, to ascend, to get upon, to climb. 

Hanja war, a variety of Palm tree, Pinanga Javanica. 

Hanj dre, name of a tall gramineous plant. Coix lacryma, or Job's tears. Called in Malay Jali. 
(See Hajeii and Hajtre.) 

Hanjuang, name of a plant , Dracena terminalis. 

Hanjuar, longing to eat anything, yearning after. 

Han tarn, to strike with violence; to put oneself in forcible possession of; to seize upon; 
to attack. To have illicit connexion with a female. 

Han tap, name of a tree- Sterculia. 

Hantimun, Cucumis Melo. A cucumber; a variety of the cucnmber. (Bat Katimun.) 

Hanto, no, not- and often by contraction simply "tfo, as To hade not good. To urus y that 
will never do. Hanto nyaho, I do not know. (A'awi Tan, not. Han appears to bo 
prefixed. The most simple form will be ta. There is also a form tar in Kawi; cf. tar-dda Fr.) 

Hantu, a disease in the muscles. A ghost Ilantu, C. 786. death from Hana, to kill. 

Hanuman, C. 786. from ITanu the jaw, and matup affinative. The monkey chief of 
that name, the ally and spy of Kama against Rawana. 



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142 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Hapa, not having any contents, as grain which does not fill. Barren, sterile. 

Hapa <£nian, partly empty as grain,- only so far empty as to be sorry to throw it away. 

Eman or heman y to have a love for. See Voce. 
Hapeuk, foisty, frouzy, having a bad smell, fetid. Figuratively no go! you w'ontgetit! 

Hapeufc amat pakean sia , your clothes are very frouzy. Ari di penta , hap&uk , and when 

I asked for it, it was no go- (he would not give it.) 
Haphap, a kind of flying lizard, Draco volans, 5 or 6 inches long including tail- other- 
wise also called Orai Pvpetth. It appears to be known in Malay by the name of 

Kubin. Marsden Page 272. 
Hapit, name of a part of the native hand loom. The Hapit is the stick in front of the 

weaver, round which is rolled the cloth as it is woven. 
Hapit, the 11th Mohammedan month of the year, otherwise called Dzul Kahida or Dul 

Kahidah. 
H a p u r , a trifling whitish defect which makes its appearance on the skin of natives , called 

in Malay Pano. Not lampang which see also. Supak in Malay. Marsden P. 192. 
Haraghag, a variety of wild Pandan growing among the mountains, the leaves of which 

are used for tying up Java sugar. 
Harak, greedy, particularly about eatables. Having more than one can eat and still 

unwilling to give to any one else. Greedy like the dog in the manger. 
Haraka, stuff to eat or guttle, as fruit, or odds and ends of vegetables. (Skr. Ahdra, food.) 
Haralog, collapsed, fallen together; shrunk into a smaller compass. 
Haram, arabic, unlawful, forbidden, interdicted; accursed; sacred, in the sense of its not 

being allowed to meddle with it. (*W, interdicted.) 

Haram jadah, arabic, literally accursed child, a bastard. This word is of very frequent 
occurrence , and means scoundrel , vagabond. (See the preceding ; jadah is the Persian 
zddah, child.) 

Haramai, a sort of hemp made from the stem of a plant of the nettle kind, Urtica Di- 
versifolia. Fishing nets are made of Haramai. Called in Malay RamS. 

Harang, charcoal. Kayu harang, ebony, thus literally charcoal wood. The Ebony of 
Madagascar and of the Isle of France is produced by the Diospyrus Ebenum. 

Harangasu, grime, lamp black; the black stuff which sets itself on the bottom of coo- 
king pots. 

Harardwa, the plural of ^wa, which see. Batur na hararewa ka>mandor 9 the people 
have a great aversion to the Mandor. 

Harasas, a fine variety of Pandanus , often used for covering Dudukuis , or roughly made 
native hats. 

Harcha, Idols, objects of pagan worship. Archa, C. 47 worship, honor, salutation. 
Archana, C. 47 worship, homage paid to the gods. The Badui people in South Ban- 



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AND ENGLISH. 143 

tam call the rude stones which they worship, or which are set up in their places of 
worship or offering- Harcha. (Archd, Skr. , means also an image.) 

Ha re an, of the same age or standing. Harean kula gZus pararaih, the people of my 
standing are all dead. 

Harem is, a small bivalve shell fish, with yellow shell. It is found in the rivers where 
sand accumulates: it is a Cyrena. 

Haren, full of hope, in good expectation. Eagerly expecting. 

Haren ai, said of paddy advancing towards ripeness; turning yellow. 

Hare'nang, name of a bushy shrub, with flower bunches terminal to the branches. 

Har^ndong, a small shrub growing plentifully in open cleared country, and generally 
well set with pink flowers. Melastoma Malabathricum. It grows a small black berry 
which children are fond of eating , and which stains the mouth black , hence the Greek 
name melas, black, stoma , the mouth. Called by the Malays Si Kaduduk. 

Har^no, a wood growing in jungle, much used for carrying sticks. It is called Daruwak 
near Batavia. Grewia Paniculata. 

Hareudang, close and warm, suffocatingly warm, not a breath of air. Figuratively- 
provoking restrained. 

Hareu-£us, a kind of wild raspberry, common not only in Java but throughout the 
Archipelago. Eubus Moluccanus, and Kubus Sundaicus. 

Hareuga, a weed frequent among the mountains, and growing with great obstinacy. It 
has a white flower which is succeeded by numerous short black needles of seeds, which 
adhere to the trousers of a person passing through amongst them. It is called in the 
West Indies and Ceylon- Spanish needles. 

Hare up, front, in front, foremost. Di har&up, in front. Hareupan, to be in front of 
anything, to face. (Jav. Hartp, HadZp. M u^^u| N Mai. Hadap.) 

HarSup, to expect, to wish for, to long for, to desire. Di harhup datang his arrival 
was expected. Di harfyip'hareup , to be in expectation of; to look out for earnestly. 
(Jav. HarZp , unvuuip it seems to have connexion with the preceding word.) 

Harga, price, value. Argha, C. 47. price, cost, value. 

H a r i is a designation of some sort of deity or supernatural person , ahd as such is still in 
use among the Badui. Ilari batang see Batang. Ilari, C. 787 from hara to take. A 
name of Krishna or Vishnu; Yama; Indra. (Hari as adjective moans green] tawny.) 

Ilari raya, a festive day, a day kept as a holiday. Properly Malay but still very fre- 
quently heard. 

Hariang, a Begonia, a shrubby herb, the leaves and stem of which are sometimes used 
as an acid in cooking when Honji fails. 

Hariang, a name used in Jampe's to designate some supernatural personage. It is pro- 
bably derived from Ilari, vide supra and ITyang\ divinity. The Divinity Krishna, 



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144 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Jama or Indra. Hariang Sanjaya y is such a personage- divine Krishna convictorious. 

Harieum, partly sweet and partly sour, as is the case with some fruits, as with the 
Kranji, Dialium Indicum. 

Harigu, the breast bone. 

Haring'in, name of a tree. Cassia exaltata. 

Harita, formerly, some time ago- former time. (Riti, Skr. usage, traditionary observance. 
Rita , might be a participle of the same root r i , to go , with the meaning gone. Ha 
as often added. Fr.) 

Hariwayat, arabic Riwayat, a narrative, history; amusing tale. 

Harrarangge, the red ant which is found much on fruit trees, near houses; it bites 
very hard. 

Ilarta, goods, property, effects. Artha f C. 48. Property, riches, wealth. 

Harti, understanding, intelligence, meaning. ArtAa, C. 48. meaning, signification. Art- 
thya, C. 48. wise. 

Haru-haru, to molest, to disturb, to stir up. 

Haruhuh, a bird among the mountains so called. It cries „Kong-kong-kong." 

Ha run, arabic. Aaron. 

Harupat, round the Kawung Palm is a vegetable substance called Injuk, see this word. 
Amongst the Injuk are prods of stiff black woody matter called Harupat , which are 
made into native pens for writing. 

liar us, loud, aloud, audible, shrill: harus cheluk, loud in his shout, loud- voiced. 

Harus, proper, fit, suitable, necessary, expedient, requiring, deserving. 

Harus, a current in the ocean, or in any large body of water. 

Haruyan, as Batu haruyan, a sort of gritty dark coloured sandstone, used for making 
Paisan8 or head stones for graves 

Haseum, sour, acid. Buwah na hasSum, the fruit is sour. (Mai. Asem.) 

Haseup, smoke; steam rising from boiling water. Kapal Haship a steamer , a smoke ship. 
(Mai. Asep.) 

Haseupan, a conical bambu basket in which rice is steamed. 

II as up, to enter, to go in. Entering. To hasup, It w'ont go in. See Sup. (Batav. ma- 
sup and mdsuk. Malay mdsukh.) 

Hasupan, to enter, to go in oneself. LZuwmng di liampan hi orang we went into the forest. 

Hasupken, to put in, to cause to enter. Hasupk&n ha jero Hang na put it into its hole. 

Hata, a kind of creeper which being split, is used for binding fine bambu work, espe- 
cially Dudukuis or native hats. 

Hate, the heart; the mind, the organ of sensibility and intelligence; the liver. (Anatomi- 
cally). The inner part of bambu as contradistinguished from Iiinis or the epidermis. 
Mati, C. 508 understanding, intellect, inclination, wish. 

Hate up, thatch; the roof or covering of a house. Called in Malay Atap. Mostly made 



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AND ENGLISH. 145 

from the leaves of the Kirai or Nipah palm tree. Ilafeup ewri'A, thatch made of long 
alamj-alang or intrih grase. Atta, C. 20. a branch. Polatta, from Pol, C. 424, a 
cocoanut, and Atta, C. 20. a branch. Cocoanut leaves so called in Ceylon, made 
into Ataps for thatch. (Jav. at£p 9 mimm^) 
Hateupan, to cover with ataps; to thatch. 

Hatur, to put or set in order, to arrange- to make a proper distribution of work. Atu- 
ranawa, C. 20. to spread, to scatter. (Mai. idem. Jav. to offer, to relate to a higher 
person.) 
Hatur an, arrangement, a setting in order. Report on any subject. 
Haturken, to make a report; to bring to the notice of. 

II auk, grey, a dirty white colour. Discoloured from any cause. (Batav. da-uk.) 
Haung-haung, to roar as a tiger; to howl as a large beast of prey. Hence Mating, a 

tiger. 
Haur, a variety of Bambus, with very thick wood. The haurs are more used as posts, 
than for splitting. 

Haur China .... Bambusa Floribunda, the thin Chinese Bambu. 
— „ — Chuchuk . . . — „ — Blumeana, the thorny variety. 
— „ — Gculis or Hejo . — „ — Viridis , the green sort. 
— „ — Koming . . . — „ — Agrostis or Striata, yellow sort. 
— „ — Tutul .... — „ — the spotted variety. 
Hawa, arabic, breath, air; affection, desire, lust; inclination, will, wish. Hawa, C. 791 
any feminine act of amourous pastime, or tending to excite amourous sensations; co- 

* ' 3 " 

quetry, blandishment , dalliance, (^ya, hawan, amor; affectus, cupiditates; -My*, ha* 
xcdon, aer.) 

Hawa, arabic, is the name by which, in Java, Eve, the first woman, is known. (^5*^) 

II a war a, early, coming soon to perfection; said of plants, paddy &c. Early, premature. 
Pare hawara, early paddy, which soon ripens. Ilawara amat dutang , how early you 
have come. (Awara in Scr. is rather oppositely hinder, posterior!) 

Ha when, a tree- EUeocarpus glabcr. 

Hawu, the native fire place, used in their bambu houses. It is a stand made of clay 
mixed with several ingredients, usually about a couple of feet long by 1J foot broad, 
fitted with openings above to set cooking pots over the fire made underneath (Jav. 

m 1 wj m| paicon from Mtt } s awn (abu) ashes.) 
Hay am, a fowl, the domestic fowl- Gallus. Anal: hayam, a chick, a chicken. 
Ilayam-ayaman, a wild fowl found in swamps. (What likes upon fowls). 
II ay an g, to desire, to long for, to wish. Hayamj ka h'dlr , I wish to go down the river, 

to visit the sea board. Ilayatuj holodo , I hope it will be fair. (iwtl» Jav. hayvngis 

to go round about, to stroll). 

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146 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Hayo, a word of encouragement; heigh ho! come along! be quick! (Jav. Mai. id.) 
H^-^h, a word of astonishment, and at same time of interdiction. Hellow! 
Hd-es, to sleep, asleep. To bua he-es y I can not get to sleep. 
Heh, an exclamation of surprise. How so! now you see! 
H^h^otan, to whistle. 

H^jirah, arabic — „the Flight" — is the name of the Mohammedan era, and dates from 
A. D. 622, being the period of the flight of Mohammed from Meka to Medina. 

(^Jt>, hijrat.) 

Hdjo, green. (Bal. Ejo; Mai. Jav. Ijo.) 

H^lok, I am astonished, it is strange, wonderful, worthy of admiration. 

He man or ]£man, to have an affection for, to love. 

Hencher, thin and watery in substance. (Batav. J&nchSr.) 

He nek, pain in the pit of the stomach, cramp in the belly, a spasm in the heart; in- 
wardly distressed, perplexed, feeling remorse. In Malay Senek. (Batav. Envk Jav. 
^n^»rnjfs ZnnZk , to have an inclination to vomiting.) 

Heong-h^ong, to mew as a cat- hence mdong, a cat. 

He ran, arabic, astonished, amazed, confounded, (^j^) 

Hergmis, a small yellow oval bivalve shell fish, found burrowing in sand near water. 

Cyrena; also Haremis. 
Herit, a fear of tigers; when tigers are known to be prowling about. 
Hes£, difficult, hard to be accomplished. 
Heuaiken, to bend round gently. 
HSubSul, old, ancient, former. Jalan heubeul, the old road; Geus heubeul, it is a long 

time ago. 
Heuchak, incomplete heads of paddy which cannot be tied up in bundles. Paddy which 

breaks off from the bundles. We should perhaps call it Sweepings. 
HSula, first, preceding in time or place. Chokot eta heula, take that first. Geus ti heula, 

he has gone on first, or ahead. (Cf. Mai. Ilulu, da-hnlu.) 
Heula-an, in the first instance. To do something before another person, to precede, 

to anticipate. 
Heulaken, to do first. To do or carry into effect in the first instance. 
Heulang, a kite, a falcon. Falco Pondicerianus. (Batav. Ulung-ulung. Jav. Wulung or 

Ulung.) 
Heulfcung, evil- disposed , wicked; JMSma Aeufewny, an evil-disposed man, a good for 

nothing fellow. 
Heuleut, an interruption, a space between; a boundary, a limit. Make h&ufeut, there 

was an interruption. 



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AND ENGLISH. 147 

II eu leu tan, to divide, to separate, to work at only here and there. 

Heumpas, overlapping, where one part sticks out, over or beyond another. 

Heuncheut, Pudendum muliebre. 

Heurap, a long casting net to take fish. 

Heuras, stiff, firm and hard. Unwilling to bend. (Cf. Mai. Kras. Jav. Kenis. and Kras.) 

Ileurin, in the way, inconvenient. TRurin usik y so much in the way that you cannot 
move ; said especially of a crowd of people. 

Heureui, troublesome, importunate, vexatious. Meddling where you have no bu 
siness. 

Hiaken, to set to work, to encourage others to do something, to egg on. 

Hiang, to disappear, to vanish. The act by wich the wonderful men of old made them- 
selves scarce. They did not die but became invisible, and from this circumstance the 
Prianger Regencies are called Taneuh PriangSn, from Para of the order of, of 
the number of — Hiangen, those who vanish. See Hyang which is evidently the true 
original of Hiang. There is a tree called Ki-hiang> Adenanthera falcata, from the 
circumstance of its casting all its leaves at once and becoming thus bare before the 
new leaves show themselves. 

HiangkSn, to keep off evil. 

Hi bat, to divide a man's property during his life time among his children, in order to 
be sure that each gets what is meant for him, and not leave it to an uncertainty af- 
ter death. Heibat, Marsden Page 866. Arabic, meaning fear, timidity- Timorous, 
fearful, and perhaps our Sunda acceptation is derived from a fear which a father 
might entertain regarding the eventual distribution of his property. (It seems to be 

£xfc Aibat, donation, from the Arabic root <w**«, wahaba, dedit, donavit. Fr.) 

Hib£r, to fly. (Javan. idem.) 

Hidayat, most likely arabic, Prosperity, good luck. (LtjJt, Ifidayat from the Arab. 

^jjt Iiaddy means directio bona, institutio recta. Also the name of treatises on law.) 
Hiding, comprehend, understand. To hideng, I do not comprehend it. 
Hideung, black, of a dark colour. Awi hideung y or Awi wulung the black bambu- 

Bambusa nigra. (Jav. ireng y «£«>n idem.) 
Hidi, to spear fish; a man dives in the water, watches the fish, and spears them with an 

instrument adopted for the purpose. The spear so called. 
Hidi! an exclamation of astonishment or fear. Oh dear! 
Hihid, a fanner made of split bambu, with which a fire is fanned into a blaze, or fresh 

boiled rice is fanned whilst undergoing the process of Ak&ul or kneading. The hihid 

is about a foot square, made of fine matted bambu, with a stick to hold it by tied 

along one edge. 



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148 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Hi hi ri an, to shirk orders; to shove upon others what we ought to do ourselves. 
Hikayat, arabic, history, tale, story, fable. Ilikayat Iskander Ztdkarnain, the history 

of Alexander the great. (£jU>*) 

Hikeuh, a fish found in mountain streams; in size it is intermediate between the Kan- 
chara and Soro, which it resembles in shape, and excellence of taste. 

Ilileud, a caterpillar. 

Hileudeun, having a swelling about the nails of the foot or hand. A whitlow. 

Hiling, to get out of the way. Clear the road! 

Hi ling ken, to tell to get out of the way; to drive out of the way. 

Hilir, down the river, with the stream, in contradistinction to Girang up the river. 
People among the mountains speak of the sea-board generally as Hilir. (Mai. Jav. 
Milir; Opposite Mudik, to go up to the higher country. Fr.) 

Himi-himi, name of a short of scaly fish in the sea, of a peculiar formation. 

II i n a , common , mean , of low birth and manners. In Malay it is also used , and Marsden 
gives the example of Hina dan dina the mean and low. Hina, C. 794. deficient 
defective, bad, vile. Dina, C. 275, poor, indigent, needy. Ina> C. 75 mean, low. 
Ino , in Sandwich Isles, bad. (Skr. Hina, defective; vile, bad; abandoned. Wilson.) 

Hindds-an, the small hand mill, consisting of a pair of wooden rollers revolving in op- 
posite directions to clean cotton of the seeds. Derived from Nindcs or Tindcs, to 
press, to crush, which words are not, however, Sunda, but are Javanese and Malay, 
from one of whom we must thus suppose that the Sundanese learned how to clean 
their cotton. The cotton passes through between the rollers, but the seeds are arres- 
ted and drop in front of the machine. 

Hinggu, assafoetida. Hingu, C. 792. Assafoetida. 

Hingkik, the owl. 

Hinis, scrapings of bambu; before bambu can be split fine, the epidermis is scraped off, 
and this refuse is called Hinis. The outer part of bambu, the Silicious epidermis 
of bambu as contradistinguished from Hati or the inside and soft part. Hinis takes 
a sharp edge, and is sometimes used for temporary knives, as some varieties of bambu 
when property sharpened will cut flesh. 

II in tan, Diamond. 

Hiras, to induce one's neighbours to give assistance, by making some trifling present, 
giving a chew of betle, or something to eat. 

Iliri, or hiri-hiri, an exclamation of fear, or of frightening some other person- As 
oh for God's sake d'ont! 

Hirian or hihirian, shirking orders, shoving what is to be done upon the shoulders 

of a neighbour. (See Hihirian). 
Hirian, to offer for, to make overtures to buv. 



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AND ENGLISH. 149 

Hiri-dtfngki, hating and envious; said of a malicious and evil disposed person. See 
Marsden Page 26 Iri % to hate- and Page 133 Dangki, envy, envious. 

Hiri-hate', hate, a malicious feeling against any one. 

II iris, a shrubby plant with a pod containing a pea, much planted in the humahs. Ca- 
janus flavus. Called in Malay Gudeh. 

Hiru-hara, confusion, uproar. (Mai. id. Jav. ruhara^ haruhara. Kawi, according to 
the Mss. hdrohara; according to the Javanese harahura and hurahuru.. Seems to be 
onomatopoeical Fr.) 

Ilirup, alive, to live. (Mai. Idup. Jav. Balin. urip. Balin. also Idup. Fr.) 

Hitut, to fart, which is perhaps not heard but nevertheless very offensive. (Malay Kentut.) 

Ho, yes- as Atuho y well yes! an asseveration acknowledging anything. 

lloalken, to move with a lever applied under any object; to prize up. The act of pul- 
ling back the lever which has been applied, so as to raise the object 

Hoghag, battling the watch in disputing, disputing a matter on which no agreement can 
be come to. 

Iloih, Rattan, Calamus, of which the following are distinguished: 
J. Bubuai, thick, of little or no use; has long sharp thorns. 
2. Dawouh, small, used for cords or for whips. 
5. Geureung, thin, used in houses as cords to hang clothes on. 

4. Kessur, large and serviceable; used at ferries to pull boats over by. 

5. Korod, low, Rattan short and fit only for whips; very prickly. 

6. Leuldus or Lilin, the pliant or waxy, good for splitting and using as ropes 
or shreds to tie with. 

7. Minchuk, a small variety used for whips. 

8. Muka, very brittle and worthless. 

9. Omas, a small variety, of no particular use. 

10. Pahit, resembles Kessur. 

11. Pella, one of the most useful sorts in house building &c. 

12. Sampai, like Sampang, only is a little smaller. 

13. Sampang, a thick, stiff, unbending sort, good for spear handles , walking sticks 
and the like. 

14. Su-el, in universal use when split up for lashings. 

15. Sege, much used for whips. 

16. Simpang, looks like Sampang, but is not much used as it is brittle. 

17. Turutes, good for lashings, stands in water; used for whips. 

18. Tinggal, a fine spotted and mottled variety, in repute for walking sticks. Said 
to grow only on Jungkulan or on Bantam Head, and on Princes Island. 

19. Wallat, the common rattan of commerce, very scarce in the forests of Java, 
but Borneo abounds in it. 



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150 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE. 

Holodo, fair, fine weather, dry, not wet, when speaking of the weather. 

Honar, assumed importance, unnecessary trouble, a fuss about nothing. 

Honjd, a Scitameneous plant, formerly called Geanthus speciosus, but now adays called 

Elettaria. The fruit grows on a stalk by itself and forms a large round collection of 

nuts or pulpy seeds. Used by the mountaineers in cooking in place of Tamarind , for 

the sake of its acidulous properties. 
Honjewat, to seize upon, to grasp. 
Ho- oh, yes, truly. 
Ho-ok, pity, concern, to have a regard for, to feel affection for, to feel an aversion to 

do any act. Ho-ok ka banda, to have a concern about one's property. 
Hordam, a sensation of fear experienced by looking from a height, as when a man is up 

a high tree, and feels fear on looking down. 
Horeng, as it turns out, after all. Sugan sia l&umpang, horeng hanto, I thought you 

went, but now it turns out you did not. 
Horenganan, as it turns out, as the event proves. 
Horloji, the Dutch horlogie, a watch, a clock, a timekeeper. 
Hormat, arabic, honour, reverence, respect. Compliments of ceremony. (Lo^.) 
Horu, name of a fish; it is very scarce, and found only in some mountain streams. 
Hos, the idiomatic expression of dying. Hos paih r and dead he went. 
Hoya, a division of the fruit of the plantain. Each small separate assemblage of fruit. 

Every bunch of plantains consists of several Hoyas. Called in Malay Sa Sisir. 
Hras, name of a tree called also Laban. Vitex leucoxylon. 
Hu, arabic, properly Hua or Huwa, He- he is. Allah hu akbar % God is great. Huma/s 

also frequently occurs attached to Allah, as Allah humah which is probably — 

God who is He. (Hu is p y huwa; Allahumma is one word, O God; **$\\ 
Hua pan, to feed by stuffing into the mouth of another, as a child is fed by its mother. 

Used figuratively — to stuff a man with anything he wants , to put it into his mouth — 

to bribe him. (Batav. Snap, Suappin; Cf. Mai. c_>L* suab and ^jL* suap Marsden.) 

Hudang, to get up, arise. Tachan daik hudang, he has not yet got up. 

Hudangken, to bause to get up, to rouse up. 

Huit, to whisper. 

Hujan, rain. In Javanese Udan is rain. Uda, C, 76. water- uda-anudan. The word 

is aspirated in Sunda and the middle d changed into /. 
Hujan-Anginkgn, to expose to rain and wind; to expose to all weathers, to leave ont 

in the open air. 
Hujan-buwah, Hailstones, literally Rain in fruit. Hailstones occasionally fall in 

Java. 
Hujanken, to expose to rain, to put out in the rain. 
Hujan-lebu, a rain of dust or fine ashes. A shower of volcanic ashes or dust. 



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AND ENGLISH. 151 

Hukum, arabic, sentence, judgment punishment In Sunda it is used to mean more par- 
se * 
ticularly to punish according to law. To pass sentence on. (Ji*- Hukm (on), judicium, 

arbitrium.) 
Hukuraan, a punishment awarded for any offence. Law. Hukuman Kumpani, the law 

of the company or government. Hukuman Islam , the law of Islam- Mohammedan law. 
Hukur, to measure. Tukang hukur, a man who measures; a surveyor. (Mai. Jav. idem.) 
Hukuran, a measuring stick; anything to measure with. Measurement 
IIulu, the head, of the body — of a Kris or weapon — of a river, its source. A piece 

of the number of anything round or bulky. Baiu $a hulu, a big lump of a stone. 

Kalapa sa hulu, one cocoanut. Bonteng tilu hulu, three cucumbers. Hulu CAai 9 

river head, where a river has its source. Oluwa, C. 91, the head. (Mai. Kawi, idem.) 
Huluan, having substance, something that can be felt in the hand. Not like water which 

eludes the grasp. Having a head. 
Hulu- hate, the pit of the stomach; the part at the division of the ribs; the sternum. 
Hum ah, a piece of forest cut down, and burnt off, and on the ground so cleared, a 

plantation of Paddy is made by dibbling in the seed. The word is probably derived 

from Huah for Buah fruit, and Mah, spot, place. A humah is called in Batavian 

Malay, Gaga and on Sumatra, Ladang. 
Humbut, the heart or Cabbage of Palm trees or Rattans. 
Humoai, to yawn. 

II u n i , name of a tree which bears a black berry. Antidesma Bunius. (Batav. Bunt.) 
Huntu, a tooth, of man or of animal. Coggs of a wheel (Jav. idem.) 
Huntu gelap, a thunder- bolt, literally- tooth of the lightning, old stone axes, which 

must have been used by the natives before they knew the use of iron are frequently 

found, which resemble those found by Cook in use among the Savages of the Pacific, 

and the natives of Java now adays are convinced that these are „teeth of the light- 
ning", and they also call them huntu gelap. 
Hunyur, an ant hill. 
Huralleng, dizzy; excessively hot and knocked up by the heat of the sun, on 

exposure. 
II u rang, a shrimp; they are found in plenty in the rivers and in pounds in the interior 

of the country. (Jav. id.) 
llurang-watang, a large variety of shrimp- a prawn. Shrimps in Malay are called 

Udang. 
Hur-bating, in case of emergency. Hur-bating sia leumpang sorangan, lamun ku maung 

saha nu nulungan, in case of emergency if you go alone, if a tiger attack you, who 

is to help you. 
Hurip, living, thriving, prosperous. It occurs in a form of Jampe, where it is said to 

represent the Earth; see Svri. (See Hirup.) 



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152 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Huru, to burn, to set fire to. Huru> C. 797. the Sun. 

Huru, a tribe of trees, of which there are many varieties, many of them good as timber 
for house-building. They belong to the genera Laurus and Litscea. 

Huruhara, in confusion, always in a fuss without getting through work. Tumult, 
uproar, disturbance. H<\ra y C. 787 to take: who or what takes or seizes, carries or 
conveys. Huruhara is probably a duplication of this word llara. The first word made 
Huru to show a diversity of taking, and will thus imply- snatching, seizing, and there- 
by denote the confusion which the Sundas attach to the word. (See Hiru-hara.) 

Hurun, to tie up in a bundle anything coarse and large, especially firewood. 

Hurunan, a bundle of firewood &c. 

Hurung, glowing, blazing up, kindled as fire. 

Hurup, to attack in numbers; to overpower with many. 

Husen, vide Ariya Damar. 

s * 

Hut, the Zodiacal sign Pisces. (Arab. cl?^). 

Hutang, debt, loan, credit. To borrow. Hutang sia sa bralia? how much is your debt? 

Beunang hi hutang, to get by a debt, to borrow. 
Hu-ut, fine or coarse bran, chaff. Ki-hu-ut name of a tree often covered with white 

flowers, as if dredged with bran or flour, hence the name, which has also partly 

been transferred to the Botanical name- Geunsia Farinosa. 
Huwap, a morsel, a mouthful. Sa huwap kejo, a mouthful of boiled rice. (See Huapan.) 
Huwapan, to feed by putting into the mouth of another; to stuff. 
Huwi, a potatoe, a yam, any farinaceous or esculent root, of which there is a great 

variety, belonging chiefly to the genera Dioscorea and Convolvulus. The following 

is a list of those known to the Sunda people 

1. Bahung, a large sort. 

2. Bole'd, the same as Mantang, wich see. 

5. Butun , probably the yam of Butun , an island off the S. East corner of Ce- 
lebes. It is planted by the Chinese about Tangerang and Lengkong. It is 
the Dioscorea alata. Alata y introduced into Java? which would denote itsbeincr 
originally a stranger there. 

4. Buwah. 

5. Dudung, small and round grows wild in forest. 

6. Gede, a large variety. 

7. Jahc, a small sort. 

8. Kalapa, a large sort. 

9. Kamayung, resembles Toropong only shorter. 

10. Ken tang, the common potatoe, Solanum tuberosum. 

11. Ktftan, large sort. 



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AND ENGLISH. 153 

12. Kiara, large and branching out like the fingers, or the root of the Kiara tree. 

13. Kumeli, a small round yam, the bulb of the Plectranthus Tuberosus. Vide voce. 

14. Lampuyang. 

15. Lilin, nearly the same as kalapa. 

16. Manis, large sort and sweet. 

17. Man tang, the sweet potatoe, a small native yam called also Boled, Convol- 
vulus Batatas, called in Javanese and Malay Katela, and nbi Jaica. It is said 
that the Malay name is also sometimes heard as Kastilla, as if of Castille and 
thus idtroduced by the Spaniards, but its having two pure Sunda names Man- 
tang and Boled pleads for its being indigenous. 

18. Orai, long and crooked. 

19. Sabut, grows of itself in the forest- a poor variety barely eatable. 

20. Tapak. 

21. Toropong, the telescope, long and straight in yam- and very good. 

22. Tunduk. 

23. Wolanda, Dutch or Holland's yam, the name given to the Cassave or Ja- 
tropha Manihot, from which we must conclude that it was introduced into 
Java from the West Indies though now every where very common. 

Iiuwis, grey-headed, grey-bearded, anything that is hairy and grey, thus there is a 
variety of Tundun or Rambutan, which is called Tundun huwis from the hairy projec- 
tions on it being grey. 

Hyang, usually pronounced Hiang in compound words. It means Divinity — Godhead as 
used in the Buddhism or Brahinanism of ancient Java, and of wich traces still remain 
in the language. The word Hyang in the sense of Divinity occurs constantly in con- 
junction with Sanscrit words, but Clough's dictionary does not appear to contain simply 
this word for a godhead, unless it can be traced in the following roots. Yanga, C. 
567 , pleasure, joy, happiness , enjoymeut Yanya {Yajna) C. 568, from Yaja to offer worship, 
a sacrifice, a ceremony in which oblations are presented. Yaja> C. 567. A root signi- 
fying- to offer, to worship, to present, to endow. The following words may each be 
consulted in voce, into the composition of which Hyang appears to enter- viz- 1 Bi- 
ang, 2 Diyeng, 3 Eyang, 4 Guriang, 5 Hariang, 6 Indi Hiang, 7 Ki Hiang, 
8 Kuriang, 9 Moyang. 10 Ngahiang, 11 Parahiang, 12 Priangun, 13 St'ngyang, 
14 Turiang, 15 Rumbayang voce Puachi Rumbayang Jati, 16 Reyang, 17 Tai- 
hiang, 18 Wayang, 19 Wayu-hyang, 20 Sakiang Santan. On the Bolang Estate 
near Gunung Handarusa occurs a small pool of water on an upland plateau, 
which is called Situ Iliavg or Situ Hijang , which may be interpreted — , , Divinity 
pool" from the unusual position it occupies on a hill, where no rivulet can run 
into it It is supplied by rain water, and may originally have been the wallowing 
hole of the Rhinoceroses. Similar Situ hiangs may probably be found elsewhere in 

20 



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154 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

the Sunda districts. The native explains the word by saying Ngahyang means to 
disappear, to vanish, as the water in these pools probably dries up when unusual 
drought occurs. See Ngahiang. Syang on Bali is still retained as a designation for 
the Deity for which reference can be made to Mr. Friederich's „Voorloopig verslag 
van het eiland Bali," in the 22 vol. of the Batavian Transactions. Kahyangan, is 
still in Bali, the name for a temple, or place for a Divinity. Hyang or Hiang is 
also still in use among the Badui of South Bantam in the composition of the proper 
names of some of their divinities, as Dewi Kincha Raja hiang, which in this case 
appears to be a female deity. 
Ibadah, arabic, pious works, good actions. (The same as the following word.) 

Ibadat, arabic, divine worship, adoration. Cidxz ib&dat, servitus, obedientia; probitas.) 

I bar at, arabic, like, resembling. Means also properly- explanation, interpretation. Ibarat 
na> after this fashion, in this like. Kxila ibarat runtah di pichenn bai, I am like filth 

which is thrown away. (i'.Uc ib&rat, explicatio, interpretatio.) 

Ibas, off by any particular mark or limit. Sa ibas taneu/i off by the ground. 
Ibing, to dance to, to dance in company with another. Ibing rongging, to dance in 
company with dancing girls. (Jav. and Batav. ngibing c££h\ idem.) 

S O 

Iblis, arabic, one of the names of the devil. (jwjjL)) 

Ibn, arabic, the son of- heard in arabic proper names. Seek Ibn Mulana, name of the 
man who was chiefly instrumental in introducing the Mohammedan religion into the 

Sunda districts. ( x)\ 

Ibrahim, arabic, the Patriarch Abraham. 

Ibu, mother, a refined expression. (Mai. Jav. idem.) 

Ibun, dew. (Jav. Bun, Ebun. Batav. M'bun. Mai. Umbun.) 

I bun an, to put out in the dew, expose to the dew. 

Idah, the time by Mohammedan law which a woman must have been divorced from a 
former husband before she can marry again, which is three months and ten days or 
say 100 days, in order to see if she proves with child by her former husband. (Arabic 

i'Ju:, iddat, status mulieris quo cum ea rem habere ex lege nefas, sc. ob defuncti 

mariti luctum , vel ob repudium , vel ob menstrua. Freytag.) 
Ider, to go round, to encompass, to revolve. A turn, a twist. (Jav. Mai. idem.) 
Id6r-ider, round about in a circle, circuitously. 

I din, permission, leave, licence. Idzin, arabic, of same import, (^j) idzn (on). 

Idris, arabic, the prophet Enoch. 



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AND ENGLISH. 155 

Iga, ribs, a rib of the body. (Jav. Batav. idem.) 

Igeug, crawling about, crawling down from a person's house. Kakarah eukeur bai igeug, 
he just begins to crawl about, said of a person who has been laid up with sickness 
and who begins to be able to get about again. Ig$ug-eugZug , to begin to crawl about 
again after sickness. 

Ihil, one of the many names for a pig. 

Ijab, a request to the Almighty- a prayer for success in any undertaking. Ijab habul, 

our prayer granted. (l^UJ, arabic, exauditio.) 

Ijerah, period for dying, appointed hour. Gexis datang ka ijZrah na> his appoiuted hour 

had come. 
Ikal, curly, as the hair of the head. (Mai. idem.) 
Ikal-ukal, curly, frizzled. 

Ikat, a head handkerchief- literally- a tie. (Mai. Ikat y to tie.) 
Ik las, the arabic word Khala$> free, liberated, candid, sincere, freedom from restraint. 

Kula g£u8 iklas, I am entirely freed of it, you have my full permission. (Arabic, ,^}UJ 

ikhlag, sinceritas.) 

Hat, name of a coarse grass growing in swampy places especially, and also on hills un- 
der shade where moist The stem is quadrangular, and sharp on the edges, so that 
if carelessly handled it cuts. In Malay Hat is to cheat in gaming, fraud, Crawfurd. 
Perhaps our grass has got its name from cutting the unwary. Though the word does 
not occur in Sunda in this sense, yet it may have become obsolete. 

Ilik, look, see; seeing that. Hik batur to m&unang, seeing that my companions got none. 

Ilikan, to look at, to regard. 

Illahi, arabic, of or belonging to God; divine. Oh God! (Perhaps -Jl, Allahi.) 

Ilok, sometimes, as if by chance. (Jav. Mt/n^ruf«»;\ Elok, wonderful. Mai. id. excel- 
lent, beautiful.) 

Ilokan, to happen sometimes. Ilokan jefcma , there are such people sometimes. 

Ilu, to follow, to go after. Accompany. Along with. To imitate. 

Imah, a house, a dwelling. Imah tilu roang , a hous with tree divisions, or with four 
posts on a side. (Jav. Umah. Mai. Rumah. Cf. Hum ah.) 

Imahan, to make or buy a house for any one. To set up a house in any spot. 

Imah cheblok, a house the posts of which are stuck into the ground, and not being 
carefully timbered together, is made in a hurry, and likely to be soon eaten by the 
white ants. 

linah tangga. a fixed and properly made house. Tangga is properly Malay for steps 



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156 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

or ladder, yet as applied to a house is in use. This is thus a house with steps- a 
frame timberhouse which reguires steps to get up to it. 

s * 

Imam, arabic, a high priest of the Mohammedan religion. ( r U) 

I man, arabic, faith, the theoretical part of religion; belief (^LJ.) 

Impas, done, finished; cleared off as a debt. (Dutch.) 

Impi, to dream. Naun ngimpi tali sia y what, are you dreaming? (Jav. id. and ngimpi. 
Mai. mimpi.) 

Impun, the name of a fish in the rivers of the South coast of Bantam, supposed to be 
the small fry of the Menga fish. Aplocheilus Javanicus. 

Imut, to smile, to smirk. 

Inakgrtapati, name of one of the princes celebrated in Javanese romance, also called 
Panji. Ina y C. 69 the Sun. Kcrta see voce, accomplished. Pati, Lord. The ac- 
complished lord of the Sun. He was the son of Ami Luhur, Sovereign of Janggala. 
His lady- love in the Javanese romance was Chandra Kirana Beam of the Moon, 
which see. (48) 

Inche'k, a name of compliment applied to a China- born Chinaman. (49) 

Inchi, a master, a mistress. A Malay word applied to foreign natives, especially Malays. 

In chit, Chintz, a piece of printed Cotton cloth. (Called Chit at Batavia.) 

Inchu, a grand child. 

Indalas, a mythic name sometimes given to the islaud of Sumatra, Crawfurd. Perhaps 
derived from Hind, Hindu; and Alas, vide voce, a forest, a district; thereby indica- 
ting the resort of the Hindus in early times. 

Indi-hiang, name of a place in the Prianger Regencies, to the South East of the Ja- 
laga Bodas. The word Indi is probably an abbreviation Indir%> C, 69, a name of 
Lakshmi, the wife of Vishnu. Indiya, hidila, Inding , and more similar words are 
parts of the conjugation of the verb Innawa C. 69 to sit , and as such may indicate 
her who sits by Vishnu or his wife. Indima, C. 69, the act of planting or fixing 
anything. Hyang vide voce. (The meaning is not clear, but might be Indu, the 
moon , or Indra (?) the known deity. Fr.) 



(48) Inak&rta is rather town of the sun, according to the use the Javanese make of the word 
kerta. Cf. SurakSrta (or - karta) and Yogyalcurta. This meaning is confirmed by the Persian. Fr. 

(49) This word is the same as the following, and applied variously to persons of some distinc- 
tion for instance to an aunt. The various application is explained by the word being Malay and 
relatively late introduced into Java. Mai. &2^) Jnchuh. Therefrom Jav. £J,£,foM X cnchik vide 

V " <J. w» 

Gericke sub voce. At Batavia Jnchi or Jnche. Nearly all others titles are taken from the Java- 
nese language Fr. 



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AND ENGLISH. 157 

In J it, to start, to set off, to move away. To indU dcui, he did not move again. 

Indra, a Hindu deity of whom the Sunda people have only a very confused idea. Indra, 
C. 69 , the name of a Hindu deity presiding over Swarga , and the secondary class of 
divinities ; he is more particularly the god of the atmosphere , and regent of the east 
quarter, and corresponds in many respects with the Grecian Jove. 

Indra Kila, name of one of the tops of the'Arjuno mountain in Sourabaya. Indra, vide 
voce. Kila, C. 69 a pin or bolt. The fabulous mountain Mandar, with which the 
ocean was churned by the gods. 

Indramayu, name of a district on the north coast of Java, between Krawang and Chiri- 
bon. Indra vide voce. Mayu, C. 538 a multitude of Mayas, of wich Mayu is the 
plural form , delusions. Vide Maya , and the word thus means- the delusions of Indra, 
the delusions of heaven. (Mayu Skr. is a Kinnara or chorister of heaven , belonging 
thus to the house- hold of Indra. Fr.) 

Indung, mother, dam. Matrix, nidus. 

Indung, mother, almost tempts one to trace it to Indu one of the imperative forms 
of Innawa to sit. To Indu has been subjoined the Polynesian final ng and made In- 
dung, the person who sits, is confined to the house, made sedentary by taking care 
of offspring. In Malay, Crawfurd shows that the word is not only Indung but also 
frequently simply Indu. 

Indung leungan, the mother of the hand, means the thumb. 

Indung madu, honey comb, the nidus of honey. 

Indung suku, the mother of the foot, means the great toe. 

Indung sutra, the nidus of silkworms, a cocoon. 

Ing, a constructive and possessive particle used in the formation of sentences. It has often 
the power of, of, for. After words terminating with a vowel, this word becomes 
Ning or King which see. Goring ing pare, bad for paddy. Luhur ing gunung on the 
top of the mountain. Barat ing lumbur, to the west of the village. 

Ing'at, to recollect, to be mindful of; to give a caution. 

Ing'atan, recollection, a caution, a warning. 

Inggih, yes, a very humble expression. 

Inggis, tottering, likely to fall. Fearful lest something should occur, wavering with tre- 
pidation. Inggis bisi to had6, fearful lest it might not be right. Inggis ti bZurang, 
rempan ti pouting, fearful in the day time, auxious at night. 

Inggris, English. Sella inggris , an English saddle. 

Ingkeun, let it alone. D'ont touch it To leave unmolested. 

Ingkrik, one of the many names for a wild pig. 

Ing'on, food supplied to any one, where withall to eat. 

Ing'onan, to feed, to keep supplied with all that is necessary in the way of eating. 



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158 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

I n g 1 us, the glanders; a disease in horses by which there is a discharge of pus from the 
nostrils. (Ing'us /«JL>), the excretions of the nose.) 

Injtfn, the axle of any cart, carriage, water-wheel &c. &c. Crawfurd gives the etymon 

of this word , Engenho , Portuguese for axle. 
Injeum, to borrow. MZunang zn/ewm, got in a loan. In Malay Pinfem. 
Injeuraken, to lend, to give out on loan. 
Injuk, a vegetable substance resembling horse hair, which grows round the Kaicung 

Palm, which yields the Jagory sugar. It is used to lay with ataps on roofs which 

it preserves for a long time, and is twisted into ropes of various size, which are 

very lasting even in wet. It is called in Malay Diik. 

Insallah, arabic, by the blessing of God; God being willing, (<*£) -^ ^l, if God will.) 

In teles, arabic, satin. 

Inter, to granulate sago by making it revolve on a nyiru or flat rice basket. 

In tip, to peep at, to watch what others are about, to espy. (Batav. id. and mintip. Jav. 

ngintip, id.) 
lnum, to drink. (Jav. id. Mai. minum.) 
In u man, drinkables; wine, spirits &c. 
Inya, a demonstrative word, it, that, him, her. Owoh nu bisa ngaranan inya, no body 

could give it (him or her) a name. 
Ip£ka, the marriage fee paid to the priest. (50) 
I pis, thin, not thick; not much remaining. Ipis kulit, thin- skinned. Pare na geus ipis, 

there is not much more paddy remaining. (Mai. Tipis). 

Irajim, accursed, execrable. Arabic rajim, accursed, pelted with stones, (^j^ rajim, 

with the Article.) 
Irik, to tread out with the foot; to tread out paddy for seed from the straw. 
I ring, to follow, to go after. To follow or attend upon a great man. (Mai. Jav. Bal. id.) 
Iris, leaky , allowing water to pass through , as the roof of a house or any vessel. 
Iris, to shred, to cut fine. (Batav. id.) 
I rung, the nose. (Mai. Idung. Jav. Bal. Irung.) 
Isa, arabic, eventide, when it has become quite dark, which in Java is about 7 o 1 clock 

p. m. all the year round. Isa is a little later than Megrib. ( 5 L*r; it is the time of 
the second daily prayer, to commence from the evening. Fr.) 



(50) Arabic, iaii ? nafakat; Jav. nipkah* Batav. nxpekah and ipekah. The last is a corruption. 

The Ipukah is rather the money paid by the man to his wife for daily expenses. After all the 
Arabic word means expense in general. Fr. 



^v 



S 



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AND ENGLISH. 159 

Isa, arabic, Jesus. Xabi La, the prophet Jesus. ( -**ju:) 

I sang, to use water to clean yourself after having obeyed a daily call of nature. 

Iser, to move, to displace. Iser sahtutik, move a little. 

Iscus, tame, gentle. 

Is ike n, to wash rice preparatory to boiling. 

I sin, ashamed, abashed. (Jav. id.) 

Ising, to ease oneself, to relieve nature. (Jav. id.) 

Iskandcr, Alexander. Arabic. Iskander Zulkamain, Alexander the Great, or Alexander 

with the horns, by which he is known in ancient Indian lore. 
Islam, arabic, Mohammedan, Mussulman. Belonging to the faithful. Ajama Islam, the 



*o— ( f U). 



Mohammedan religion. 

Ismail, arabic, Ishmael, the son of Abraham. 

I spa la, for instance; in this, or that manner. 

Istal, stable, being a corruption of the Dutch word Stal, stable. 

lstambul, arabic, Constantinople. 

I stan, to check, to hold at bay, said of any enemy or person to whom we arc opposed. 

Istanggi, incense. (Mai. id.) 

Istiar, to seek, to make exertion to get. 

Is tiara, if only, provided that. 

Istibrah, a wrong sentence of the priest; a term on religion matters. 

Istijerat, evidently an Arabic word. Anything relating to persons or times before the 

Mohammedan religion was introduced; Pagan and supernatural. 
Istinggar, a gun, a fowling piece. The word is a corruption of the Portuguese word 

Espingarda, a matchlock. Marsdcn. Page 6. 
Istirahat, arabic, quiet, repose, ease, peace; Quiet, tranquil. 
Istiwel, a boot, such as worn by Europeans. (From the German Stiefel, Dutch 

Stevel.) 
Istiwir, a trifling present, or gift; something added out of good nature. 
Istri, a lady, a woman of rank- used in pantuns or old history. Slri, C. 774 a woman, 

a female in general. 
Isuk, to morrow, to morrow morning. Morning in general. (Mai. h-ituk. Jav. emk and 

besuk. Enjincj and benjing.) 
Isuk-isuk, early in the morning. 

Iswara, C. 73, a chief, a lord, a master; name of Siwa and of Kama Dewa. 
Iswari, C. 73, the wife of Siwa, otherwise named (Lakshmi), Durga, or (Saraswati). 

[Lakihmi belongs properly to Wishnu, Saraswati to Brahma, but on Bali they are 



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160 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

also in conjunction with Siwa, who is the one great god, combining the qualities and 
faculties of the two others. Fr.) 
lteuk, a stick, a walking stick, a staff. 
Itil, the clitoris. (Batav. idem.) 
Itong, a little child. 

Itu, that distant one, pointing with force to some object at a distance. 
Itung, to count, to reckon out, to calculate. (Jav. Mai. idem.) 

Itungan, account, faculty of counting. To nyaho di itungan he does not know how to count. 
Itungan nana, by his account; as they would have one believe. 
Iw-at, to run away with a woman, to elope. 
Iwing, hanging dangling, pendent; walked off with. Iicing bai di bawa, and he went off' 

with it dangling. 
I w u 1 , a variety of Palm tree , thicker than a Pinang and thinner than a Cocoa nut. 
Iwung, the young sprouts or shoots of a Bambu tree , many varieties of wich are sought 

after as a tender vegetable, or are used for pickling. 
Iy ages ok, to morrow. In Malay it is called Besok. 
Ivah, oh! ves. 

Iyahken, to say yes to, to give consent. 
Iyo, this. Imah iyo> this house. Kuda iyo, this horse, 
lyuh, shelter, shade. 
Iyuhan, to take shelter. 
Iyuh ken, to put under shelter. 
J a - a t , a vegetable , a runner which produces a longish pod , with four sharp edges , and 

contains a very hard pea or bean. 
Jab a, outside, beyond, without. J aba imali, outside the house. Ka jaba, go out, get 

outside, outwards. Jaba saking lafal, outside the text, not to be found in the text; 

said of any thing which is not exactly allowed, especially by the Koran. 
Jaberjer, marks or signs on writing, on letters to indicate their sound. Diacritical marks. 
Jabrug, a short casting net to take fish, heavily loaded with leaden rings, so as to be 

used where the stream is shallow and rapid. 
J ad ah, child, offspring; Persian Zadah. Haram jadah, an illegitimate child, a bastard. 

A great word of reproach. 
J a d i , to be , become , come to pass , happen ; be produced ; to suit , to answer , to succeed ; 

to be born, to come into existence; to come up as seed out of the ground, to sprout. 

Jadi e'dan, to become foolish. Jadi IZumpang? does the setting out take place. Do 

you go? Batu iyo jadi , this stone will answer. Bibit na gvus jadi , the seed has come 

up- is growing. (Jav. Dadi, which seems to be a reduplication of di [den y di-pnn~\, 

Jadi to Dadi as Ujan to Udan. 



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AND ENGLISH. 161 

Jadi, the zodiacal sign Capricorn. Arabic, f^s^.) 

J ad i k e n , to make , to create , to produce , to bring forth , to cause. To confirm any transactions. 

Jaga, to watch, to guard, to be awake, be vigilant. To attend upon. This word is no 

doubt Sanscrit, and is marked as such by Marsden. In Clough the simple word Jaga 

does not occur, but he gives Jfigara, P. 208, wakefulness, vigilance, waking. The 

word often occurs in the formation of proper names (51). 
Jaga Bay a, a proper name. It occurs as the name of a village and surrounding lands, 

on the Estate Parungpanjang in the district of Jasinga, and was formerly attached to 

the court of Bantam. Jaga vide supra. Baya vide voce. Thus , the watcher for fear, 

alarm or mischief. 
Jaga Bita, a proper name. It occurs as the name of a village and surrounding lands 

on the Estate Parungpanjang, formerly attached to the court of Bantam. Jaga vide 

Supra. Bita vide voce, thus the watcher of delight, pleasure; anticipating the wishes. 

Jaga Baya and Jaga Bita were, under the former government of Bantam's Sultans, 

villages called Abdi y or slaves, and were the dependents of some of the functionaries 

about the court. 
Jagal, to slaughter animals for food and and for sale. Pajagalan, a butcher's shop, or 

rather the place where he kills the animals. 
J a gat, land, country, district Jagat Bantan, the country of Bantam. Jag at, C. 203, 

the world, the universe, the earth. 
Jagjag, to tread water; to go up to the neck in deep water and maintain oneself upright 

therein. To survey a country by going into it and examining it. To investigate. To 

£ajagjag> said of water of which the bottom cannot be felt by a man upright in it 
J ago, a daring man, a bully, a fellow always ready to fight; a Hector. Hayam jago, a 

fighting cock. 
J a gong, Zea Mais, Maize, Indian Corn. 
J ah, an exclamation of disbelief or of contempt. 

Jahal, arabic, the planet Saturn. (Jl^:, Zuhal.) 

Jahar, to sell a slave or bondsman. 

Jahar a, arabic, the planet Venus, (jut*, Zahrat.) 

(51) The Sanscrit root is jdgri, with ro-vocalis. But this again must be a reduplication of a simple 
monosyllabic root, perhaps from gri, sonum edere; cancre, laudare, from which also gal-lus (Cf. 
garrulus), the watchman, and singer of the night seems to have his name. In Jaga the ri-voca- 
lis is replaced by a . the pronunciation of the ri at the end of the word being difficult. In the mid- 
dle of words the ri is replaced by re the sound nearest to it ? but at the end this re woud appear 
to be to weak. Fr. 

21 



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162 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Jahe, ginger, zingiber officinale. 

Jahil, arabic, malicious, mischievous, disposed to do harm. See Maringkil. Jaliil ma- 

ringkil, maliciously disposed. (JjtU-, Jahil, ignorant, stupid. Cf. mudah Skr. and 

Bal. stupid. Jav. Mai. Young and foolish. 
Jahir, unreasonable, unjust. 

Jahudi, arabic, a Jew. Jewish. (^J^j.) 

Jajaddn, derived from Jadi which see. Persons or things which have become metamor- 
phosised, a metamorphosis or transformation. As men who have been turned into Ti- 
gers or other wild beasts. In a certain degree, spectres, ghosts. The reincarnation 
of a dead person. 

Jajah, to go about and examine, as a chief does his district, to inspect a country. 
(«<«*{\, Jajah, Jav. to tread on the ground; to go over and through something, to 
go about to seek for something. Gericke.) 

Jajahan, in the neighbourhoad of, in the environs of. District, province, territory. Ja~ 
jahan Bogor, in the neighbourhood of Buitenzorg. The district of Buitenzorg. 

Jajal, to try, to test anything or weapon; to take a trial to see if anything answers its 
object. To make an attempt, test, trial or experiment. Gobang na di jajal ka na 
daging maung , he tried his gobang on the flesh of a tiger ; of course on a dead one, 
to see if the gobang would cut, as the natives believe that iron is like some men, 
afraid, and you cannot be sure till you try, whether it would cut such a fierce thing 
as a tiger. So also they are fond of trying their Krisses. (Jav. id.) 

Jajantung, the heart (anatomically); the heart of a vegetable, the core. (Mai. Jav. id.) 

Jajar, a row, rank, arrangement. Di jajar, to set in a row, to arrange. See Pajajaran. 

Jajar, to put together to see if they fit; said of carpentry or other work in hand. 

J aj arum an, to sprout, to begin to come up, as fresh planted paddy. To show like a 
Jarum or needle. 

JajawarikSn, extraordinary, surprising. (From a-r^-m or a^o-m Juwara, Jawara Jav. 

j\ys. Mai!) 

Jaka, an unmarried youth, a name for a young man of good family. In little use now 
adays. Derived from Ja, birth. See Jata, C. 209 born, produced; a child, offspring. 
Jataica , C. 209 , born , produced ; of which our Jaka appears to be a contraction. 

Jakatra, a town in the island of Java, on the site of which the city Batavia was foun- 
ded about the year AD. 1619. The district bore the name of Sunda Kalapa. Marsden 
Page 103. A part of the present old town of Batavia still retains this name. 

Jakatra is compounded of Jay a, C. 206, victory, conquest, and Karta, which on 
Java usually means peace, but is a past participle of Karanawa, to do, and means 



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AND ENGLISH. 163 

thus accomplished, fulfilled. Or it may be from Gatra, C. 172 the body, a limb or 
member. It also in Sunda appears sometimes to mean, family, relationship, and will 
thus imply either the triumphant peace or triumphant and accomplished or the 
triumphant family. (It is yet sometimes pronounced Jakarta or Jakarta , town of vic- 
tory. For the derivation of Ja from J ay a plead several Javanese names , Jasingha , 
J-kjuddh* etc. Fr.) 

Jaksa, the native fiscal at the courts of law for the natives. 

Ja, C. 208, speedy, swift. Aksha, C. 5. the eye. A swift eye to detect the merits 
of the cases brought before him. 

Jaksa, at Page 43 of 23 vol Bat: Trans: Mr. Friederich says in a note. „I write 
Diaksa in place of Jaksa (as the judges are usually called in Bali and Java) on the 
authority of a manuscript where the writing with the second D points to the origin of 
the word. Diaksa, which is also found in M. S. S. as Adiaksa is Sanscrit: Adhi, 
chief, Aksha, eye. 1 ' 

Jakun, only heard in the expression Haram Jakun, accursed Jakun, wich is an expres- 
sion of contempt for any man. Some wild heathen tribes in the Malay peninsula are 
called Jakun, and probably it may have had once the same import in Java, though 
now adays the only non- Mohammedan Sundaese are the Badui of South Bantam (52). 

Jala, a hand- net, a casting net to take fish. Jala, C. 210, a net. See Heurap. (Skr. Jala.) 

Jalabriah, a variety of Kuih or native pastry- This childish stuft admits of a grandiose 
Sanscrit interpretation. Jala y C. 207, water, a kind of perfume. Abhriya, C. 41, 
belonging to the clouds, or produced from the clouds- and thus the water or perfume 
of the clouds. 

Jalak, name of a bird, much seen about buffaloes, called also Kerak. Tapak jalak, lite- 
rally the mark of a jalak's foot: it means- a rude cross cut on a tree, especially in 
forests, in order to be able to recognize the tree or place again, or for a guide in 
travelling. 

J a Ian, a road, a way, a path. This word is evidently compounded of the first part of 
the following word Jal, with the constructive an placed after it. It is very probably 
of the same root as Yanawa, C. 569 to go, to walk, of wich ya is the root (53). 

Jal an an, to walk through. To walk about on or in. 

Jal-jol, an idiomatic expression of frequently coming; coming again and again. 

Jaling'cr, active, nimble. 



(52) And on Java proper the inhabitants of the TenggSr mountains. Jakun or Yakun is in other 
countries a corruption of Yaksha, a kind of demons, similar in Brahraanical Mythology to the more 
known Rdkshasas. The word Yaksha is known in the Archipcl, and the corruption Jakun misrht 
have come over io later times, perhaps with the propagators of Mohammedanism. Fr. 



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164 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Jaliti, name of a tree, Wrightia Pubescens. 

Jalu, the male of animals, said especially of buffaloes. Kcbo jalu, a male buffaloe, not 

castrated. (Kawi id.; Jav. Kraraa, Jaler.) 
Jalujur: to darn, to sew by running a needle in and out through the middle part of 

cloth, and then pulling the thread through. This is what is called technically — „to 

herring- bone." 
Jam, an hour, a portion of time. Marsden says it is Persian for a bell, a clock, an 

hour. J&ma, C. 210, a period of time, a watch, four hours. 
Jamak, fit, proper, usual, customary; middling or middle rate. Jamah na, what is usual. 

To jamak teuyn , that will never do , that can never be the case, (Jav. id. T. Roorda 

derives it from Arab, o*-^ pluralis numerus. But only the first of the significations 

given is certainly derived from the Arabic word. The others given by him and the 

Sundanese point to a word of Polynesian origin. Fr.) 
J am an, time, period. This is properly the Arabic word Zeman. Jaman liarita, at that 

former period. Jaman kiwari, at this present time. 
J am an g, a jacket, a native's coat. Jamang panghulu, a Priest's jacket or robe, which 

is long and hangs down nearly to the heels. 
Jambaka, a plant the roots of which are burnt as incense, and plentiful in some moun- 
tain districts. 
J am ban, a necessary, a place to ease yourself. (Jav. Mai. idem.) 
Jambangan, the wooden frame work in which the Sangku or metal pot with holes is 

fixed in making laksa. See Sangku. 
Jambangan, an iron plate with holes in it, to draw out wire. 
Jambangan, a large water jar; a large earthenware jar for holding water. 
Jambatan, a stone bridge; a pear, a quay projecting into the water. It is a pure Sunda 

word derived from Nambat, to reach to both sides, to span. See Chukang. (Mai. id.) 
Jamb^, a Pinang nut or tree; the Areka nut. Areca Catechu. (Jav. Balin. idem.) 
J a m b i a , arabic , a sort of knife or dagger wbrn in the belt. 
Jamblang, a cloth with large square pattern. A variety of cloth with large pattern 

worn by the Sunda people. 
Jamblang, a tree called Syzygia Jambolana. 
Jambu, name of a common fruit of which there are several genera and species. They 

are generally called in English the Rose-apple. Jambu, C. 206, the Rose apple. 

Jambosa of the family of Mvrtaceae. 
Jambu ayer, the water Jambu, Jambosa Javanica. Very poor and insipid. 



(53) Mai, idem, but Jav« utnAo^j»\ dalan, which appears to be the original form. Cf. Ujan 
and JadL It is thus rather Polynesian, no Scr. root or word approaching to it. Fr. 



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AND ENGLISH. 105 

Jambu ayer mawar, the Rosewater JambiL Jambosa Vulgaris, a fragrant variefy and 
good eating. 

Jambu bol, has large red fruits like apples. It is the Jambosa Macrophylla, from its 
large leaves and is the best of the whole tribe. 

Jambu Dipa, a name given to India in ancient lore or tradition, but the natives now 
adays caunot tell to where it originally belonged. A place in the Priangcr Regencies 
is still so called. Clough at page 206 gives- Jambu Dtcipaya, from Jambu the Rose 
apple, and Dwipaya^ an island or country. According to the geography of the Hin- 
dus , the name of the Central division of the universe or the known world ; but accor- 
ding to the Buddhists it is the continent of India, or more strictly India proper, or 
India within the Ganges, it being generally reckoned by them as the scene of the la- 
bours of Buddha. (Dwipa not Dwipaya is the Scr. name for island.) 

Jambu Mede, Anacardium Occidentale, of the family of Tercbintacese. The Cashew 
apple. Also called Kaju. 

Jambu S i k i , the seedy Jambu ; the guava. Psidium pomiferum , of the family of Myrtaceae. 

Jambul, a tuft of hair, a topping; a tuft of feathers. In shaving a lad's head, a tuft 
is often left on the back part of the head, and this is called Jambul. (Mai. Jav. id.) 

J ami, the Paddy straw after the grain has been beaten off. See Jcrami. Rumpak jami, 
harvest home, literally treading the straw under foot, as natives do when reaping. 
Crop time. 

J a m i , a humah made a second year consecutively. When a piece of aboriginal forest is 
cut down, a second year's crop can mostly be taken from it. Probably called Jaml 
from the paddy straw of the former crop, which has to be cleared away, before a 
second planting can take place. 

Jampang, a district near the Palabuan Ratu in the Prianger Regencies, derives its name 
from Si Jampang, a character in ancient Javanese history, See Raffles vol 2. P. 103. 

Jampang, name of a variety of grass. 

Jampang pahit, name of a variety of bitter grass. 

Jampd, an invocation; a prayer muttered over any person, being or thing in order to 
produce some beneficial result. An incantation. The native method of administering 
medicine which is always done by, at the same time, muttering a prayer or incanta- 
tion either over the medicine or over the person who is ill. 

Mr. Friederich considers that Jampe is derived from Japya, in Sanscrit, what is to 
be muttered, from the root Jap to mutter prayers. 

Japa, Clough 205 an offering to a demon, the muttering of prayers at offerings to 
demons; repeating in audibly charms, the names of gods and demons, on certain reli- 
gious occasions: the practice of Hindu religious mendicants to count in silence the 
beads of a rosary. 

The original word is thus much corrupted on Java, an m having been inserted in 



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166 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

the middle, and final a transformed into e. The m inserted in the middle is not, 
however, without precedent and gives to the word or verb a somewhat modified mean- 
ing, and may also be traced in a similar way in the word KampuTig, derived in all 
probability from Kapung, or as it is pronounced Kepung , to surround, to enclose. 
See Sumihung , Jumarum, Tumumbak, Kumisi, Kamay angan, Kembang , Kembung , 
Kembu and the like: also umeusi from eim. Mr. Friederich, however, does not feel 
quite satisfied, with this interpretation, as he has written me — „Jamp6 might have 
been erroneously explained by me. After all, this is not yet certain, In Javanese 
there is Jamu> Ngoko , Jampe 9 Krama, medicament, medicine. Gericke's Dictionary 
Page 561. I add besides Tajap (ta + jap, the Sanscrit root I told you of (above re- 
ferred to) from which are derived Japa and Japya.) A prayer which is immediately 
listened to; et contra, a poison which soon takes effect, this is rather in favour of 
my explanation. " (The alteration of ya into e is very common.) 
Jampleng, entirely, quite gone. Sapoi jampl&ng , an entire day, as if the day had been 
thrown away. Jampl&ng bai di juwal , and he slapped it off in a sale. 

Jamrud, Persian, the Emerald, (j^j Zumurrud and j^ Zumurud. Freytag.) 

J a m u , and J a m u a n , medicine given inwardly , to doctor by giving a drink, 

J a m u g a , stupid , silly ; unable to take any work in hand. Jel&ma jamuga , a helpless 

foolish fellow. 
Jandela, Portuguese Janella, a window, especially in a European's house. 
Jane la, slippers. A shoe with the upper leather cut away at the heer. 
Jang 'en, only, nothing but. Jang'tn Siji, there is only one. Jang^en karung na , 

there is nothing but the bag. 
Jang'et, buffaloe hide cut in strips and used as rope. 
Janggala, some of the districts adjoining the town of Sourabaya are so called under 

the Javanese pronunciation of Janggolo. The country so called forms the delta of the 

Kediri river , and is flat and alluvial. Jangala , C. 204 , a place , a firm spot , a waste, 

a desert, a Jungle. The place originally probably consisted of Swamp with firm land 

interspersed and hence the appropriate designation. 
Janggot, the beard, a man's beard. Name of a variety of grass. 
Jangjang, a wing, wing of a bird. A cant name for a man's arm. 
Jangji, promise, to promise, to make an agreement To stipulate, to engage. 
Jangjian, agreement, promise, engagement, bargain, contract, treaty. 
Jangka, a pair of compasses. In Malay Jangka is a step, a pace; to step, to pace, to 

stride — compasses. Hence the name of an instrument which opens and strides. 
Jangkar, an anchor. The large roots of a tree which grow out at right angles. Hence 

probably by analogy the name of an anchor. 
Jangkep, complete in number, full up. 



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AND ENGLISH. 167 

Jangkrik, name of an orthopterous insect, a kind of cricket or gryllus, about an inch 
long with serrated legs, and with wings. The wings, however, are often seen in the 
embryo state. These Jangkriks are often made to fight for the amusement of the behol- 
ders. It is found in shallow holes and does not burrow deep like its congener the 
Kasir which see. 

Jangkung, tall, high in stature, J&J&ma najangkung, the person is tall. Si jangkung, 
the middle finger. 

Jano-'o-jang'o, a pick-axe, an iron instrument for grubbing up roots and stones. 

Jantra, a spinning wheel: more commonly called Kinchir. Any wheel or machine which 
revolves. Chi Jantru. name of a rivulet on Lengkong Estate. Yantra, C. 569 a machine 
in general, any implement or apparatus: a diagram of a mystical nature or astrological 
character. 

J an tun g, the heart (anatomically). 

Jantur, a large but young cock, often devoid of feathers about the rump. A young 
but full-grown fighting cock. 

J a para, name of a Residency in Java, of which the chief place is now Pati, as the old 
town of Japara on the sea coast in the bay of Samarang was found inconvenient. Ja- 
para was the seat of a great trade before the arrival of Europeans in the East. It 
will be derived from Ja contracted from Jay a, C. 206, victory, conquest, triumph, 
and Para, C. 387 a way, a road, a path; forming Japara, the triumphant way or 
road, as it may have been the seat of the Spice and other valuable trade, where the 
people of the continent of India came to meet the traders of the Archipelago, who 
brought their rich wares so far, as to a common emporium. It was probably the 
Ye~pho-thi, Yaicadwlpa of the Chinese voyager and Buddhist priest, called Fa Hian who 
visited it in AD 415 on his return from India to China. The Portuguese immedia- 
tely erected a fort at Japara which of itself bespeaks the importance of the place 
in a commercial view. This fort is now in ruins, but traces of it still remain. It 
was visited by the Gov. Genl. D. van Twist in 1853 , see Java Courant 10 August 1853. (54) 

Japati, a pigeon, a dove; such doves as are kept in cots. Columba, Called in Malay 

Marapati Marsden 322. Ja, C. 208, speedy, swift; victorious, triumphant. Pati, 

C. 355, a lord, a master, an owner, a husband. At the burning of widows upon 

the funeral pile of their husbands, it is still usual in Bali and no doubt was also the 

custom on Java in Hindu times to let fly a dove before the widow throws herself into 



(54) Japara like Jakarta, Jasingha, composed of Jaya, victory, and para, enemy: thus implying 
vanquishing the enemies. The way of composition shows that the Composition was not made by 
Hindus, but by Javanese, who had no clear idea of forming Sanskrit Composita, otherwise they 
would have called it Parajoya. The analogy of other words commencing with Juja excuses the 
small mistake. Fr. 



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168 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

the flames, and the dove may be the emblem of their „Triumphant husbands" who 
have preceded them to bliss. 

In Malay they say Marapati, for a dove, Marsden 322 which name answers to the 
same office of the Dove being let fly at the funeral burning. Mara, C. 519, M&ra, 
C. 1538. Death, dying. Pati, C. 355, Lord, master; and thus Mara-pati- Death's 
Lord, still emblematic of the sacrifice of herself which the widow is about to commit. 
Both the Malay and Sunda people appear thus to have given the Dove its name , from 
the fact of its being used at the Suttee or self-sacrifice of a widow on the death of 
her husband. The words have evidently been received from the Hindus. In the case 
of the Malays they adopted the word Marapati, Death's Lord, and of the Sundas, 
they adopted Japati, the //Triumphant Lord. 1 " 

In Malay also the Dove is called „Burung Dara", and in Javanese „Manuk Doro." 
Dara, C. 266 is a wife, and thus the Malay and Javanese words mean „the wifes 
bird" — which still applies to the wife sacrificing herself at the funeral pile of her 
husband. The word Dara is still preserved in Sunda , and as can be seen means - — 
„a young woman who has just got her first child" In Malay — Marsden 128 — 
it means — „a virgin, a maiden" — and Dara-dang , a damsel, so that in Malay the 
original meaning has been somewhat modified. 

It is not a little remarkable that Indian and Sanscrit names should, in the Eastern 
Archipelago, have superseded Polynesian names, for neither in Malay, Sunda nor 
Javanese, does there now thus exist a pure Polynesian name for so common an object 
as the domestic Dove. 

The name thus applied to the Dove is not in all probability, the common colloquial 
name in Sanscrit. Clough gives for Dove Parawiya , Pareyiya ; wild pigeon Kobo , 
Kobeyiya. Lambricks Singhalese vocabulary gives Kobeyiya the small Dove, Para- 
tciya, the Pigeon; Babagoya, the Dove; Mayilagova y the large Dove. So that the 
names which have been transplanted into the Polynesian languages from the Sanscrit, 
are the mystic names applied to the Dove when used at the Suttee of widows. In 
the Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde, 1853 Page 2 of Berigten, 
Mr. Friederich explains the word Marapati for dove as the „Lord of Death" in 
reference to the custom still in use on Bali of letting fly a dove from the head of 
the widow at the moment she plunges into the gulf of fire, and explains that on 
Bali this bird is called Titiran y wich is the same as the Perkutut of Batavia and of 
the Sunda districts , and thus not the common domestic dove. Whatever may now be 
the case as to the bird so let loose, there can, from what has been said above, exist 
no doubt that that bird was originally the common domestic dove. 

With respect to Mr. Friederich's interpretation of Burung-Darah a bird of blood , 



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AND ENGLISH. 169 

I must submit that my meaning tells better with the whole circumstance of the case. (55) 

Jara, an awl, a brad-awl. ArZ, C. 815, a shoemakers awl. 

Jar ah, running wild in jungle, at large, not nightly penned up. Kebo jarah, a buffaloe 
that is left to take care of itself in the jungle. (Jav. idem.) 

Jarak, name of a class of plants, as Jarak pager, Jatropha curcas, much planted in hed- 
ges about gardens or on sides of the roads. Jatropha multifida, a variety introduced 
from America, and called simply Jarak. Jarak jitun, the olive jarak, used for 
making oil, and which is vulgarly called Palma Christi, Ricinus communis. The 
oli of the latter plant is much used in ship building , makes good putty etc. but 
is unfit to eat. 

Jariji, the middle finger. (Jav. The first finger; or universally the fingers.) 

Jariji manis, the ring finger. 

Jaring'au, name of a dark green sedgy plant; much used in Janvpi or incantations , cal- 
led in Javanese Dringo, and Crawfurd gives for Malay- Daringgu y acorus terrestris. 
Clough gives two words for assafoetida- Jaratian, C. 206 and Hingu, C. 792 of which 
two words the Sunda word appears to be compounded, coalescing into Jaring'au. The 
Sundas may have heard both these words from the Indians, and joined them together 
to be sure of the article. It is much used by women in child- birth and is supposed 
to charm away evil spirits. From this circumstance it may be derived from Jara, 
C. 206 a noted female demon, and Hingu y the hingu of such demoness. Or it may be 
a corruption of Jarayu, C. 206, the womb, the uterus, a foetus. 

To explain what Assafoetida is I cannot do better than give the article from Wail- 
ly's French Dictionary — Plante ombellifere de Perse, ou Merde du DiaHe y gomme, 
resine rougeatre amere et h odeur d'ail, que donne sa racine; les peuples d'Asie la 
recherchent et en aiment Fodeur. — At Page 258 Clough says that Dara is the Eloo 
form of Jara, and this may account for the word occuring as Jaringau and Daringgu 
which latter Crawfurd gives and calls it acorus terrestris. 

Jaro, a headman in the Bantam districts. A village chief who is elsewhere called Mandor. 

Jarong, a weed with numerous hairy seeds along a stiff terminal spike. 

Jarum, a needle. (Mai. Jav. idem.) 

Jarumat, to darn, especially a gunny or gSbang bag. (Jav. Jrumat, ^r««^x id.) 

Jasah, very bad, exceedingly. It mostly implies exceedingly bad, but sometimes from 



(55) The question about nBurung Darah" depends only upon the way of writing the word 
nDarah". Marsden sub voce Marapati gives »Burung Darah". The Javanese Dictionary gives »Bu- 
rung D&riL I am much inclined to follow Marsden, because he was the most judicious and care- 
ful man, who ever meddled with these poor languages. Darah, every body knows is blood-Ddrd y 
Jav. MaL a maiden, but in Sanscrit a wife. Fr. 



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170 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

its use you perceive that it also implies exceeding good. Imah na jasah goring na y 
his house was exceedingly bad. Jasah hade na, exceedingly good. Jasah, used by 
itself implies — shocking! very bad! or perhaps only — „in an extreme degree", which 
is mostly by implication — »>very bad". 

Jatake, name of a tree and its fruit called in Malay Gandaria, mangifera oppositifolia. 
(The word is certainly Scr., but Wilson does not mention this meaning sub voce 
Jataka. Fr.) 

Jati, the Teak tree. Tectona grandis. This is the name given to the Teak tree on Java 
and on other islands of the Archipelago where it occurs. The word seems to be of 
Sanscrit origin. Jati, C. 209 birth, lineage, race; family. Jatya, C. 210, wellborn, 
of good family. In Ceylon Jatya is the name given to what we call caste. This 
would lead one to suppose that the Teak originally was introduced from India, and 
brought with it, not its pure and simple Indian name, but received from the Indians 
who brought it to Java and the Archipelago the appellation of the „Hig/i caste wood." 
Jati also means in Ceylonese, great flowered Jasmine; mace, nutmegs. 

Jati, divine truth; essence. In this sense, it is very likely a modified meaning of the 
foregoing word. (Jav. id.) 

Jauh, far, far off, distant, remote. This word has also, most probably, a Sanscrit ori- 
gin, and may be a modification of a part of the verb Yanawa to go, which In the 
imperative is Yawa, go thou. (Mai. id.) 

Jauhken, to remove to a distance. 

Jawa, the Eastern portion of the island called by Europeans Java. Jawa extends from 
Tagal Eastward. A name, doubtless, originally given to the country by the people 
of India, as they appear to have called all distant countries Yawana, in the sense in 
which we speak of foreigners generally , or as the ancient Greeks called al strange na- 
tions Barbaroi. But the name by frequent intercourse, attached itself permanently to 
the Eastern parts of the present island of Jawa. It very likely has its origin in the 
same verb Yanawa mentioned at the word Jauh. Clough at Pages 208 and 571 gi- 
ves both Jawana and Jawana, as the name of a vague country distant from India, 
and as also meaning foreigner. The Hindus also applied Jawana to the Greeks and their 
Jawana Achayarya (Achdrya) is supposed to be Aristotle, the Yawana teacher. Clough 
Page 571 gives Jawana, a country most probably Bactria, or it may be extended 
from that colony to Jonia or still further to Greece. By late Hindu writers it is 
most commonly applied to Arabia. Jawa was originally a general name for all the 
Eastern Archipelago generally, and chiefly for the Sumatra and Java of the present 
day. Marco Polo describes them as such, and Ptolemy, the Roman geographer calls 
them the Jabidii insulw in the second century after Christ. In ancient times, thus, 
both Sumatra and Java of the present day were known as Jawa ; and Marco Polo , 
at the close of the 13th century distinguishes them by Jawa Minor, and Java Major 



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AND ENGLISH. 171 

the Java minor being Sumatra, as nearer India, though larger in bulk than the more 
distant Java major or Java of the present day. 

At Singapore, they to this day, talk of an Angin Jawa as blowing from the Sumatra 
shore, and which assuredly can never be meant to come from the Java of Batavia, 
at a distance of eight degrees of latitude. (56) 

Jawab, arabic, to answer, to reply. Answer, response, (v— >Us»- Jawdb, an answer.) 

J a we I, to snap or bite at, as a dog or tiger does. 

Jawer, a cock's comb. Jawer kotok, a cocks comb. 

Jawer kotok, name of a plant, Plectranthus Scutellaroides of the family of Labiataj. 
Very common in gardens- leaves red in the middle and green along the edges. Has 
a small blue flower. Scutellaroides- buckler shaped, perhaps from the leaves overlap- 
ping each other and presenting a dense even foliage. The leaves are sometimes enti- 
rely of a dark dull red. 

Jawer kotok, name of a plant Celosia Christata of the family of Amaranthacerc. The 
leaves like those of the preceding plant, are also red in the center and green on the 
edges. It bears a handsome scarlet comb terminal to the stem, and is altogether a 
very ornamental plant. 

Jaya, victory, victorious; successful. Jaya, C. 206, victory, conquest, triumph. 

Jaya Bay a, triumphant in troubles; name of an ancient King of Java, whose seat of 
government was at Daha in the province of Kadiri. Raffles 2 Vol Pages 80/81 as- 
signs as the date of his accession Anno Javse 800 ^ AD. 878; and Anno Javae 701 
z5 AD. 779. (Bhaya is fear, and frightful, horrible; so the name implies „ feared 
by his victories." Fr.) 

Jaya Kusuma, the trinmphant flower; the flower of victory, is another name in Java- 
nese history for Panji or Ina Karta Pati. 

Jayaning Rat, a name of Arjuna in the Mahabarat, and the title with wich the sove- 
reigns of Solo and Jugjo bedeck themselves — the triumphant in the Land. 

Jayak, to accompany in procession, to escort a great man with ceremony. To support 
a person either walking or swimming in the water. (Cf. Ajak.) 

Javang Sekar, the flowers of victory, a native soldiery so called kept in some parts 
of the interior of Java. (It is rather Jayeny sekar, contracted from Jaya ing sckar. Fr.) 

J a y i t , to take up out of water ; to take out of water anything which has been put therein 
to soak. 

Jobleh, having the lower lip sticking out, or projecting outwards horizontally like a flat 
saucer. (Batav. idem.) 

(56) In an Inscription of the year Saka 1216 (or 1215), see Raffles 2d. ed. Plate 83, the island 
13 called Yawadwipa. Yavoa is a kind of corn- barley. Jawa % as at present pronounced is thus a 
corruption — y becoming j is very common in all Indian languages. Fr. 



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172 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Jeblog, deep with mud- a soft muddy place into which man or animal sinks. (Jav. idem.) 
Jeblus, the idiomatic expression of anything falling into water, and being buried in it; 

or of a stake or piece of wood flung with violence end- foremost into the ground. (Jav. 

&o) { ^ N J$blo8 y has the latter meaning.) 

Jebod, a word expressive of striking, thwacking, thumping. 

Je brail, this word is the Arabic Azrail^ the name of the Angel of Death. The Arch- 

9 o *• 

angel Gabriel. (Jav. a/c<cn-»<r><n^\ Jabarail; Arab. Jl>.ji^. or JJji^, Gabriel, not 

Azrail. Fr.) 
Jebrod, the idiomatic expression for a rope or string snapping. Jali na jebrod bai pegal, 
and the rope snapped in two. (Cf. Jav. ^ ;(CT j«^> Jebret.) 

Jebug, a dry pinang fruit, with the husk on, which has been kept some time in the 
house. (Jav. idem.) 

Jebul, springing up suddenly out of water, or out of any place of concealment. Kayu 
na jebul bai ngambang , the wood jumped up (from under water) and floated. Jelema 
na jebul bai ti leuweung the man suddenly popped out of the forest. (Cf. Jav. Jebul 
and Jebol, and Jav. Mai. Timbul. Fr.) 

Jedak, the idiomatic expression of thumping, thwacking, striking violently or shooting. 
Jedak bai di gebugan, and he thumped him while he beat him. Jedak bai di bedil, 
and slap at him he shot 

Jeded, a word expressive of striking, thwacking, thumping, but in a more gentle de- 
gree than expressed by Jebod or JSdod. (Batav. Said of the firing of a fowling piece.) 

Jeding, having the upper lip turned upwards towards the nose v so as to make the 
mouth gaping. (Bat. idem.) 

Jedod, a word expressive of striking, but in a heavier degree than Jeded. (Bat. idem.) 

Jedog, hanging lazily about a place. A vulgar expression to designate a person idling 
his time away at any place. To kick up your heels anywhere. Eukeun jedog di 
lawang, he was idling about his door. 

Jedur, thundering along, said of any impetuous rush, as a river in a state of flood. 
Chai jedur bai cha-ah , and the river came down in a roaring flood. Said also of 
men or cattle rushing, especially through jungle. Jedur bai lumpat, and they rushed 
impetuonsly along. (Batav. Said of the firing of a gun.) 

Jeg, an idiomatic expression of setting the foot to the ground, as of a deer or other ani- 
mal which runs fast, and comes to the ground with a bound and immediately springs 
away again. Minchek najeg jelig bai lumpat y the small deer ran bounding away. Jeg 
often occurs in composition indicating firmness, steadiness, as Jejeg, Pajeg etc. 

J e gang, with the legs astride; standing with the legs apart. 

J e gang ken, to distend, to pull out the under part of anything so as to enable it to 
stand of itself. 



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AND ENGLISH. 173 

Jegeng, a plant in the humahs growing innumerable small seeds, of the size of a pin's 
head, in clusters. It is called in Malay Jawa-wut. It can be steamed like rice and 
eaten. It is much given to cage birds. The Sunda people have a tradition that their 
ancestors lived on Jegeng before Paddy was known to them. The Malay word Jawa- 
wut is Sanscrit, composed of J aw a and But, C. 475 Eating (of Priests) literally Java- 
eating- See Jawa. (Jawaicut might be Yawawat, resembling barley. Fr.) 

Jegeng, turmeric, only used about Buitenzorg in this sense. 

Jeger, stiff, inflexible, rigid. (Bat. idem.) 

Jegu, one of the many names for a wild pig. 

Jdgur, the idiomatic expression of a person or animal plumping into the water; or of 
hurriedly running away with some noise. Jvgur bai turun ka chai, and splash he 
went into the water. Jvgur bai hasup ha iZuw&ung , and dash he went into the forest. 
(Bat. Jvbur. Jav. Jvgur , the sound of thunder , or of a large gun. Fr.) 

JSjak, to trample on; to stamp down with the foot. (Jav, Bat. idem.) 

Jejalon, a lath or slip of barabu inserted lengthways in a g&dtg or wattling of bambu; 
the stick round which atap leaves are bent: derived from Jalu, the male of animals. 
Bateup sa jvjalon , a single piece of Atap. (Bat. idem.) 

Jejaluk, to go about asking alms, mostly under a religious pretext. (Batav. idem. Jav. 
Jaluky to ask.) 

Jejamu, medicine; medicine to be drunk. A medicinal draft. (Jav. idem.) 

Jejangkung, stilts; pieces of bambu with pegs in them used as stilts. (Jav. Janghing, 
to be in the air, like a bird of prey Batav. Jangkungan, the same as Jejangkung. Fr.) 

Jejgg, to stamp down, to trample down with violence with the foot: to stam pon. Asana 
jtjvg amat di bilang tea, well I counted it perfectly correct, (See Jvjak.) 

Jejelgma-an, a puppet, a scare crow, a figure dressed up like a man. Picked men, 
not every man, a man selected from a number. Jejetema~an daik kadatangan rtf/eii, 
it is not every man who has good luck. (See Jelvma.) 

Jejeman, to superintend work, to oversee; to arrange, to put in order. 

Jejeritan, skitting about: a hopping run. 

Jejuluk, a variety of grass in smamps of wich the inner fith is used as wicks for oil 

lamps. 
Jekat, alms. Arabic Zakat. The Jekat on Java is generally a portion of the crop given 
to the Mohammedan priests, and which properly is 1 1 ff of the crop. There is also a 

Jekat of other property. (Arabic jjK«, Zakaton.) 
Jeke'ng, a sort of short, sharp edged grass, resembling Hat. 

J el £ ma, a person, a human being, a man, a woman. Ay a jelema di dinjo, is any per- 
son there? Jefcma jangkung , a tall person. Jitetna is probably a corruption of the 
word Janma, C. 205, born, nature, birth; nation, race, tribe, lineage. 



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174 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Mr. Friederich supposes our Sunda word JelSma to be a corruption, so as to suit 
Polynesian organs, of the word Janma which is Sanscrit also, and means- Birth, pro- 
duction, according to Wilsons Sanscrit Dictionary. Calcutta 1819. 

Jeleng, flung away, knocked away, pitched off, ass by the violence of wind, of a stream 
of water, or said of any object which rebounds and strikes against another. Get 
along! Be off! 

Jeler, name of a small fish in the rivers, 3 or 4 inches long. It has no scales but 
5 cyrrhi or beards about the mouth. Cobitis Ilasseltii. 

Jelig, an idiomatic expression of hopping or jumping. Jclig bai turun, he came down 
with a hop. 

Jeling'er, active, stirring about. Said of man or beast, who is full of energy and stirs 
about. In good health- well. 

Jelot, dropping out, not as a liquid, but as any hard substance, as a tooth out of the 
head, a plug or nail out of a hole &c. 

JSmjera. the holy well called Zcmzcm in the mosque at Mecca. 

Jemblung, pot-bellied. A man with a large paunch. (Jav. idem.) 

Jenari, the period just before dawn. Very early in the morning before daybreak. 

J e n a t , the late , — said of a person who is dead. Jcnal na dulur hula , my late brother. 
Jvnat na Dcmang , the Demang (who is now dead). Jennat, in Marsden Page 105 

Paradise , in Arabic Jmnat , as gone to Paradise. (Jav. idem. Arab, j^. Jarnat, garden, 

paradise.) 
Jendral, European- a General- a Governor General. 
Jeneng, title, honorary designation. Name of honour. Dl Mri femng , they gave him 

a title. (Jav. Balin. To stand in honour, to govern. Fr.) 
Jungkang, to set the legs astride or apart. To open the legs. (Jav. To be in danger 

to fall hindwards.) 
Jengkol, name of a tree and its fruit. Inga Bigamina. The fruit is a concatenation of 

large round beans in a black pod. The natives are very fond of it, though it is stin- 
king stuff and is apt to give them severe fits of strangury. 
Jengkolan, suffering from strangury in consequence of eating Jengkol. 
Jcpit, jammed between, nipped, pinched. Evidently derived from Apit which Crawfurd 

says is Sanscrit, close, side by side, pressed or squeezed between two bodies. (Jav. 

Mai. Batav. idem.) 
Jepit and Jepitan, nippers, pincers, blacksmith's tongs. 

J era mi, Paddy straw. The straw from which the grain has been cut off*. (See Jami.) 
Jerih, feeling hurt or sore at getting a smaller portion or allowance than other people. 

(Jav. Bat. Jerih or Jrih, is to be afraid.) 
Jero, deep, profound. Di j&ro y within, inside. Jtro corresponds to the Malay word 

Dalcm , and implies Inner in the sense of refined or accomplished. 

Basa jtro , refined or far- fetched language. 



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AND ENGLISH. 173 

Tari jero, called in Malay Padi Dalttn. Paddy which is of the best description and 
requires full five months to grow. 

Orang jcro , people who attend on great men or ave about a court. Yet the Sun- 
das do not say Jtro as applied to a native chief, but use the word J)atem, which see. 
(Jav. Balin. id.) 

Jcruk, orange, pumplemoos- Shaddock. Jvruk is the generic name for a great variety 
of Citrus- as 
• Jeruk manis, Citrus aurantium. 
Jeruk Honje, Citrus tTavanica. 

Jdruk Ipis, a small thin skinned variety- limes. (Batav. Jeruk tipis.) 
Jcruk Bali or Jcruk Machan, the Pumplemoos which is the Citrus Decumana. 

Jeujeuh, the length of the foot, a foot mark long. As Juungkal is the span of the hand, 
so Jeujeuh is the span of the foot. 

Jeujeur, the shaft of a fishing net; a fishing rod. 

Jeujeut, to plat, to interweave with the hands; to plat like matting. (Jav. S^vn.j\ 

Jejet> to interweave bambu.) 
Jeunah, the maiden stem, the first fructification stem thrown out by the Kawung palm, 

and which is, of course, the first stem beaten and tapped for Sugar juice. 
Jeuneum, the lair made by wild pigs to bring forth in. It resembles a large hay-cock; 

is made of grass, straw and twigs, under the middle of which they creep to bring forth. 
J e u n g , with . along with. Kudu jeung aing , it must be along with me. 
Jeungjing, a tree, a variety of Acacia, very common in the jungle, 
Jcungkal, a span, a span of the hand, a measure so called. 
Jcuntas, a stage of rude sticks or poles set against a tree, in order to fell it, at some 

distance above the ground , where it is thinner. 
Jeunti, is the name of a tree growing amongst Alang-Alang or eurih, and is found in 

Krawang and the Prianger Regencies; it somewhat resembles the Siunpur, but is not 

that tree. The Jeunti at the east end of Java is called Sumpu, which is odd, from 

its resembling the Sunda Sumpur so closely. 
Jiad, to help, to protect in difficulties. (Jav. ^ 1U m^ Jiyad , coercion , violence.) 

Jiat nika, preparatory arrangements; arrangements taken with care so that all may be 
in order. 

Jieun, to make, to construct. Leuweung dt jieunan humah, that forest has been con- 
verted into humahs. 

Jihe'nnem, arabic, Hell. (Arabic, >x^, Jahannam.) 

Jijirih, shirking work, getting out of the way for fear of orders or incurring something 
unpleasant. (Cf. Jen'A, Jav. *£^ cowardly.) 



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176 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Jilid, arabic, to tan, to make leather; a skin, a roll, a volume. The covering or bin- 
ding of a book. (Arabic, dl&., Jild, the hide; leather, ddsv*, mujallad, covered 

with leather, a book, a tome.) 
Jimat, an amulet, a talisman; spell, written charm, an incantation. It is the Arabic 

word Azimat of same import- (£«ju:). 

2 

Jin, arabic, evil spirit, demon; the race of genii. (JU-, Jinn, demons, genii.) 

*<• 

Jingjing, to lift up with the hand, to carry away in the hand without tying to a car- 
rying stick. To carry off as a tiger carries its prey. This appears to be a sort of 
diminutive of Jungjung , to lift up. 

Jingjingan, the stick in the native weaving loom, used to raise the alternate threads, 
by means of pieces of string tied to the same and the woof. 

J in is, the original true article; the Simon pure; that from which others are derived. 

(Seems to be the Arabic /uJLa., Jins, which is taken from the Greek yzvo%. Latin 

genus. Fr.) 

Jinten, cummin seed. 

J in ten, name of a plant with thick hairy crenulated leaf, often kept growing in a bas- 
ket on the roof of houses and used in cookery. It is called in Malay Daun Kuching. 

Jirak, name of a tree Dicalyt tinctorius, the bark is used in native dying processes. 

Jirat, a noose with a limber stick bent down to it. A springe, a gin, a sliding knot. 
(Jav. <&ajiasnji\ Jiret idem.) 

Jitun, olive. This word is Arabic- Zeitun. A variety of Jarak is called Jarak jitun y 
the olive atropha. Europeans call it vulgarly Palma Christi. (Arabic , ^^L:.) 

Jiwa, the soul, life. Jiwa, C. 212, life, existence; the sentient soul. 

Jochong, sticking out stiff, rigid. 

Jodo, a term applied to marriages where the parents on both sides give their consent, 
but the young people cannot made up their minds or agree. Jodo, Crawford- a pair, 
a brace, a couple, mate, match. (Jav. ^«^<wm J6d6, with the meaning given by 

Crawfurd.) 
Jo dog, the open landing place at the entrance of a native house, which is ascended by 

steps. The open balcony at a native's door. 
Jogdd, a variety of fish trap for catching lele fish. It opens downwards and the lele has 

to make its way up. 
Jogjerog, to trot; to jolt and shake on horse back. In contradistinction to the native pas. 

A derivation of the following word. 



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AND ENGLISH. 177 

Jogjog, uneasy in motion, jolting; to keep moving. Jogjog di na kuda, jolting on 
horse back. 

Joglo, a temporary accommodation shed: a canvass tent. 

Jo go, to squat down on the hams, but not with the bottom touching the ground. 

Jogor, stiff, unbending. 

Johar, the planet Saturn. Bentang Johar> the star Saturn. (Cf. Jahal. Arab. J^j Zu- 
haL) 

J oh or, name of a Malay state at the Southern extremity of the Malay Peninsula. Sup- 
posed to be so called from an Arabic word of the same sound meaning- Precious 
stone, or Pearl. It was founded by the Malay chiefs who were driven out of Ma- 

lacca by the Portuguese. (Arabic, JUa., Jauhar, from the Persian JbJ*, Gauhar, 
precious stones, pearls. Freytag. ) 

Jojong, keeping at one's work, or on our course, irrespective of what others are doing. 

Jokjok, the place for putting rice in a native's house. The store place for rice. (Cf. 
Gericke s. v. •^iot^n 3d meaning, to pour out, to fill.) 

Jol, the idiomatic expression of coming. Jol bai datang, and pop he came; to pop sud- 
denly upon any one; making appearance. Ti mana jol na> where did he pop from 
(come from). Chai na jol tij&ro> the water oozes out. 

Jolang, a wooden trough, a trough hollowed out from the stem of a tree. (Jav. ^«^iri»x 
Jolang , a chair for carrying people , hung round with clothes. Sund. Dulang , the same 
as our Jolang.) 

Joli, a sedan chair, or any contrivance for carrying a person. (Jav. Balin. idem.) 

Jolok, to probe at with a skewer; to poke at in a hole with any long thin imple- 
ment, 

Jombang, name of a violent current of wind passing through the country in one deter- 
mined straight line and uprooting all before it A sort of hurricane. 

Jompo, disabled for work; not fit for work, from age or infirmity. (Jav. idem.) 

Jompong, servants of nobles. 

Jong, a Chinese junk; a ship. (Jav. ^^ lN Jong, idem.) 

Jongjongan; a short period of time, a short interval, say of about half an hour, parti- 
cularly as applied to work going on. A jongjongan is also a designation of distance, 
as much as a man can walk in about half an hoar and will be thus about two or 
three miles. Might be translated — „a joggle on." — 

Jongko, to sit on the rump on the ground, with the knees bent up under the chin. (Batav. 
Jongkok.) 

Jong 1 or, a bit of forest projecting beyond the general line; a bit of land projecting or 
jutting out. 

Jonot, a name for a wild pig. 

£3 



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178 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

J on tor, a projecting point, any large rough thing which sticks out. A headland, a pro- 
montory. 

Jotang, name of a plant, Spilanthes acinella. 

Jo tang, name of a plant, Eclipta erecta. 

Jual or JTuwal, to sell. Daik di juwal> will you sell it? Hanto di juwal y it is not 
for sale. (Mai. Jav. idem.) 

Jubag, crippled, laid up with desease in any part of the body. 

Jubung, a circle of platted bambu set in a pan wherein sugar is boiling, to prevent its 
boiling over. 

Jubur, the anus, 

Judah, Jeddah on the coast of Arabia. 

Jugang, a cross piece of wood ar bambu to distend any thing and prevent its collapsing, 
as a cross piece between two sides of a roof or other construction ; a distender. 

Jugang-jarging, walking backwards and forwards, with a swinging gait. 

Jugja, and Jugjakarta, name of one of the present native seats of government, viz of 
the Sultan, in the native provinces of Java proper. Jugja is a corruption of Ayudya % 
the name of the kingdom of Kama in the Ramayana. Crawfurd. Ayodya, C. 45, a 
neg. Yodya, war- not to be warred against. The modern Oudethe capital of Kama. 
Karfa auspicious, fortunate, accomplished. 

Jugjug, to direct the course to; to wish to get at; to aim at, to steer at, to drive, to 
chase away. 

Jugul, a bit of bambu with a notch slit in it, serving to show the distance at wich ataps 
may be regularly laid on a roof, generally about four inches apart. 

J u j a , arabic , the Zodiacal sign Gemini. (Arab. s ):*sA) Al- Jauza; probably from Scr. Yujau, 
the twins.) 

Jujul, a stake or piece of wood, which being to long for its use, projects unnecessarily- 
sticking out. 

Jujung, a fresh water river and pond fish, something like Gabus. 

Jukung, name of a variety of cargo boat, in use on rivers. 

Jukut, grass, of which the natives enumerate a great many varieties , always prefixing the 
word Jukut to each name. 

Jukut Bau, stinking grass, Ageratum conyzoides. A plant which grows very rapidly 
amongst the mountains, and without care chokes all other plants, especially young 
paddy. It is called in some places Babadotan. 

The following are some of the most usual grasses known to the Sundaese , inclu- 
ding those most sought after for cattle; Beubeunteuran ; Bibitungan; Girintingan; 
Jam pang; Jampang pahit; Kalam m£ta or Lambeta; Pingping kasir; Teki; Tike, a 
sort of grass on the sea shore, and Walingi. 

Julang, a variety of the Buceros or Rhineceros bird, it resembles the Rangkung. 



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AND ENGLISH.; 179 

Juluk, to poke into a hole tinder water, with a stick to try if there is any fish in it, 
preparatory to using the hidi or spear point. 

Julung-julung, a variety of fish. Sphyraena Jello. 

Jumadil ahkir, arabic, the sixth month of the Mohammedan year; ahkir, means latter. 

Jnmadil awal, arabic , the fifth month of the Mohammedan year ; awal means first , former. 

Jumahat, arabic. Friday. The Mohammedan Sabbath. A week. 

J um arum, like needles, said of paddy just sprouted; literally like a Jarum or needle. 

Jumbrah, a ceremony performed at Mecca, consisting in casting stones at a supposed 
demon or the Devil. The Sunda word is probably a corrupted form of the Arabic 
word Jamral, which means gravel, and is applied to the same ceremony. 

Jumlah, arabic, the sum, whole, total, aggregate, collection. 

Jumpalit, turned topsy- turvy; with the bottom upwards. 

Jung; a measure of land consisting of four bauhs. (Perhaps Skr. Janghd, leg. Baku is arm.) 

Jung, get along, go with you; go along; be off. Jung ria pulang- go along back with 
you. The idiomatic expression of lifting up. Jung di jungjung, and up they lifted it. 

Jungjung, to lift up, to raise, to elevate, to prop up. A prop, a support. 

JungkSd, upset, turned over. 

Jungkedken, to raise an object at one end while the other still rests upon the ground. 

Jungkgl, turn or time of any measure of length. Sabraha jungk&l, how many measures 
is it? How many times of the measure? 

JungkSl, upset, cast down, tumbled over- Jungkvl bai di bodily he shot at and tumbled 
him over. 

JungkkSlken. to turn over by placing a lever underneath. 

Jungklang, precipitous, steep. 

Jungkulan, Java head: the west end of the island of Java. Derived from the verb 
Tungkulan , to hang over and fondle , as the hills and rocks here overhang the Indian 
Ocean. v 

Juragan, a headman or leader in any way. A petty district Chief; the Chief native or 
Headman on the private Estates, who has charge of the police. A headman in a 
boat Compounded of Juru, an overseer, one who presides over or acts in any de- 
partment of business, and Ageng Chief, though in the compound word the final g is 
hardly ever heard. 

Jurak, name of a fish in the rivers. 

Jure, the corner ridge pole of a house. 

Jurig, an evil spirit, a sprite, a goblin. 

Jurjana, base, evil, wicked, brutish, sensellamess , cious. Durjjana, C. 279, vile, bad, 
wicked , malicious. K€chap jurjana , malicious speaking. 

Juru, corner; the inner angle of anything; corner of a room. 



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180 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Juru, an overseer, director, one who presides over, or acts in any department of business. 

Juru-basa, a linguist, an interpreter. 

Juru-mudi, a helmsman, a steersman. 

Juru-tulis, a clerck, a writer, a secretary. 

Jurung, to assist; to come to the help of, to befriend. 

Jut, the idiomatic expression of getting down , descending. Jut bai tunm ti imah , and 
down he stepped from his house (always built on piles above the ground). 

Ju-uh, much, as of flowing liquids; abundant in water or in juice. Said of the branch 
of a Kawung tree which yields much juice. Jttruh tinggur, clia-ah sadapan said of 
the Kawung Palm — profusely flowing from the beaten stem, and sending forth a 
flood from the toddy tapping. 

Ka, an inseparable particle used in the formation of derivative nouns, to which it is pre- 
fixed sometimes singly, but also, and that most frequently, the word to which it is 
prefixed, is followed by an y and by depriving the word of its initial Ka and affix an y 
the crude form of the word will be found and if necessary may be further sought in 
the dictionary. Kadua, the second, Katiga, the third. Kaburu, overtaken. KangZunahan, 
delight, pleasurableness , derived from Ngeunah; Kaluhuran, height from luhur high. 

Ka, a preposition in universal use; to, unto, towards. Ka mana % whither, or where are 
you going? Ka girang> up the river. Ka hilir, down the river. Kaluhur, upwards. 
Ka handapy downwards. It becomes often kang before a word beginning with a voweh 
Bikun kadiyo kangaing , give it here to me. 

Ka- a dilan, justice, equity, righteousness. (Arabic, JjU, Adil, just.) 

Ka-ang'inan, exposed to the wind; in a draft of wind. 

Ka-angkat, taken away, removed. 

Kababaran, overcome, outdone. 

Kabadd, guessed, to know what a thing is, comprehended: to divine. Kayu iyo to ka- 

bad6 y I do not know what is the name of this wood. 1'achan di pupulih geus kabade, 

before he told me I had guessed it. 
Kabadi, to be unwittingly overtaken by some evil or disease, which is supposed to be 

the work of evil genii, and for which a great variety of hocus-pocus incantations are 

put in requisition, to avoid the evil effects. 
Kabah, arabic, the Kaaba. The temple at Mecca to which all good Mohammedans ought 

to make the pilgrimage. Close to the Kaaba is the celebrated well Zamzam. (ixstil) 9 

Al-Kabot.) 
Kabalik, upset, turned upside down, inverted. 
Kabaya, Port: a loose robe, a dressing gown. 
Kabaya-an, to be overtaken by some evil; to have met with a misfortune. See Baya. 



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AND ENGLISH. 181 

Kabayan, a person of the olden time, before the introduction of Mohammedanism, who 
was possessed of much supernatural power. Probably derived from Bay a , C. 460 , 
fear, terror, alarm. {Kabayan at Bali is a person, who executes the orders of the 
village-chief ,- Mandef a. Transact Batav. Society of Arts and Sciences. VoL XXIII, 
p. 45 of the „Verslag van Bali:" Fr.) 

Kabayar, paid, debt cleared off. To kabayar, I c'ant pay it, 

Kabedag, to overtake; overtaken, come up with. Done in time. 

Kab£h, all, every one, the whole. Probably compounded of the inseparable particle Ka 
which see- and Be'h, the interjection of sight In Malagasi Be means numerous. (Kawi, 
Javan. Balin. idem. Seems to be a prolongated form of Kweh or Akweh, Kawi, 
Balin. of the same import, which exists in Javan. Keh. ^«m^ and in the corrupted 
form Kyeh «f*™{> which the Javanese suppose to be Kawi. Gericke compares beh 
«»ct>{\ which means in composition thirty. Fr.) 

KabelSjog, got into difficulties about any thing; done, cheated, swindled. Said of any- 
thing which we undertake and cannot fulfil. 

Kabencran,asitso turns out , as chance will have it ; luckily. Anything that comes apropos. 

Kabeseken, to have a husky cough caused by anything getting into the throat and 
sticking there, as dust or any small particle. 

Kabet, distracted, attention drawn away by something else than what we ought to be 
attending to. Perplexed. 

Kabeubeuheulan, unable to void excrement 

Kabeuki, whatever we desire; the thing desired or wished for. Kabeuki na ha na lauk 
munding, Buffaloe flesh is just what he likes. 

Kabeulit, entangled by a rope or string getting twisted round it 

Kabeurcuyan, said when a bone or other impediment sticks in the throat 

Kabias, to be cast away at sea; drifted from one's course: to lose oneself in a forest. See Bias. 

Kabina, exceedingly, in a high degree, generally said of something bad. Kabina bina 
tcuyn, that is excessively bad; that is to bad! 

Kabireung'o, espied, discovered with the eye, viewed, beheld, inspected. 

Kabiri, gelded, castrated. K&bo kabiri, a gelded buffaloe. Say am kabiri, a capon. 
Kabiri is also said of trees and plants , the tops of which are nipped oft to make them 
grow more luxuriantly side-ways, as Tobacco, Coffee trees &c. &c. Biri, C. Page 
473 is a woman, a wife. With the constructive Ka before it would imply womanized. 
If this derivation is true . we would be led to the conclusion that the Islanders learnt 
the art of gelding from the Indians of the continent. (57.) 



(57) Biri is no Scr. word; bhiru, means fearful, and the feminine a timid woman. The Scr. words 
for castrated mean having lost the testicles , they are according to Williams, English and Sanscrit 



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182 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Kabita, pleased with, delighted at, taken with, captivated. Evidently derived from Ka 
and Bita. Bita or Bhita, C. 474 — 495, fear, alarm, apprehension, terror. From 
this we must conclude that Kabita expresses an alarm lest we should be deprived of 
the object of our delight; and is thus literally- „alarmed about it." 

Kaboldr, behind in work, not able to get through a job, a task unaccomplished. 

Kabongereui, wishing, longing. 

Kabubuwahan, the kidneys. (See Buwah.) 

Kabudayan, knowledge, skill. (Derived from buddhi, Scr., wisdom.) 

Kabuhulan, notable to swallow,* sticking in the throat. 

Kabukti, got, obtained, come in possesion of, appropriated, Kalapa eta tachan iabukti 
buah na> the fruit of that Cocoa nut tree has not yet been obtained. See Buiti. 

Kabul, arabic, receiving what we ask for; a petition granted; acceptable, consenting, 
receiving. Favourably. 

Kabulan, the ceremony of taking a portion of the boiled rice when praying at Svd&kah 
bulan Mulud, which each man reserves for himself or for his family. The word is 
derived from Kabul, granted, the petition conceded (at the prayer). 

Kabuli, a preparation of boiling rice with meat, butter and sweetmeats. 

Kabur, run away, fled, made off, escaped. 

Kaburu, overtaken, pursued and taken. Having time to finish any work. To Icaburu, 
we had not time to get it done. It could not be accomplished. 

Kabut, thrown about in confusion, scattered, dispersed. Kalang-kabut , disrupted, scat- 
tered, said either of men or things. 

Kabuyutan, compounded of Buyut, which see. Anything which is buyut or sacredly 
forbidden. The Great grand father or Great grand child. 

Kacha, glass for glazing; a looking glass. In this lather sense more frequently called 
Sunteung. Kachaya, C. 118 a kind of silicious clay or earth from which glass is made. 
Or it may be derived from Chaya, bright, brilliant- CIihSyE, C. 203 radiance, splen- 
dour, but the Polynesian Ka prefixed, and the terminal ya elided, and will then denote 
the object of splendour, from its being transparent. 

Kacha-kacha, a triumphal arch erected in honour of a great man. An arched gateway 
of ceremony, usually constructed of bambu. 

Kachang, a pea, a bean, pulse. Bolichos and phaseolm of wich the species are very 
numerous. 



dictionary, ch'hinnaivrishana, cKhinnamushka, mushkaqhnya. A Eunuch is called Jdhva, which means 
the genus neutrum; he has besides a great deal of other names, which mean no man^ a third 
superfluous being , a guardian of ivomen. But none of these words resemble in form, or meaning to 
that of Kabiri (as given above in the text). We shall thus perhaps be obliged to seek for the ori- 
gin elsewhere. Fr. 



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AND ENGLISH. 183 

Kachang taneuh, ground nut, Arachis hypogcea, so called from the seed vessels retur- 
ning into the earth, and becoming a sort of granulous root. 
Kachap, is difficult to translate- and then- did'nt he- Kachap ngarajang , did'nt he fly at him. 
Kachapi, name of a tree Sandoricum Nervosum. Produces a round apple-like fruit, 

full of cloves. 
Kachapi, a native musical instrument; a kind of guitar or lute. 

Kacha-piring, name of a large shrub with pure white flowers. Gardenia florida. Cal- 
led also Picha piring which see. 
Kachembang, a climbing shrub. Ardisia Tenniflora of the family Myrsinea. It bears 

a little black berry like the Privet oa the Ligustrum in Europe. 
Kachichian, having something poured out or spilt upon it Kachichiau e hi han&ut , having 

warm water poured upon it. 
Kachida, excessively, seriously, beyond hope of recovery. Rusak Kachida, excessively 

spoiled, knocked to pieces. Goring kachida ill beyond hope of recovery. (Might be 

frbra Scr. CKhula, cutting, dividing. Fr.) 
Kaching, left in the lurch, behind hand. Said of an idle good for nothing fellow who 

is always behind hand, who can never keep to time. 
Kachip, a forceps or scissars for cutting the betel-nut. 
Kachoa, a cockroach, when of large variety. A troublesome insect in store rooms; it gets 

amongst provisions and is especially fond of cheese. Blatta orientalis. 
Kachokot, laid hold of, caught in the hand. Possible to be done. Said of work which 

can be got through. To Kachokot , I have no chance of getting through (that work). 

It is more thau can be got through. 
Kachuali, except; with the exception of, unless. 
Kachubung, Datura in varieties. Datura ferox, Datura metel. N When the seeds of the 

Datura ferox are eaten, they cause a sort of frenzy or madness. These seeds are 

often mixed with bad opium to give it the appearance of being very efficaceous. A 

few of the seeds of the Kachubung are eccasionally given to the Perkutut doves which 

cause them to warble a great deal. See Kuchubung. 
Kachugak, wounded in the foot or lower leg by anything large, as the end of a sharp 

stake or the like. When wounded by anything small , as a thorn , it is called Kasura. 
Kadaik, resolution, vigour of mind or body. The will (to do anything) Eossa Kadaik 

na> vigourous in will or determination. (See Daik). 
Kadal, a ground lizard, found much near houses and in gardens. 
K a dale, a variety of pulse frequently planted. Kadala, C. 101, a kind of small bean, 

usually called gram, which is given to horses. 
Kadal-moyan, a piece of bambu which goes along the ridge-pole of the corners of a 

house, to which the covering is made fast, and the pegs to hold down the tatch 

secured. Litterally- the lizard sunning itself 



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184 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Kadancha, a wood pigeon. A large wild pigeon in old forests which gives a loud and 

lugubrious cry or cov. 
Kadang-kadang, sometimes, at times. 

Kadariyo, the plural of Kadiyo, and is thus- come hither all of you-come here collectively. 

Kadatangan, to have come to us or to me. Kadatangan simah, a stranger is come to 
me; that is I have got a stranger in the house. Kadatangan untung, to have got 
prosperity, 

Kadaton, a Palace, the residence of a Datu or Rata. 

Kaddk, to cut or hack with a sharp instrument, as with a sword or chopper. 

Kadengi, heard. To hadtngi, I do not hear it I did not hear it Kadengi hajauh, 
heard a long way off. 

Kadengk^k, troubled, in difficulties. 

Kadengkgn, to lay down flat, to prostrate; to lay anything down on the ground. 

Kadepdr, a fruit resembling a mango. 

Kadijah, the first wife of Mahomet; she was a widow when he married her, and set him 
up in the world. She died three days after Abu Taleb, aged 65 years, and was Mo- 
hammeds only wife till her death. 

K a ding, 'tis true; Yes even so; now that Jthink of it. Used as if calling any circumstance 
to memory. Ho hading sia geus mayar> oh, now that think of it, you have paid. Verier 
hading , now that Jthink of it , it is right. 

Kadiniyo, to, on or at that very spot: there, with emphasis. 

Kadipaten, the place or dwelling where an Adipati lives. 

Kadiyo, hither, to this place, the usual expression for our — Come here! 

Kadogan, a native stable for a horse; generally a single separate stall , made of open bar- 
work with a roof, into which the horse is turned in loose and baned in. 

Kadongdong, name of a tree, Paupartia Dulcis or Spondias mangifera, somewhat re- 
sembling a small manggo. 

Kadongdong China, a pretty shrub for the fences of garden plots. Panax Pruticosa. 

K a d u , an inland residency in Java , in which stand the magnificent ancient ruined temples 
of Boro Bodur. Both Marsden and Crawfurd give Kadu as Sanscrit implying the Dra- 
gon's tail, one of the nodes of the moon. Kadu is also the short for Kaduwa, C. 101. 
a sword, a sabre, and may have had some allusion to the kshattriyas or military cas- 
te settled here, and at no great distance from the abode of the holy men in Bagalen, 
and among the Prahu mountains. (58.) 



(58) The Dragon's tail is called Ketu in Sanscrit. Corruptions as from Kttu into Kadu can- 
not be admitted in Javanese without a great deal of analogous cases. The only word to be brought 
forward in favour of Marsden and Crawfurd is Kuda, derived by Humboldt and others from 



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AND ENGLISH. 185 

Kudu, the great and celebrated fruit of the Asiatic Archipelago called in Malay Lurian, 

Durio Zibethinus of the natural family of Bombaceae. 
Kadudukan, an employment, an office, a post of honour; rank. Kadudukan adipati, 

the rank of an Adipati. Tachan bogah kadudukan , he has not yet got employment or 

a situation. 
Kaduga, to undertake, to take in hand; to reckon to be able. To kaduga, I cannot ven- 
ture to undertake it See Duga. 
Kaduhung, vexed, sorry for any act; inwardly regretting. 
Kadut, a bag, bagging made of shreds of Palm leaves, especially of the Gebang Palm, 

and much used for the sails of small native craft. 
Ka-£ntet, joined together, tacked or tied together. Adhering to each other. 
Kageduk-see Kakeduk. 
Kag£t, startled, put in trepidation. The more usual word is Roxoas. It is also used in 

the construction of sentences as a word of apposition or contrast, what then, how if, 

suppose that, but if, but then. Kagti to di bcrt, but suppose he does not give to me. 
Kaget datang , but then he came. (59). 
Kagol, any thing which is out of place, out of season, not opportune. Unseasonable, 

occurring at a wrong time. Put out of your routine. Something being in the way which 

prevents your acting. Jadi kagol kit batur, I become disappointed on account of my 

neighbours. (Is known at Batavia). 
Kagugu, tickled with an idea; having a mixture of surprise and indignation about any 

matter. 
Kagung'an, Highness- derived from Agung, principal, chief, with the pre- and suffix 

Ka and an. Kagung'an Itaden Adipati , His Highness the Raden Adipati. Kuda 

kagung'an , your honour's horse. 



Scr. ghota. But even this derivation is no more than a conjecture. The name self dragons tail is 
not an auspicions one, why should it have been given to such a fine, celebrated country? Kaduwa 
might be Khadga y on Java however such an alteration seems not to be admissible. We might find 
perhaps the Etymon of the word in any of the Polynesian languages. The writing . j^ (Kvdu) in 

Marsdens Malay dictionary leaves it uncertain if the e be long or short. In the first case we ex- 
pect a ~ after the ^; the latter case is very improbable, when the word is to be derived from 

Ketu. After all I know from inscriptions a name Iwarahu, which must have been a place of no- 
tice in the northeastern part of Java- and it means like Baku who is the upper part of the dra- 
gon, and always desirous to devour the sun or the moon. Fr. 

(59) In Kawi it is kagiat; Jav. and Batavian kaget; on a golden ring from Java kaj6t; Malay 
ktyut and another Javanese form is ktyot. Fr. 

24 



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186 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Kah, glue; the word is probably- Chinese, as these people have it mostly in use in their 
handicrafts, and import the article from China. 

Kahakan, eaten, consumed. Buah na gvus kahakan, its fruit has been eaten. To ka- 
hakan ku ainrj , I did not get any to eat. 

Kahalingan, shut out by, intercepted by. The view cut off. Gunung eta kahalingan ku 
gunung deui, that mountain is still shut out by other mountains — you cannot see it. 
(Jav. idem.) 

Kah an an, place, residence, where -a man puts up. Subsistance, means of living. (From 
the Javanese hana, to be. Fr.) 

Kahar, authority, rights. Most probably Arabic. 

Kaharti, understood, comprehended. Understanding, comprehension. Meaning. (From 
Scr. Artha, Mai. Arti). 

Kahayang, desire, wish; what we long for, longing. 

Kaheunipik, encompassed, hemmed in so as not to be able to move at liberty; in a di- 
lemma. 

Kahirupan, livelyhood, maintenance, sustinance; life, existence. (See Hirup.) 

Kahkal, hard and firm as Dodol or any preparation of cookery. 

Kahot, invulnerable; a person whom weapon cannot wound, as daring scoundrels or re- 
bellious subjects always pretend to be. A brave daring man. (According to Gericke 
means Kahot in Kawi, excellent, eminent; a brave warrior.) 

Kah uj a nan, rained upon; got wet from rain. 

Kahyangan, name on Bali for the abode of the gods. See Hyang. Also small houses 
where offerings are made to the gods. On Bali there are the Sad Kahyangan or six 
chief temples distributed among the petty states of that island, which are noted places 
of Hindu worship. 

Kai, a term of respect for an old man- honoured Sir! a contraction of Kiai which see. 

Ka-i, wood, especially wood which has been cut, planks, beams or teh like. (Cf. Mai, 
Kayu.) 

Kai-akas, a small active crab on sea shore, which burrows in the sand. 

Kain, cloth made of cotton especially. Kain meja> a table cloth. 

Kairok, wrong, mistaken, confounded. 

Kait, to pull towards one with a hooked stick; a hook or crook. Any weight which is 
weighed at once on the native or Chinese Dachin or steelyard; the quantity which is 
put upon the Kait or hook of the instrument, to be weighed is called Sa Kait. 

Kait ken, to pull towards one with a hooked stick; to hang up to a hook. To put the 
bridle over a horse's head. 

Kajagjag, said of water the bottom of which can be felt by a man standing upright in 
it As much as a man's depth. 

Kajalikeuh, sprained in the foot. 

Kajang, a large piece of stiff matting made of the unexpanded leaves of a Palm tree, 



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AND ENGLISH. 187 

which are tacked together with split rattan, much used to keep off rain or wet, and 
as such are in universal use in all sorts of boats and river craft. Finer varieties are 
used for lining sugar baskets. 

Kajar-kajar, name of a plant, Ccdpcasia macrorhyza. 

Kajeun, never mind, it matters not; Ingk&un na f kafeun teuyn let it alone, it matters 
not the least. Kajeun to di here never mind even should he not give any. 

Kaju, name of a tree, Anacardium Occidentalc, called also Jambu medt y and in Malay 
Jambu Monyat; the cashewapple. Kaju, C. 98 the cashew nut tree. 

Kaka, Elder brother; a term of respect in adressing a man older than ourselves. In 
Malay Kaka is elder brother or sister. See Marsden Page 249. -4A£a, C. 4. Eldest 
sister. 

Kakab, a piece of injuk, as it comes from the tree in the shape of a triangular bit of 
matting. Injuk sa kakab , a piece of injuk. 

Kakabueun, the lungs; the part in the chest on which the breath of respiration acts. 

Kakait, a stick with a hook to it, much used when cutting brush wood, or grass, both 
for the facility which it gives in the work, and from saving the hand from being 
poked amongst the grass where often the deadly Oral lan&uh , or ground snake , lurks. 
(CL^Kait) 

Kakait beusi, name of a shrub, an Uncaria, the same as Kuku l&ulang. Also a sepa- 
rate variety. 

Kakalen, a gutter, a drain for water, a ditch. Derived from Kali to dig, and thus 
is literally — „a dug out" — It is not derived from Kali a river, which word, in 
that sense , does not exist in Sunda. But Kali is the word for a river in both Java- 
nese and Malay as spoken on the coasts of Java, and especially at Batavia. The 
Sunda people use for river, Chi, chai, waluran. 

Kakang, elder brother, more frequently Kaka, which see. 

Kakap, name of a fine large sea fish of excellent flavour. 

Kaka pa, a padded cloth used by natives by way of a saddle. 

Kakara, now for the first time; never before; Kakara nyaho di hade na, now for the 
first time we know of its being in order. 

Kakarak, only now, just now, freshly; as yet; now for the first time. Kakarak datang 
sa oraiujy as yet only one man is come. Kakarak teumpang, he has just gono away. 
Kakara and Kakarak are two distinct words, but there is only a slight shade of dif- 
ference in meaning between them 

Kakasih, see Kasih, affection, love. 

Kakat, to lift up and take away, to remove. Kudu di kakat it must be taken away. 

Kakatuwa, a cockatoo; used as applied to parrots imported from countries beyond Java, 
as the parrots of the Moluccos. 

Kakawdn, singing, songs. Derived from Kawih which see. Ornaments of speech, some- 
thing in addition to the plain truth. (The original word is Scr. Kawi , a poet , or rather 



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188 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Kawya, a poem. The word is a contraction from the following. Fr.) 
Kakawian, singing, in the act of vociferating a song. The subject of a song, E&Jcvur 

kakawian in the act of singing. 
Kakayon, timber, wood in general, all kinds of wood which grow. Wood taken as a 

class apart from shrubs or plants which do not grow wood or timber. (From Kayu.) 
Kakeduk and sometimes Kageduk, a bit of bambu set in a running stream, so that the 

water constantly jerks it, by which strings are pulled to frighten pigs or birds. 
Kakemben, a sort of scarf worn by women round the waist or breasts. The same as 

Karimbong which see. (On Bali KambZn means the common clothing of a women; the 

scarf alluded to is called kambun ch&rik, that is a small cloth or kain. Fr.) 
Kaken, a foot rule. (From Kaki.) 
Kakdncheng, an iron open cooking pan formed like a concave segment of a sphere. 

A large sugar pan. (At Batavia it is made of copper.) 
Kak^nda, elder brother or sister; used only among people of rank. Compounded of 

kaka vide, and endah, good, proper. (See above Baginda.) 
Kakenyed, a small rope used as reins to a buffaloe yoked to plough or cart. 
Kakeplok, knocking stones together to make a noise, as is done with stones under 

water to frighten fish towards any nets or traps which may be set. A joint of bambu 

set in the sawahs, which Alls and empties itself regularly, and the end which is split 

knocking against a stone , frightens the wild pigs away. (Jav. Kvplok , to beat in the hands.) 
Kakepuk, in a hurry and confusion. Overhaste at any work whereby it is badly done. 

The reverse of liineh which see. 
Kaki, a measure of a foot, which the word implies in Malay. 

The usual foot employed on Java is the 

Amsterdam foot equal to 11.146 English inches. 

Rhineland foot equal to 12.357 „ „ 

The English foot is also in very general use . 12.000 „ „ 

Kakiping, a wheel for a Pedaty or native cart, or a wheel for a Rice-mill, cut out of 

one disk of wood. KZping in Malay Marsden Page 260 flat (not convex). It is ap- 
plied idiomatically in the enumeration of things flat and thin, as KZpingbatu a slate. 
Kakituan, doing so, acting in that manner. Etymology kitu, thus, in that way. 
Kakompongan, the flank of any four footed animal, as a horse or buffaloe or the like 

that part of the belly which adjoins the hind legs. 
Kaku, stiff in expression or manner of speaking. Offended, vexed about anything 

without giving expression to it. (Malay also stupid; Javanese, Batavian stiff generally, 

even said from a dead body. Fr.) 
Kakuprak, to knock about, to turn topsy turvy. To beat forest or jungle to drive out 

game. To knock people about and ill use them. 
Kakurangan, deficiency, what is wanting. Dearth. (From Kurang Jav. Mai.) 
Kala, a small scorpion. In Jamp^ it means the South; see Seri. Kala> C. Ill , a crab, 
the zodiacal sign scorpio. 



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AND ENGLISH. 189 

Kala, time, period. Bateula kala, in former times, in days of old. Kala, C. 111. Time, 

a division of time. C. 120. Time, a name of Yama, the Regent of death, see Yama. 

Also a form of Siwa. 
Kalabang, a centipede, a poisonous insect with many feet. Scolopendra. (Perhaps from 

Kala and bang, red, its colour being reddish. Fr.) 
Kalabu, of a dirty or darkish colour, greyish. (At Batavia idem. In Malay it means the 

(greyish) hide or mark in a sick eye. Fr.) 
Kalabu, upset, as a boat in water. (Labuh in Malay to let fall; in Javanese and Bali- 

nese to throw into the water or fire as a death punishment. Fr.) 
Kal aches, name of a bird, also called Panyeuseup. 
Kalachi, a wooden shovellike spoon for stirring dodol when boiling. 
Kala gamarang, a character in the Manek Maya, who was transformed into a ho". 

(In Javanese Kala Gumarang; see Gericke.) 
Kalahang, a very stinking kind of Durian. 
Kalahiran, birth, time of coming into the world. (From the Arabic *>\& tlddJdr, ap- 

parens, conspicuus, thus the time of coming to the daylight. Fr.) 
Kalakai, leaves and refuse vegetable matter collecting on the surface of the around, 

especially in forests or uncultivated ground. 
Kalakaian, conduct, deportment, behaviour. For the reason that, seeing that: Kala- 

kuan handap, for the reason that it is low. (From Laku, to go, to behave.) 
Kalale'n, forgotten, from lali to forget. Is used when addressing an equal. Lali is 

also Javanese for- to forget. [Lali is also Malay and Balinese. Fr.) 
Kalam, Arabic, a pen, as used by Arabs and natives. It is made of the substance 

called Ilarupat, which see. (A$, qalam calamus scriptorius.) 

Kalam meta, or Lambeta, name of a variety of grass. 

Kalamantan, Puio Kalamantan, the native name for the vast island called bv Euro- 
peans Borneo. Quere Kala, C. 120, a name of Yama, the regent of the dead, a form 
of Siwa. Manthana, C. 517. agitating, stirring, churning. Can this in any way refer 
to the Hindu legend of the world having been formed by a process of churning. With 
Borneo surrounded, as it is, by the other islands of the Archipelago, the idea mi^ht sug- 
gest itself, of its having been the churning staff of such an exploit (GO). 



(CO) Hie original inhabitants of Borneo, d'ont know this name; only the Javanese, who conquered 
the southern parts, so far as the present Pontianak to the westward and the country of thekinn'of 
Kuti to the eastward, could have given such a name to that part of the island they knew, and 
by the Malays, who were the successors in possession of the maritime parts of Borneo, the name 
might have been spread farther. I should prefer to consider the name Kalamantan (or Kalamantun\ 
originally certainly Kalamanta as a lenghtened form of Kdlamat (in the stronger cases Kalamant) this 
means possessing Kdla, (the destroying deity). The a is added to save the stronger form, and the 



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190 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE. 

Kalamari, yesterday. Kala, C. 111. Time. Mari, C. 538, killing; ruin; plague, epide- 
mic; or Marita, C. 538. killed, slain, thus time which is dead. 

Kalambu, curtains (of a bed). 

Kalampah, used, in use, made use of. Usual expression in conversation. Basa kitu 
tilok kalampah , such a word is never made use of. (Ijimpah in Jav. the same as Laku 9 
see Kalakon.) 

Kalana, name of a great rebel in the 18 century on Java, called Kalana J ay a, 
strolling about and triumphant See ngalalana. 

Kalang, a sort of outcasts on Java, perhaps now not found anywhere in the Sunda dis- 
tricts. Can these be the outcasts of Hindu times ? The word is probably the same as heard in 
the Sunda expression Kalang-kabut , scattered, dispersed. In Roorda van Eysinga^s 
dictionary of the Javanese language we find „Kalang, name of a people on Java, 
who formerly wandered about, but who are now chiefly fixed at Kali Wungu, Demak 
and Kendal, and who have partly retained their peculiar customs." The word Balang, 
both in Javanese and Sunda, is to throw or fling, and Ka-balang , or by contraction 
perhaps Kalang, would mean flung out, and thus an outcast In Sunda also the word 
Alang-alangan means to wander about at random, and from this we may have Ka-alang. 
The Kalang are olso known about the Straits of Malacca, and occupied the present 
site of party of the town of Singapore, See Singapore Journal 1847 vol. I p. 300—804. 

Kalang, field of battle; a circle for ronggengs to dance in. (Jav. kalang a circle; nga- 
lang, to surround.) 

Kalang an, circle, ring for fighting in &c. 

Kalangan bulan, a circle of haze, or halo round the moon. 

Kalang dada, a protector, a safeguard; any person or thing used as a main matter of 
protection. 

Kalang kabut, disrupted, scattered, dispersed, driven in different directions. 

Kalangkang, shadow, shade; the shadow of any object on which the sun shines. 

Kalantaka, a small cannon on wheels, such as kept by native chiefs to fire salutes. 
(From Kdla, death, and antaka, finishing Fr.) 

Kalanti, want of food, famine, famished. Pa-ih kalanti, died for want of food. Loba 
nu kalanti, many were famished. 

Kalap, a disease suddenly turning a person half mad, as if possessed of the devil, 



n might have been put to the word in a time, when the meaning of the word was no longer un- 
derstood, and the ka considered as the common Polynesian prefix, which seemed to demand also the 
suffix an. It is true, that Sanskrit words ending in a should form possessive adjectives by the 
Suffix iuat, but the Javanese troubled themselves never about the exact rule3 of Sanscrit grammar. 
Lengthened forms as vanta and manta exist in the languages derived from the Sanscrit As to the 
meaning, the Javanese certainly consideredt he inhabitants as possessing Kdla (Jama, death) for the 
reason of their unheard of barbarous manners , cutting heads from an ambush , eating human flesh 
(which some continue to do till now) and being devoid of all attributes of mankind. Fr. 



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AND ENGLISH. 191 

Hair-brained. (Jav. Becoming distressed, miserable, by an accident, or any unknown 
reason. At Batavia it has the meaning given by the Sundas, a person not knowing 
where and what he is about. Fr.) 

Kalapa, a cocoa nut, the cocoa nut tree-Cocos nucifera. Quere, may not this fruit have 
its name of Kalapa from having its fruits hidden within so much husk and shell , and 
thus secreted, see following word. A more decidedly Polynesian name for the Cocoa 
nut in many of the languages of the Archipelago is Niyor. (In Kawi exists also the 
form Katflapa. Fr.) 

Kalapa, a secret place; an out of the way place in the forest, or among the mountains; 
out of sight, see Sunda. Perhaps from the etymon lap or tep, covered up, hidden. 

Kalapa, a variety of mangga so called. 

Kaiapa-chiung, name of a tree wild in the jungle; Myristica glabra, a variety of 
wild nutmeg but without savour. 

Ka la rung, overlooked, passed over by mistake. 

Kalayar, Trichosanthes Pubera, a liane with a blcodred fruit, which is of size o? a hens 
egg but not eatable. 

Kaiayar-kaloyor, to go strolling about without appearing to do any business; wan- 
dering negligently about. 

Kalde, an ass. C. 114 KaludawS, an ass. The ass is, not indigenons in Java, but a few 
years ago the Dutch government caused a great many to be imported under the idea 
that they would make useful beasts of burden. The experiment failed and the animal 
is now again very scarce. 

KalSbu, upset, turned upside down, especially as a boat in water. (See Kalalm.) 

Kal^hk^r, a small worm or grub, a sort of mite or acarus which eats timber in houses, 
especially near the surface, and after it is well dried. 

Kal(5ng, Tin plate, such as used for lining cases, or white-smith's work. (Batav. idem.) 

Kalfcng'er, fainted away: lost consciousness. (Batav. id.) 

Kaler, the north. (Jav. Balin. idem.) 

Kali, C. 121. One of the names of Durga, the wife of Siva; see Durga. 

Kali, to dig, to grub up, to turn over the ground. 

Kali, time, times, periods. Datang tilu kali, he came three times. This word is also 
most likely of Sanscrit origin. Kali and Kaliyuga, the fourth age of the world accor- 
ding to the Hindus. C. 113. (61). 

Kaliage, Cudrania Pubesccns, a tall shrub with long and very sharp thorns. 

Kalian, to dig, to dig at, to dig out. 

Kaligung, confused in accounts; fancying that a debt is another figure than what it 
really is. 

Kaliki, the castor oil plant, otherwise called Jarak jitun. 



(61) It might bo the same as hold, a division of time, about 8 seconds. Kali to Kald would 
stand as arti to Scr. artha. Fr. 



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192 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Kalilipa, the milt, the spleen, the liver. 

Kalilipan, an involuntary twinkling of the eye. 

Kali ma, the fifth. 

K a 1 i m a , as Kalima Sahadat , the Mohammedan profession of faith. La ilah illallah M o~ 
hammad rasul Allah, There is no God but God and Mohammed is the Prophet of 
God. Kalimat, arabic, a -word, the word (of God), vide Marsden, Page 264. (i^ 

kalimat; £ol$£, shahadat, testimony, thus the word of testifying the faith. Fr.) 
Kalimborot, Castanea Javanica; wild variety of Chesnut. The fruit is not eaten, or 

very rarely, as it purges severely; it is covered with sharp spines like needles. 
Kali pa, arabic, a vicegerent, a deputy, a caliph. A common name for a man. The 

word is mostly used when referring to religious matters, (iiudi-, khalifat.) 

Kaliru, wrongly understood, mistaken, got into confusion. One thing taken for another. 
(Jav. Uru idem, and to exchange.) 

Kaliwat, in excess, excessively, exceedingly. Kaliwat rusak excessively destroyed. (Jav. id.) 

Kali won, the fifth day in the old Javanese Pa3ar or week of five days. Vide Manis. 

Kali won, a petty officer of the village administration in some parts of the country. 
He is an inferior native official in Java , the origin of which is not clear. On Borneo , 
in Ngadju or Pulo Petak , a village or collection of houses is called Lewu (see Indisch 
Archief 1849. Eerste jaargang, vijfde aflevering) and the compound Kalewon would 
imply an official presiding over such a village. The official's name may have been 
preserved in Java, after the Lewu, from which it had been derived, had become 
obsolete, and replaced by the Indian word Desa. Lewu is probably a continuous pile 
of buildings in which the people of Borneo usually live together. Such a Lewu may 
at one time have been usual on Java, till superseded by the Kampung or fortified 
enclosure, which the necessity of self- protection may have forced upon te people. 
Some approach to a Lewu is still maintained by the inhabitants of the Tengger moun- 
tains in Pasuruan. (In Java it is the second in rank , following after the Toemenggoeng. 
Gericke.) 

Kaloba-an, excess, abundance, more than required. 

Kalong, a flying fox; a large animal of the bat kind. Pteropus Javanicus. 

Kaloyor, strolling away, wandering about 

Kaluar, outside, without, excepting; go out! quitted an employment. Kudu kaluar, you 
must come out, you must leave your situation. Geus kaluar , he has gone out ; he has 
left his situation. Kaluar nu hade , with the exception of those which are good. (Mai. id.) 

Kaluar ken, to dismiss, to turn out of an employment; to bring outside, to produce; 
to separate. 

Kaluaran, literally „the outsiders ;" among the Badui of South Bantem, those heathens 
who have been forced to leave the parent stock, in order that it may not exceed a 
fixed number are called Kaluaran. 



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AND ENGLISH. 193 

Kaluhan, a bit of string or cord passed through the septum of the nose of a buffaloe, 
and the ends tied behind the horns. All working buffaloes have a tali kaluhan in 
their snouts, by which they are easily led or guided. (Jav, KZluk idem.) 

Kaiuiah, the sap wood of a tree, the Alburnum. 

Kalun , gone along with, included. To support in swimming; to float any object along water. 

Kalung, a necklace, anything worn round the neck by way of ornament. (Jav. Mai. id.) 

Kalung-dada, a bulwork; something to serve as a defence; a breast-place. An orna- 
ment hanging on the breast of young girls, by a string round the neck. This 
ornament is generally semicircular as a segment of the moon. 

Kaluron, to bring forth before time; premature delivery; abortion. 

Kalutuk, a poor variety of Plantain, of which the fruit is hardly eatable, see Kulutuk. 

Kama, C. 119. The Hindu Cupid, or deity of love. 

Kamal, Java acid; the juice of fresh Tamarind, which is used for cleansing metals, 
especially brass-work. (According to Gericke Kawi for the Tamarind-tree.) 

Kamal a hiang, words heard in Jampes. Kamafa C. 106 a name of Lakshmi. Hiang, 
Hyang , divinity; the goddess Lakshmi; see Laksmi. Laksmi is little heard in Java 
and probably she was more generally known by the name of Kamala-hiang. (And Sri) 

Kamaloli, heart-sore, vexed. 

Kamanjon, an hermaphrodite. (At Batavia Banji.) 

Kamar, aratic, the moon; word used in the composition of proper names. L*£). 

Kamarang, a wasp; name of a fly or wasp which stings severely; it is less than the 
Tijuwan, and also stings less severely. 

Kamarudin, a man's name — the moon of the faith — Kamar, moon, uddin of the faith. 

Kamas-an, a goldsmith. 

Kamayangan, so much the better, that will give so much the more pleasure. Probably 
derived from Ka preposition, and hayang to desire, to wish, with the peculiar m 
interposed; see kampung. 

Kambang, to float, gnerally heard in the shape of Ngambang, which see. (Jav. id.) 

Kambangan, generally called Nusa Kambangan, the floating island, from some old 
fable. It is situated on the south coast of Java, and adjoins Banyumas; see Ngambang. 

Kamboja, name of a tree with white flower, much planted abont burial grounds. 
Plumeria acuminata. Kamboja, C. 119 the name of a plant, a sort of white Mimosa. 
Kamboja is the name by which the plant is every where known in Java, both in 
the Sunda and Javanese districts. At the Eastend of Java, however, it is most fre- 
quently seen planted about the graves. With its name it no doubt came from the 
continent of India. In Ceylon the flowers are much used for placing on the altars 
before Buddha, where, however, it is called in the colloquial dialect- EwZriya. 

Kamdja, Port Camisa, a shirt, a shift. 

Kamcl, ar. the Zodiacal sign Aries. (J^>. hhamal.) 

25 



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194 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Kami, we, us, also I. A polite expression whereby the speaker does not put himself 
above the person addressed, which he would do by using the pronoun aing. Imah 
kami, my house. Kami kabeh daik ka gunung , we are all going to the mountains. (Mai. 
and Kawi, I, me; we, us.) 

Kam-kam, a Chinese weapen of defence, like the blade of a sword mounted with a 
spear handle. 

Earn pa , to express oil with a peculiar press used by the natives and called Kampahan. (Mai. id.) 

Kampahan, a wooden press to extract oil. There are two uprights set in two horizontal 
pieces, and by forcing in wedges the two uprights are driven together and thus 
exercise a great pressure on any oil producing matter placed between them. 

Kampak, an axe; an axe such as used by Europeans and Chinese in contradistinction to 
the native axe called Baliyung , which sec. [Kampak Jav. a great axe without a woo- 
den shaft. Fr.) 

Kampil, a bag, a large bag for Eice, Coffee &c. (Jav. A bundle, pak, bag.) 

Kampu, a large wooden bucket or tub, in which oil is kept or measured. Ampuh, 
in Malay to overflow. 

Kampung, a village; is properly Malay, but is still from associating with Europeans 
and Chinese often used, especially to designate themselves as- orang kampung, village 
people, as distinct from foreigners. Kampung is probably derived from Kapung or 
KZpung to enclose , with the peculiar m interposed , giving it the sense of an enclosed 
place or village, as in rude states of society, every village was a fortified place. The 
usual word for village in Sunda is Lumbar. Kampung in Malay is not merely 
a village, but „an inclosure" a place surrounded with a paling; a fenced or fortified 
village; see Marsden in voce Page 267. The Etymon of Kampung signifying enclo- 
sure, is also heard in the Malay expression Kain bvkampo which is another name 
for a Sarong. See Singapore Journal April 1849 Page 275. 

Kampung, to mix, to associate. 

Kampungkgn, to join together, to unite, to collect into a common stock, especially a 
number of small things or trading articles. 

Kamudi, a helm, a rudder, an oar to steer by. (Mai. ^Jy^ Kumiidi; Jav. Kamudi, 
Kemudi, Kumudi.) 

Kamuning, name of a tree common about towns and in cultivated places. It has a 
pretty white flower and yields a handsomely mottled wood. Murraya exotica of the 
family Aurantiaceae. 

Kan a, to become, for the purpose. Kana hade mohal, It is not likely to do any good. 
Jadi kana goreng , It will turn out bad. This word is evidently compounded of the 
particle Ka which see, and na y his, her, its- possessive pronoun. 

Kan an g' a, name of a tree with its yellow flower, which is much sought after by the 
natives to stick in their hair, Unona Odorata. 

Kanari, name of a tree, the fruit of which yields a fine esculent oil; Canarium Corn- 



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AND ENGLISH. 195 

mane. Its native country appears to be the Moluccos, but it is now plentifully 
planted about the European towns in Java, and used for shading the public roads. 

Kan as, a Pine apple. Name derived from the European word Ananas. It grows now 
very abundantly every where, but has always been planted by man. Bromelia Ananas. 

Kanchana, golden, gold. JfacAana, C. 118, turmeric; also the name of several plants 
and trees, which they bear in consequence of the yellow colour of their flowers, as 
the Champaka &c. {Kanchana Skr. means gold ; it is a very common word in Kawi ; the 
Javanese called formerly the southern part of Borneo Nusa Kanchana , the island # of 
gold. Fr.) 

Kanchara, name of the largest and best fish of the mountain rivers. Called in Malay 
Tambra. (Perhaps called Tambra from the copper-colour of one species Fr.) 

Kancheuh, fallen ill again in sickness; having got a relapse. 

Kanching, a button; a bolt, a peg of wood or iron driven in to hold some other object 
fast (Jav. Mai. idem.) 

Kanchingan, to fasten with a Kanching; to bolt, to bar, to button. To fasten by 
driving in a peg. 

Kancholah, a Braggadocio, a swaggerer. Said of a man who wants to carry every 
thing with a high hand. 

Kanchur, the metal of a cast iron pan worked up for an inferior kind of steel. 

Kandang, a pen, a fold, inclosure, shed for cattle. (Mai. Jav. idem »nnrn\). 

Kandang We si, Iron cage. A place so called in ancient Javanese history, and most 
probably in Jampang of the Prianger Kegencies. 

Kandar, to drag, to pull along, to haul. 

Kan das, aground, ashore, grounded. Cleaned out, all gone to the last article. Said 
of any article which was being distributed , but is now done. 

Kandayan, part of the native weaving apparatus. The frame for holding the Kere'kans, when 
the pattern is given to the cloth, and then wound round the Pihanean. 

KandayangTani, a female character. A sort of goddess presiding over agriculture. 
Kixnana, C 118, a forest, a grove, and Dayang , vide voce. Tani in Sunda, indus- 
trious. Thus the „ Forest-damsel who is industrious 1 '. Agriculture began by felling 
the forest and making humahs. (62). 



(62) The Sanscrit word hlnda (with two cerebral letters) has besides other significations, for in- 
stance »a chapter of a book" also that of » opportunity , season"; yang will be nothing else than 
hyang y as explained in this dictionary sub voce, cf. Guriang, sang hyang, Kamald hjang etc. Kan- 
da {foyang tani appears thus to be the goddess of season, of the just time {for working the field.) 
Tani means in Javanese and Balineso »the agriculturists, the country people" in opposition to the 
lazy people of the towns (mgara y ntgri) who live with the princes and other great men. In the 
mouth of the country people means wong tani certainly a brave, honest, industrious man, but with 
the people of the towns it has rather the meaning of a brutal, not civilized fellow, who is only good 



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196 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Kande, a scrip, a wallet, a small bag slung over the shoulder and carried about by a 
man wherever he goes, containing Seureuh and many other small objects. Ngaitken 
kan<M to hang up the bag- means to take up your quarters with any one ; make your- 
self at home and allowed to hang up your bag. Or in some sense to be admitted as 
a courtier or lover , and thus to familiarly divest yourself of the bag. ( Jav. Kandi , a 

bag. *7irnr)\) 

KandSl, thick- not as liquids but as solid substances- liquids when thick are called Kim- 
• j&l. Kayu nu kandtl, a piece of thick wood- Kand&l biwir na , thick lipped- telling ar- 
rant lies. Kuda ita kand&l awak na, that horse has a thick body, is stoutly built. 
(Kentel <fm£ri<ru/is in Javanese and Batav. means thick, stiff, just when speaking of 
liquids. KandU ^^n Jav. has the same meaning as in Sundanese. Fr.) 

Kandung, to carry anything on the back wrapped up in a cloth, or more generally in 
the folds of the Samping; to carry a child on the back so wrapped up. (Mai. idem.) 

Kanduruan, a petty title of distinction, lower than a Kangga, in use about Buitenzorg 
and in the Prianger Regencies. The kanduruans have charge of the bridges and roads , 
and look after the watchmen. This word may perhaps be derived from Duruwa , Clough 
278, a child, an infant with the Polynesian pre- and suffixes Ka aud an, meaning 
thereby, young lads, the children of chiefs, employed to bring over the orders of 
such chiefs , by way of starting them in some useful employment This however leaves 
the n between ka and Duruwa to be inserted Euphoniae gratia. 

Kang, with, by, to; as Kang aing, with or by me, meaning I will take it It is perhaps 
in this sense only the preposition Ka with ng suffixed before a vowel. 

Kang, a familiar expression for Kaka, elder brother. A term of politeness addressed to a 
stranger, who is older than the speaker. 

Kangjeng, is a title applied to high personages, invested with power, and is used when 
speaking as well of native chiefs on Java and Bali, as of the high European authorities, 
as the Governor General, or even the Residents. The etymon of the word may pro- 
bably be found in the word Jeng which in a vocabulary of Kawi words in Raffles vol 
2 appendix Page 169 is given as the Foot, in the same way as Paduka has the same 
meaning , and is also applied to people of high rank ; as if the speaker was unworthy 
to look higher or mention a more honourable part of the chief whom he adresses. It 
may in general terms be translated- illustrious. The Kang prefixed to JZng is proba- 
bly the Javanese Kang , who , which , that which , and placed before an active verb con- 
verts it into a substantive shape, as Kang ngucJiap, who speaks, the speaker. Kang 



to work for the prince and his innumerable attendants, who live all their days in idleness. Tanni 
in Scr. is not the same word , it means not a plant in general , but a peculiar kind of plant that 
can be of no particular use for the agriculturist. The comparison of this Scr, word with our tani, 
(written only by the present Javanese tanni), by Prof. T. Roorda falls thus to the ground Fr. 



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AND ENGLISH. 197 

patut, what is proper-proper, fit. R. van Eysinga's Javanese Dictionary 1835. Janghd 

C. 208. The calf of the leg. 
Kangjeng Sinuhun, a title addressed to an Emperor or king, and may be translated. 

„Your royal feet which are besought'', or in general terms. „Your illustrious Highness'. 
Kangkar^ng, a variety of Buceros bird. 
Kangkong, a kind of frog or toad which makes a great noise in wet weather. Rather 

smaller than the Bangkong. 
Kangkowak, any seed or fruit which has sprouted, but only as yet got seedling leaves. 
Kangkung, Ipomaea reptans, a variety of Boldd, only it is smaller in both leaf and po- 

tatoe. It has a similar root. It can be dug in 4 or 5 months , whereas Boled riquires 

much longer time to come to perfection. 
Kangkurahan, to rince, to clean with water, especially a bottle. (Jav. § mm r Kurah, 

to rince the mouth. Also Kekurah). 

Kanigara, viz Kebo Kanigara, a chief of Pajang, second son of Andaya ning rat, by 
one of the daughters of Browijaya and the princess of Champa. K/iani, 158 the sun. 
AgSra, C. 61, a house. The house or abode of the sun. 

KanikiorChikaniki, a river flowing from the Gunung Kendang over the Jambu 
Estate into Chidani river. The word Kaniki is not Sunda, but may be Sanscrit and 
the feminine of Kanika Clough 103 very small. Mr. Friederich supplies me with the 
Sanscrit word Kanika , a small particle. In the feminine, an atom, small, minute. The 
Chikaniki is only small in comparison with the Chidani into which it flows. Or the 
name may have originally attached to some of the upland branches of the stream The 
Chikaniki flows in front of the Passir Koldangkak on which is still found a rock fast 
in the earth bearing a Sanscrit inscription. Clough Page 158 gives KAanlfca from Kha- 
na, to dig, a miner, and also a rat, a house breaker; perhaps made KAaniki in the 
feminine for a river, and may have indicated the propensity of the river to undermine 
its banks, as nothing in the shape of a mine is known here. It may allude to the 
river having cut a deep bed in a narrow valley, as is the case in the upper part of 
its course. See voce Chikaniki. 

Eanta, signs, gestures, such as a dumb man makes. 

Kantih, thread spun from cotton, twist, thread for weaving. Probably derived from 
Katinawa C. 99 to spin as thread. 

Kantong, a pouch, a small bag of cloth which rolls up and in which are carried the Seureuh 
apparatus, a few doits or other trifles. The Kantong is worn stuk in the belt or Beu- 
bSur. (Bat. idem.) 

Kan tor, a government office. The Dutch word kdntoor office; a place where public busi- 
ness is transacted. 

Eanugrahan, in easy circumstances, in affluence, pleasant and easy, Anugraha, C. 29, 
favour, help, assistance, conferring benefits by promoting good and preventing ill. 

Kanya, a virgin, occurs in the formation of some proper names in ancient history. ATawya, 
C. 104 a virgin , also one of the signs of the Zodiac- Virgo. 



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198 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Kanyaho, knowledge, understanding. Kula to bogah kanyaho I have no knowledge (of the 
matter.) 

Kanyahoken, to recognize, to acknowledge, to impart knowledge, to communicate. 

Kan y ay a- see keniaya. 

Kanyut, a bag, a sack, a purse. 

Kapahili, taken by mistake; anything that is taken or done, under the impression of 
doing something else. Kapahili imah na mistaken in the house. (Jaw Hili, to give in 
exchange; ngilenni, to exchange, to indemnify. See Liru, which is the Ngoko-form.) 

Kapahung, lost in the forest; cast away in the wilderness. 

Kapaihan, swooned, fainted, lost consciousness. (Cf. Pajah Batav. Mai. exhausted , deadly 
sick, nearly gone. Fr.) 

Kapal, a ship, a sea ship, a square rigged vessel. Marsden says that Koppel is the Malabar 
for ship. It is properly a Tulugu word. Kappara, C. 105, a ship, a sloop. Kapal api, 
a steamer or more literally a fire-ship. The words are Malay but always used to denote 
a steamer. Kapal prang , a ship of war. Kapal sudagar , a merchant ship. 

Kapala, a chief, a headman; the best of anything, as of rice, tobacco, &c. the prime 
part. The word in Malay implies the head, but in Sunda has this meaning only figu- 
ratively, as Uulu is the word simply for head. Kapala, C. 105, the head, the skull. 
This resembles the Greek Kephale. A'a, C. 117, the head, the body. Pala, C. 372 
fruit, flesh. (Scr. Kapala means only the skull, the cranium.) 

Kapalang, not worth w T hile, inopportune, any act undertaken which is suddenly impeded. 
Kapalang amat daik di gaicc duui, tcrth burit , It is not worth while beginning to work 
again, as it w ? ill soon be night. Jadi kapalang. It will not be worth while (as some- 
thing will intervene and prevent it.) (Jav. cb^x Ngalawjngi, to impede; palatig , 
impediment.) 

Kapan, an idiomatic expression for confirming an assertion. Kapan geus dibe're, now have 
not I given it you. Can be best translated by- now , as in the following example Kapan 
daik kaluar, now are not you going to leave your situation. (Kapan, Ml. Jav. at what 
time, relatif and interrogatif; derived not from apa, but from puan, pon, demonstra- 
te, the original form in Kawi being Icapuan Fr.) 

Kapanasan, heated, overcome -with heat. 

Kapang, the Teredo navalis; the sea worm which bores so easily into wood and even 
into soft stone. 

Kapan g'erod, said when the feet get entangled in a rope, string, or jungle-rope, so 
as to impede walking. 

Kapanggih, to meet; met, come in contact with. Tilok kapanggih, I never met him. (Jav. 
Panggih, to find, to encounter.) 

Kaparek, near, in proximity. (Parek Javan. id. Kr. ChakU^ Mai. de/cat. This word un- 
dergoes a great variety of alterations, which it is to long to enumerate. From parek- 
par-dkkan , followers. Fr.) 



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AND ENGLISH. 199 

Kaparek, serviceable, as a person who is in great request. 

Kapas, Cotton. Gossypium arboreum, and Gossypium Indicum, two varieties , the former 
perennial and growing in the villages about the houses; the latter an annual shrub 
planted in gardens made for the purpose. The name is probably of Indian origin and 
a modification of Rarp&sa, C. 110. Cotton. Vide kapuk. 

Kapas Chind6, a plant with a red flower, which yields a pod, with cottony filaments. 
Asclepias curassavica. 

Kapas mori, a good variety planted for its cotton. Most probably mori is meant for 
mouri, moorish, or from Mauritius, and has thus been introduced by Europeans. 

Kapendak, met, encountered, stumbled on. (P&ndak Qrrn^js the revolving of a cer- 
tain time ; the coming back of the same time ; after elapsing of (for instance eight days.) Jav.) 

Kapeng, sometimes, as the case may be. Raping net hade, it is sometimes good. (Cf. Jav. 
Balin. Raping. (See beneath sub voce). 

Kaperad, met, spoken with; caught, secured. 

Kapidengklung, name of a tall tree in mountain forests bearing a small oblong- round 
fruit, consisting of a very hard stone covered with an acidulous pulp which is eaten. 
Often also wrongly called Ropi DSngfclung even by natives, because the fruit resem- 
bles that of the Coffee, and the initial Rapi is very close to Ropi. The tree is also Suralc'h. 

Kapidereng, foolishly meddling with what does not regard us. 

K a p i k i r , to have regret — on reflection to think otherwise. (Jav. Mai. Pikir. Arab. Filer. Xj 

cogitatio, attenta consideratio. Fr.) 

Kapila, a designation applied to certain black buffaloes which by some mysterious process 
gradually lose the black colouring matter of the hide, and turn white in blotches, espe- 
cially along the sides, on the neck and about the head. — (Kapila , Scr. means tawny.) 

Kapilangan, having become unconscious from sudden illness or a fit, but come to life 
again. Fainted away. (From Hang) 

K a p i n a n g 1 o, name of a forest tree which yields the disks for Pedaty wheels. Epicharis Altissima. 

Kapindis, the swallow which builds the „ Edible birds nest" ; also sometimes the house 
swallow, which builds its nest under the eaves of houses. 

Kapineura, said of old and former seeds which sprout up after the land has been cleared 
of jungle; not intentionally planted, 

K a ping, properly composed of Ra and Ping. Ra is the preposition to, unto- and Ping 
partakes of the nature of an expletive which admits of no translation. Ulah kaping 
harhup teuyn, ulah kaping buri leuyn, Do not go too much in front, do not lag too 
far behind. (Kaping is principally used before numerals, and is related to ing, ring, in. Fr). 

Kapinis, the same as Rapindis, a swallow. 

Kapir, Arabic, an unbeliever, an infidel. One who denies the unity of the Godhead, and 

the divine mission of Mohammed. Marsden Page 248. ( i\£ Kafir , infidelis.) 



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200 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Kapiran, disappointment, anything done contrary to expectation or desire. Utah sia jadi 
kapiran, D'ont you cause disappointment. (Known at Batavia). 

Kapirang-pirang, how many, so very many. It is of the same etymology as the Ja- 
vanese word Piro, how many, many- Piro-piro, multitude. Kapirang-pirang imah 
Zunyeuh, how many (or so very many) houses have fallen down. 

Kapiser, having become unconscious, but coming to life again; apparent death- the same 
as Kapilangan. 

Kapitan, Captain. Kapitein, Dutch for captain. KapUan-china , the Captain Chinaman. 

Kapiting, a Crab, a sea-crab. Cancer. (Mai. Batav. idem.) 

Kapo-ekan, overtaken by night; darkness closed in. Mad with rage, furious; dizzy, gid- 
diness. The state of mind which precedes Amuk. (From Poe, night) 

Kapoi, exposed to the sun. To laku kapoi, it must not be exposed to the sun. 

Kapok, disgusted with anything so that you will have nothing more to do with it Dis- 
continuing some act or offence in consequence of the penalty inflicted therefore. Ma- 
ling ksbo eta to daiken kapok , they will not cease to steal buffaloes ( notwithstanding 
the punishment inflictedf or the offence.) Kapok aySunah ngah&urZuian aing they now know 
better then to trouble me. — {Kapok , Batav. to become afraid, to get terrified from (doing 
anything) Kapok, Jav. to better, to amend himself. Gerick.) 

K a p o 1 , the soft husk of a young Cocoa nut which is eatable. 

Kapol, Cardamums. Amomum Cardamomum. 

Kaponakan, third cousins, children of raindo. (From anak, prefixed kapua? At Bata- 
via and in the neighbourhood Kaponakan are the children of one's brother or sister; 
kaponakan misan , children of a cousin. Fr.) 

Kaporod, stollen — a vulgar expression. 

Kaprah, of the average rate or quality; something that every one does; universally ad- 
mitted. Pave na kaprah , the paddy is an average crop- is fair. Kaprah lalaki 6w6an , men 
as a rule take wives. Nu sugih kaprah bogah kawasa, JRich men are universally admit- 
ted to have power. {Kaprah , custom, usage. Jav. Batav.) 

Kapuah, an excessive quantity, a glut. 

Kapuah, used in Jampe and incantations, and seems to correspond with the Singhalese 
Kapuwa % a Demon priest, C. 105. (Might be the Kawi pronoun Kapua,) 

Kapuk, the cotton used for stuffing pillows, mattresses &c. It is short in staple , and can- 
not be used for spinning. It is produced by the trees called Randu, and Randu /&u- 
wmng, respectively Eriodendron Anfractuosum , and Bombax Malabaricum. See Randu. 
Kapu, C. 105, the silk cotton tree; cotton. 

Kapur Baros, Baros lime or Baros Camphor the produce ot the Dryobalanops Campho- 
ra. Baros is a place on the west coast of Sumatra where it is procured. Kapuru , C. 
105. Camphor. (Scr. Karpura, Camphor. Fr.) 

Kara, an idiomatic expression hard to translate. Lain karagor6ng eta D'ont you very well 
know that that is bad. It calls the attention of the hearer forcibly to some matter. 



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AND ENGLISH. 201 

Saia kara nu to datang, who, pray, is it who is not come. The word lcara may be the 
crude part of the word Karanatoa, C. 108, to do, to act, to make, to perform. See 
Perkara. 

Karabu, an ear-ring with several stones or ornaments. Karabu-ros an earring with many 
ornaments. See Anting, which somewhat differs. (Ros is the Dutch word roos, a rose.) 

Karak, pretty much of the same meaning as Kakarak, which see, and of which it ap- 
pears to be an abbreviation. Only now, just now, freshly, as yet Karak datang, just 
come. Karak siji, as yet there is only one. 

Karaman, an idiomatic expression difficult to translate, but answers to- now that I think 
of it, now that I see it, &; it indicates surprise on the part of the speaker. Karaman 
luhur now that I see it, how high it is! Karaman ganchang , how quick it goes. 

Karamat, Arabic, a place of offering, a holy place; an intercedence , a miracle. The 
graves of holy men are called Kramat, and here offerings and prayers are put up* 

when the native is in difficulty. u*)J, Karamat, dignity, honour; plur. csjU^> ka- 
ramat, wonders edited by holy man, by their natural power. Fr.) 

Karang, a wart on the body. 

Karang, Coral rock, limestone rock in general found inland far from the sea. The coral rocks 
have no doubt obtained this name from exhibiting the appearance of a garden growing 
under the waves, consisting of branching corals, madrepores &c. 

Karang, a garden, ground laid out, or set in order like a garden. The natives call the 
Bantam hill Gunung karang, which thus properly means, Garden mountain, from its 
having, no doubt from an early period, been laid out in gardens, of which the Pep- 
per gardens still existed when Europeans first visited Java, and hence called by the 
Dutch the Peper berg. It is a volcanic mountain , and no limestone is to be found near 
it In the Sunda language there is also the word Pakarangan for the enclosure round 
the house of a great man, which see. The Malays use the word terkarang , set in order, 
arranged when speaking of a book ; and tnengarang , to compose , to arrange either a 
book or other matter. 

Karang-sua, a sea urchin, called also Saealakan. Cidaris. 

Karap, waxed threads used at the weaving loom. 

Karara-an, ill, in bad health. Sickness. 

Kararangge, a red ant common on fruit trees in gardens which bites very hard. They 
cement the leaves of trees together to form their nests. 

Kararas, dry plantain leaves, used for tying up various articles, as we would use coarse 
paper. 

Kararaweah, Couhage; a fine slender liane bearing pretty looking pods of fruit in bun- 
ches, but which are covered with a fine hairorpilae, which sting and cause great itching. 
Mucuna pruriens, also Dolichos pruriens. Crawfurd gives Karawia as Arabic for Ca- 
raway, Carum carui, and our word looks like a plural of this word, though one night 
suppose that the Sundas would have au indigenous name for so virulent a native plant. 

26 



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202 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE. 

Karasak, a scratching noise, like that of a rat. A moderate but sharp noise. Often used 

in the expression Karasak karesek, scratching and grating. 
Karasan, to have a pleasure in; to be delighted with. (From rasa, Scr. flavour, taste; 

taste, sentiment) 
Kara tan, only heard in the expression lain karalan, something which is so bad that it 

cannot be endured; too bad to be put up with. 
Karat on, the abode of a Ratu or native prince. A native palace. 
Karawachi, Pica; name of a pretty little bird like a magpie in miniature, not much 

larger than a sparrow. It is found all over Java, and appears to exist on Sumatra, 

as Marsden at Page 340 gives the word Murei, a species of bird resembling a small 

magpie, commonly called the Dial bird. 

I saw it also in the garden of the factories at Canton. It is not known by this name 

at Jasinga, but by that of Manuk Haur, which see. 
Karawang, lattice work. Name of a district and chief place to the Eastward of Batavia. 

It obtains its nam<j from the mouth of the Chitarum being rent and torn in sunder, 

or divided into many embouchures, where it flows into the sea. Rawang expresses the 

state of being torn or split. See Rawang. 
Kare-es, gravel, small stones- such as are laid down on a road or on a garden walk. 
Kar^hkel, gravel, small stones. 
Kar^keb, to eat, to munch, to gnaw. 
Karembong, a long piece of cloth worn by a woman round her chest and breasts ; a sort 

of scarf. Called in Malay Salendang. 
Karemi, small worms in children. Intestinal worms. (Scr. Krimi. Jav. Krimi and Kermi 

worms.) 
Karen du, crumpled as a cloth; folded or gathered in plaits. 
Karep^k, a wattled fence of split bambus set in a river to intercept the passage of fish, 

whilst the water can flow on as usual. 
Karepus, a cap, a night cap, a sailor's cap. The article and name are both Batavian. 
Kares^k, making a small noise, as of a mouse gnawing or the like. It is in a smaller 

degree, what Karasak is in a somewhat larger one. (Onoraatopoetic word. Known at 

Batavia.) 
Karesil, shrivelled, small, diminutive; the remainder from which the larger ones have been 

picked out. 
Karet, name of a tree; Ficus elastica. India rubber or Gum Elastic, which is procured 

from the Karet tree by tapping, when the sap runs out readily and soon coagulates 

into the gum which is seen in trade. Called also Kolettt. 
Kareumbi, a tree, Omalanthus Lechenaultianus. 

Kari, Curry. A common Indian dish made of fowl boiled up with several ingredients. 
Kari, and only, no more than, it only remains to. Kari siji dmi there is only one left. 

Kari ngahathipan, only remains to put the ataps on (said of a house which is building 



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AND ENGLISH. 203 

and is otherwise complete) Kari in Ngoko — Kaniun in Krama, T. Koorda Javanese 
Dictionary Page 172- to remain behind, to remain over ; being left behind , remainder, 
remnant, residu. 

Karia, a festival, a great meeting for eating and drinking. Kariya, C. 120, a matter, 
an affair. Is derived from Karanawa to make, to do; and would thus be- a piece of 
work , something done- as natives generally call festivals Pakarjahan a piece of work. (63). 

Karinding, a musical instrument made of a tube of barabu about one foot long and one 
inch in bore, at the end of which is held a small instrument with a tongue to it. This 
instrument is struck by the finger and blown upon, when a sound like a Jew's harp 
is produced. 

Kari n til, the designation of a certain quantity of cotton threads: Ten karin til make one 
Tuhdl or hank. 

Karisik, a thin variety of bambu. 

Karisut, wrinkles on face or skin. Said of a swelling which has gone down leaving the 
skin flabby. 

Karok, a variety of wild plantain; the fruit is not eatable, only the leaves are used for 
tying up articles. 

Karoya, a variety of the Ficus Benjamina. An ornamental tree resembling the Waringin. 

Kartu, Dutch kaart. Cards to gamble with; a map, a chart 

Karuan, most assuredly, certainly; granted, conceded as in an argument; having a fixed 
idea or intention ; decided. Pagawean nana karuan , his work is decided , or has a use- 
ful tendency. To karuan, at random, without thought. Lamun gvus karuan, if it is 
decided, if the matter has assumed shape. See Rua. Karuan is most likely derived 
from Ruwa, C. 597, an image, with the prefix Ka and suffix an, indicating an object, 
something visible , and thus affording certainty. (It might be derived from rua Kawi , 
ro Jav. ^ dua, two; a thing which has a second, a consequence , which is not left un- 
done. Malay J\*< ', karuican, thought, ideas, thinking; which might be conciliated 

with my derivation. Fr.) 

Karuchuk, stakes of wood used in a fence, in a dam in the river &c. 

Karuhun, forefathers; those who are further back than grandfather or grandmother. (Ka~ 
ruhun in Kawi means formerly , before ; the foremost. In Jav. exist different forms de- 
rived from ruhun or rihin.) 



(63) Kdrya is a participle of the future time iu the Passivum, and means what is to be done 
(faciendum); it is at Ball mostly employed for religious festivals, and the feasting is rather consi- 
dered as the secondaiy accessory thing. This word kdrya, work, necessary business, (makdrya to 
have such a business in hand), has been alterated in Malay into kerja, the y being replaced by 
the cognate palatal sound, as is sometimes the case in Malay, in opposition to Javanese and Ba- 
lincse. Kvrja means simply to work. Fr. 



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204 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Karumpak, trodden down, as grass, straw or small bushes. 

Karundang, a variety of the eggplant: Solanum Involucratum. 

Karung, a bag, a sack. 

Karunya, grace, favour, indulgence, compassion. Karuna or Karunawa. C. 109, mercy, 

tenderness, compassion. (Scr. Karunya and Karma, compassion, tenderness.) 
Karunya-an, to have mercy or compassion upon any one. 
Karusuk, to make a heavy dull sound, as of a man or animal walking in jungle. To 

grope your way through jungle. 
Karusukan, to grope or push your way through thick reeds or jungle. 
Karut, to twist and twine rope about anything; to make a net- work of rope round anjv 

thing. Tampayang di karut, a large water jar set round with a matting of rope to 

prevent its breaking. Batu karut , a stone envelloped in matting , or rather as seen in 

the jungle envelloped in a tangled mass of lianes. 
Kas, Dutch, a case, a chest. 
Kas, Arabic, the extremity of the law; law of retaliation ; very rarely used. (Arab. -^Uai*, 

Qigdf (also qagg) talio, vindicta. Fr.) 

Kasab, work, value, good. Naun kasab, what i3 the good of it. 

Kasaksian, witnessed by, borne evidence by, attested by. Kasaksian ku mandor, wit- 
nessed by the mandor, or village chief. (From Scr. Sdkshin, Norn. Sdkshl, a witness; 
sa, with, akshi, eye.) 

Kasaktian, supernatural power, enchantment. (From Qakli, id.) 

Kasampak, met, fallen in with, come upon, encountered. 

Kasandung, stumbled, tripped up, run unintentionally against some low object on the 
ground. (Sandung , <M<nm to stumble against a stone, or any object on the ground Jav.) 

K a sang, curtains, screens. Panggo-ongan gZus di kasangan the shed where the gong is 
played has been hung round with curtains. Kasang rata, curtains for a prince. 

Kasangsang, caught, hooked, arrested; said of a rope, clothes or any object which is 
caught against something else. Tali na kasangsang ka na ruyuk. the rope has caught 
among the bushes. 

Kasantap, to get an attack of illness as if caused by some evil genius. Suddenly struck 
ill, paralyzed. 

Kasap, sharp and rough to the feel, harsh, biting like a file. (Kasap and Kas,ib Jav. id.; 
rough, not smooth.) 

Kasar, rude, uncivil. (Batav. Malay ^J£ Kasar, rough, used also of cloth or other mat- 
ters. Fr.) 

Kasarang, as when a man or woman wants to get married and is refused ; jilted. (Saranj 
Jav. to have a dislike, to be not inclined to.) 

Kasarikat, sec Sarikat. 

Kasaru, to mistake, to take the wrong one from two or more objects which are very 
much alike; not recognize, as a person heard of but never seen. 



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AND ENGLISH. 205 

Kasarung, probably tho same as Kasaru with the nasal and final ng suffixed, and may 
then imply- travestied , disguised. The word occurs only in the history of Pajajaran as 
Lutung kasarung, see Raffles Vol. 2 Page 102. „Guru Putra then gave Chiung Wana- 
ra a black monkey skin jacket, which the latter forthwitli put on and immediately 
became in appearance like that animal. He, at the same time, gave him the name of 
Guru minda sida tanda Prabu Lutung Kasarung". 

Kasasar, gone astray, wandered till lost , lost the way, bewildered, embarrassed, perplexed. 
(Jav. Batav. id.) 

Kasebet, a small bit cut off, just touched, grazing upon. (Jav. ^?^^, Sebit, torn in 
pieces, a piece torn off.) 

Kasedek, pinched for time, in a great hurry; jammed in difficulties, (x**™\ &dek in 
Kawi is the same as <3* s'dettg , which occurs also in Jav. and Malay , but means only 
at t/ie time that, when. Fr.) 

Kasendal, work finished in proper time, got through early. (Stndal Q^mn^s Jav. to 
be prosperous in an undertaking.) 

Kas^ntor, to come and meet. 

Kasep, handsome, good looking, said of a man, but not of a woman who is geulis, which 
see. Said also of some things but rather ironically. Kasip amat perkara na, his ad- 
venture (or his story) is very handsome. He has got a very pretty adventure! 

Kasgpuhan, the old gentleman; a respectful designation for an oldman. (Sepuh, Jav. old.) 

Kaserahken, delivered up, handed over. (S&rah, Mai. id.) 

Kasiat, for the reason that, seeing that. Kasiat sasari na to daikkZn for the reason that 
ordinarily he will not. 

Kasibat, overcome by dizziness in the head, from exposure to the sun. Struck by the sun. 

Kasih, affection, love, compassion. Kasih na gMi nak&r ka nu ISutik, he has great com- 
passion on humble people. 

Kasihan, compassion, mercy, consideration. Menta kasifian tuan bai , I entreat your mercy. 

KasikSp, to be able to manage, to be master of, to have within one's power. Pagawdan 
eta to kasikcp, that work cannot be managed. Kasikep ayvunah kabeh, we are now 
master of the whole. 

Kasimah, terrified, afrighted, overcome by sudden and great terror , Paralyzed, frightened 
out of his wits. Ari ngadengH soara maung teul&ui kasimah, as soon as he heard the 
roar of die tiger he became terrified , or frightened out of his wits. 

Kasingsal, overlooked, missed. 

Kasintu, a variety of wild jungle fowl of which the cock is small and red with black 
tail. Different from the Clianggehgar. 

Kasir, name of an orthopterous insect, a kind of large cricket or Gryllus. It is full 1 \ 
inch long and thus a good deal larger than the Jangkrik, which it otherwise resembles. 
The kasir burrows deep in the ground, whereas the Jangkrik is generally about the 
surface, or in shallow holes. 



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20G t A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Kasmaran, a Jarape so called, the tendency of which is that no one will take offence 
at us. Also a Jampe by which one person is made to fall in love with another. This 
is derived from Kama the god of love who is also called Sang Hyang Sraara. Bat, Trans : 
Vol. 22 Page 42. A philtre, a love charm. 
SamZra, C. 710, having the passions unsubdued. See Asmara. 
Samara, C. 709, a name of Kama, the deity of love; with the Polynesian prefix ibi, 
and suffix an^ Kasmaran. 

Kaso, called in Malay, Glaga, Saccharum glaga; a reed which grows very luxuriantly, 
and to the height of tenor a dozen feet, forming almost impenetrable bushes. Though 
a variety of the sugarcane , the Kaso contains no saccharine matter , and is not thicker 
than a man's finger , Kasa , C. 122 , a kind of ree d or long grass (Saccharum Spontaneum). 

Kasongket, an areui or liane with a thick stem from which project a series of small pe- 
dicles 1J- i 2 inches long, which are covered with small flowerlets. 

Kasongket, is also the name of a tall reedy grass, with long terminal hairy or feathery 
spike which is white and looks like a hairy cats tail. 

Kasturi, musk, such as procured from animals — from the civetcat Kasturu and Kas- 
turyya, C. 116. musk, civet. (Skr. Kasturi, Kasturika and Kasturika, musk, the ani- 
mal perfume so called. Wilson.) 

Kasugihan, riches, wealth, opulence. (Sugih, Jav. Balin. Rich, opulent.) 

Kasuhur, renowned, celebrated, famous. Arabic Mashur, Marsden P. 324. ( ,*yl* Mash- 

hur; our word is rather derived from the substantive iLu£ Shuhrat , divulgation , fame , 

with the Polynesian Prefix ka. Fr.) 
Kasumba, and also kasumba-jawa, safflower. Carthamus tinctorius. Kasumbha, C. 134 

Carthamus tinctorius (Scr. Kusumbha. Wilson.) 
Kasungka, name of a liane in the jungle which gives an edible bean. Gnetum latifolium. 
Kasur, a mattress, a bed made of cloth stuffed with cotton. (Jav. Mai. id.) 
Kasura, to get a small spine or thorn stuck in the foot. Wounded in the foot by any 
* small sharp thing. 
Kasurupan, to become impregnated with to be possessed of; absorbed, sunk into; set as 

the sun. Kasurupan d&dewan, to be possessed of a supernatural spirit, of some evil 

genius. Kasurupan mata poi di jalan , the sun set while I was yet on the road. (Surup 

Jav. To get into, to get through; to go under, said of the sun.) 
Kasusahan, in trouble, in difficulties, perplexed, down cast, afflicted. (From Susah.) 
Kasut, embroidered slippers, such as worn by Chinese women of note. 
Katagian, to have an involuntary longing for anything to which we are accustomed, 

and which we cannot resist, as the longing of a drunkard for liquor, of an opium 
¥ smoker for opium , and the like. Derived from the word Tagi to dun , to bother for 

payment or performance of any duty. (Jav. Mf ff t ^ Nagih, from Tagih with the same 

meaning as here Tagi. Katagian is used at Batavia, Fr.) 



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AND ENGLISH. 207 

Katalang, replaced by, to have got a substitute. Derived from the word Talang , a spout, 
and the idea implies — as water is carried over a hollow by a spout, so we are carried 
over a difficulty by the aid of some one else. Katalang ku minantu, relieved from 
some public duty by a son in law. The son in law performing the the public duty 
relieves his father in law from the obligation. A custom common at Jasinga and 
many other parts of the Sunda districts. The son in law relieves the father of his 
wife, but not his own father from the performance of feudal service. (Talang in Jav. 
has the same meaning; Nalang'ng n i, to order somebody to relieve ones self in the per- 
formance of a duty ,• also to give orders to buy. In the last acceptation talang is found 
in Malay Fr.) 

Katalimbeng, lost in a forest so that the person cannot find his way home. The natives 
pretend that this is in consequence of stepping over a liane called ar&ui Band&ng which 
in a manner charms thein. (From a root Timbeng; al infixed.) 

Katambahan, augmented, increased; something in addition. (From Tambah, to add.) 

Katang 1 en, known, seen, evident (Tangi, Jav., to become awake, to rise.) 

Katapang, name of a tree bearing a fruit like an almond. Terminalia katapang. 

K a tar a, visible, clearly seen, manifest, espied. (From Scr. Tdra, radiant, shining; clean, 
clear. Jav. Balin. Batav. idem.) 

Kate, dwarf, small in stature, diminutive. (Batav. id. Jav. A small cock or hen. Gericke.) 

Kate la, of nearly the same import as katara. Visible from a distance, clearly seen. 

KatSlah, called after, named from. KatUah ku anak> called after a child. The Sundaese 
have a practice which is the reverse of what is usual among Europeans. The father and 
mother are called after the eldest child. Thus if that child is called Hamat, the father 
will be Bapa Hamate add the mother Ambu Hamat y the father or the mother of Ha- 
mat But the word father or mother is often dropped, causing much confusion as to 
identity. This is an affectionate way of always acknowledging a child, which however, 
at same time conveys the pride of parentage. 

Kate pa, infected with any disease; infected by contagion. 

Kat^pung, a shrub producing a largish bright yellow flower, called also Daun kurap, 
or ringworm leaf. Acacia alata. 

Kat^tdsan, to get a drop; to have a drop fall upon you. To be implicated in any matter. 
(Jav. «S,*?,*^ Tills , to drop.) 

Kati, a catty, a weight so called; the 100 tl ». part of a Picul> which see. 

Katia, a bark used fordying black. Imported, not found in the Sunda Jungles. 

Katib, Arabic. A clerk, a priest's assistant; a preacher. (C^[±., Khfaib, the priest who 

reads the Khuibat or the sermon of the Friday. Fr.) 
Katiga, the dry season, from June to September. It is a remnant of the old Javanese 
method of counting the seasons, of which the other terras are not retained in the Sun- 
da language. Katiga means- „the third" (Season). (On Bali and Java the third month.) 



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208 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Katimang, the oval ring of iron resembling an elongated O, which fixes into the splinter 
bar of a Chinese plough , by which the buffaloe drags it. The Katimang hooks the splin- 
ter bar upon the Chantel, which is a crooked bit of iron fixed to the end of the pole 
of the plough. (Timang Jav. A hook.) 

Katimpahan, struck, knocked down, overwhelmed. (Batav. id.) 

Katimun, more usually Hantimun, a Cucumber, which see. 

Katindihan, covered up by, buried under, placed under. Katindihan ku kayu eunyZuh , 
knocked down by a tree falling. (Malay Batav. id. Jav. ,%f„ ?N Nindih to lay over.) 

Katineung, to feel a delight at seeing or meeting any one; also at the mere remembrance 
of any one to whom we are attached ; bearing affection. In the language of Poggi , on 
1 the west coast of Sumatra , Tenwtg is the heart , and our Sunda word looks as if it 

were this same word with the constructive ka before it, and would thus imply, heart- 
felt or having relation to the heart, the seat of the emotions. 

Kating'ali, beheld, seen, observed. A refined expression. (Ting'al, Jav., asa verbfuw^W, 
to see; Balin. ting'Anl id. Fr.) 

Katinggalan, left behind, lagging behind on the road. Deserted. Jauh keneh katingga- 
lan nana, he was left a long way behind. Katinggalan nana, its remainder, what is 
left over. (From Tinggal.) 

Katinggang, see Ninggang; under the influence of; fallen to the share of. 

Katir, outriggers of a boat; arms distended on each side of a small canoe to prevent its 
upsetting. 

Katiwasan, overtaken by some serious injury. (Tiwas, Jav. unlucky, unfortunate. Balin. 
poor, wretched. Fr.) 

K a t o g , strong , of great strength. (Jav. Full grown.) 

Katon, visible, within sight, seen. (From Ton y Non, to see. Jav.) 

Katomas, name of a handsome variety of Justicia. The leaves are mottled yellow and 
green, or gold and green; it is an ornamental shrub, 

Katrajang, overtaken by, suffering under, attacked by. Katrajang Cha-ah y overtaken by 
a flood. Katrajang nyvri beutung , suffering a belly ache. Katrajang ku nu ngabegal , 
attacked by banditti, (Jav. Trajang , attack in battle; Nrajang , to attack.) 

Katukang, Ka to, with Tukang , see behind. 

Katumbila, a stinking louse found about old bambu flooring, in native houses. Cimex. 

Katumbiri, the rainbow. Apparently compounded of KaH, C. 101 a woman; lustre, 

effulgence, a ray of the sun; and Biri, C. 473 a woman, a wife. The two words 

being connected by the peculiar Sunda um which see, and is thus- the effulgence of 

• woman. The natives have an idea that the rainbow is caused or happens whenever the 

Badiyadari or celestial nymphs are bathing. 

Katumpuhan, being answerable for, liable for; anything lost or destroyed which has to 
be replaced by the person destroying it. (Jav. Tempah , Tatempuh , Tatempah , repla- 
cing, indemnification.) 



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AND ENGLISH. 209 

Katunchar, Coriander seed. Coriandrum sativum. (64). 

Katun g, a joint of bambu tied up to the Pager or wall of a native house, in which small 
valuables are kept. 

Katunggu, watched, guarded, to be kept in order, properly superintended. 

Katungku, said of a buffaloe which appears to be ailing, and which it is thought pru- 
dent to kill for fear of its dying , whereby the flesh would be lost , if the animal was 
not killed according to Mohammedan rites. 

Katut, going in at the bargaiu; sold along with something else. Bias di juwal katut 
jcung iarung na 9 the rice was sold along with the bag. 

Katuwon, inward sorrow, regret. 

Ka-uber, roused up, stirred up, put to rout. 

Kaul, arabic. Marsden. A written agreement, contract, engagement, (jy, Qaul> a saying, 

word.) 

Kaul a, I, I myself. A humble designation of self, whereby the speaker places himself be- 
low the person whom he adresses. It is still more humble than Kula, of which it seems 
to be a modification. 

KaulkSn, to make a promise or engagement. 

Kaum, arabic, an assembly of priests or men met for the purpose of prayer. Lj Qaum, 

people.) 
Kaur, having time, having leisure. To kaur, I have no time. (Kahur Jav. time, leisure.) 
Kaus, a stocking, such as worn by Europeans. It is the Dutch word kous, stocking. 
Kawa, the Crater of a Volcano. Kawa, C. 115, a circle. Perhaps the name was applied 

to the craters of Volcanoes from their being generally circular openings on the tops of 

the mountains. (Perhaps a derivation from the Scr. root ku, to sound. Fr.) 
Kawa Domas, name of one of the craters on the Tangkuban Prahu. 
Kawah, a. large cooking pan, a sugarpan. This and the precending word appear to be 

distinct, though so nearly allied in both sound an sense. The latter word, however, 

is always aspirated at the end which the other is not. 
Kawai, the Baju or jacket of a native nobleman. 
Kawalahan, overdone with work; having more trouble and work than can be got 

through; overtasked. 
Kawalu, and Kawalu tutug, are great festivals of the Badui heathens in South Bantam. 

This Kawalu sounds like a Sunda form of the Javanese Wolu> Eight, and thus kawa- 



(64) Jav. Malay Katumbar. There is a very remarkable exchange between b en ch in Malay and 
Sundanese. See Changkudu to Mai. Bangkudu ; Changkwang - Banghvang. The letters B en Ch seeming 
to be very distant from each other, must have been considered or rather felt by the natives to be 
cognate. I know no Analogon of their exchange in other languages, who are cognate to each other, 
they are the one a Media the other a Tenuis of another class, Fr. 

27 



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210 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

lu, would be the Eighth. Perhaps originally these festivals were kept in an eighth 

month. (65). 
Kawan, five nyeri of thread; and expression among the weaving women. 
Kawan, a companion, an associate. Rarely used, being considered Malay, nevertheless the 

word occurs in Pandakawan which is a good Sunda expression , which see. 
Kawas, as, like, resembling, as if, to bear the appearance of. Kawas na to daik nmyar , 

he looks as if he did not intend to pay. (Perhaps from Awas Jav. clear, manifest) 
Kawasa, having power, or authority; able, capable; might, ability. Probably derived from 

wasa, C. 630, authority, mastership; with the constructive ka placed before it to give 

it an adjective form. (Jav. Mai. Kawasa and Kuwasa.) 
Kawat, wire, fine drawn thread of any metal, but without a qualifying noun, generally 

means Iron wire. Kawat tambaga, brass wire. 
Kawatir, to have any anxiety about, doubt, distrust. To be troubled with uncertainty 

how a matter will turn out Ulah kawatir, you need not be in trouble about it (Jav. 

Kawatir , afraid, fearing danger.) 
Kaw-auw-oh, a liane, the bark of the root of which is used to prevent Kawung toddy 

from turning sour. 
Kawawa, to bear, to endure. To kawawa, I c'ant endure it. It is more than I can 

carry. (Jav. Kuwawa , to be able to do , to be in state of doing anything.) 
Kawaweuhan, acquaintance, any person with whom we are acquainted. (Jav. Waxcuh % 

to have acquaintance, to be friend of.) 
K a way ah, intermittent. Muriang kawayah, the intermittent fever, 
Kawfcl, to tie or fasten by twisting and turning round with string. (Jav. Kuv&l.) 
Kawih, to sing, to warble. Kawi, C. 115. Poetry, songs &c. a learned or wise person. 

Kawiyama, C. 122, a poem, poetry. Kawya, C. 122, a poetical composition, a poem. 

Kawi y without the final aspirate is no doubt the same word and implies the old lan- 
guage of Java, in which the Hindu literature is preserved, and which was in use as 

connected with the Hindu religion. (Kawi Scr. a poet.) 
Kawin, Persian, to marry, to wed, to espouse. The usual term for to marry in both 

Sunda, Javanese and the Malay of Java. Ngawin in Sunda and Javanese is to carry 

spears in procession , and Pangawinan are the people who so carry the spears. May 

not this have arisen from carrying spears in procession when the men (the intended 

father and son- in law) go to confirm the marriage. See Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch 



(65) Walu is the Kawi-form of wolu; it is written also wwalu. Kawalu might bo also the eighth 
day of a month, the Hindu festivals being more commonly called after the day (of the white or 
black half) of the moon , on which they happen. This custom we find back on stone inscriptions 
of Java and Sumatra. The eighth day is indeed a holy-day, being the commencement of a new 
phase of the moon. Fr. 



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AND ENGLISH. 211 

Indie Oct. 1852 Page 275 where mention is made of „4 axoeen piekerC\ four awin 
spears , and of „2 awinans" 1 or attendants as occurrying at Griss6e. In the Sunda dis- 
tricts you still see the intended father in law, with a spear in his hand, go to the 
priest, followed by his intended Son in law, when the legal form of the marriage 
takes place. See Nikah. 

KawinkSn, to cause to marry, to marry out. 

Kawini, a variety of mangga, mangifera. A true Terebintacea being very turpentiny. 

Kawista, name of a large tree which yields a gummy matter used in making native ink. 

Kawul, a sort of tinder procured from scraping the root part of the leaf branch , or frond, 
of a Kawung Palm. A spark of light struck from a steel is caught upon it, when 
fresh fire is made. 

Kawung, name of a Palm tree so called, which yields sugar. Saguerus Saccharifera or 
Borassus Gomuti. Called Aren or Anau in Malay. The Sugar is boiled down from 
the toddy which exudes from the stems of fructification, on being beaten and sliced 
oft every day. 

Kawung Parasi, a poor ill grown kawungpalm which yields little or no Sugar. 

Kayang, some of the wild varieties of Quercus trees are so called. 

Kayangan, the abode or temple of a Hyang or divinity. 

Kayu, wood, timber; sometimes used for a tree in general. Kha appears to be wood in 
Burmese. See Singapore Journal Vol 4 Page 59 where Theet-Kha is given, a bitter 
wood. Theet is evidently the Singhalese Titta, C. 231, bitter, pungent. Au nunu, 
the name of the Waringin tree at Letta and Kissa of the Serwatti group , east of Ti- 
mor. Au signifies tree- Singahore Journal Vol 4 Page 181. Now the word kayu ap- 
pears to be a compound of these two words, Kha and au y inserted euphoniae gratia. 
Or it may be simply au with the idiomatic ka prefixed. 

Kayu is an idiomatic term for counting certain substances which fold up flat like a 
board, especially piece goods. Chita 8a kayu, a piece of Chintz. 

Kayu-putih, literally- white wood. The tree grows in the Moluccos; and on Java the 
words kayu-putih , as in Europe , mean the essential oil derived from the tree. It is 
the Cajeput of Europe. Melaleuca Cajeputi. 

Keak, to chirp like a bird; to make a small chirping or squeaking sound. 

Kg bat, straight on without divergence; in a due straight line. KSbat bai ngidul went 
South in a due straight line. 

KSbel, a long time, a good while. Undur na geus iebel, it is a good while since he went 
away. Sa k&bcl, as long as. 

KSbo, a buffaloe, in Malay Karbau. This animal is also called munding in Sunda. Bos 
Bubalus. Karabha, C. 108, a Camel, an Elephant, probably derived from Karanawa, 
C. 108. to do, to act, to make, to perform-, and thus a working animal. (66). 



(66) Karabha Scr. A youDg Camel, or any young animal,* a young Elephant. Also Kalabha. I 



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212 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Kebo, a title given anciently to Javanese chiefs, and is the same as Maisa, meaning Buf- 
faloe. Munding another word for Buffaloe was also formerly used to designate the 
chiefs, Lembu a bull or cow, also occurse in a similar way in the composition of the 
names of ancient chiefs. Kebo has had also extensive application in this sense on Ball. 
See Bat. Trans. Vol 23 Page 24. It occurs in the history of Java , see Raffles Vol 2, 
Page 105 in the name of K&bo Mundarang, the minister of the king o Kediri, and 
again Page 135 in the person of Kebo Kanigara, the chief of Pajang. The word Kabu 
given in Raffles is no doubt meaut for Kebo. 

Kebo-grang, name of a fish at Jasinga; the same as Sanggaringan. 

Kebon, a garden, a plantation, a cultivated bit of ground. The same word is also Malay. 
It might have been expected that the islanders would have had a pure Polynesian word 
for such a thing as a garden, or bit of planted land, but nevertheless Kebon seems 
to have borrowed its root from the Sanscrit Bu the Earth, the world, Clough 477, 
and with the constructive Ka before and an after , would make Kabuan , the u and a , 
by a very common rule coalesce , and form O , making thus Kabon or KZbon , a bit 
of earth, a bit of land- a garden. 

Kebut, to be blown about by the wind. To fan, to blow up a fire. 
*Kebutan, to fan, to cause a current of wind to pass over anything by waving some in- 
strument by way of a fan. To dust, to blow away the dust. 

Kechap, Catchup, a dark coloured sauce prepared by the Chinese. 

KSchap, to speak, to utter a word. Sa kechap, a word. (Mai. Jav. Kawi Uchap, word, 
tale; Kochap, spoken. Kechap, Jav. the act of opening and clossing the mouth when 
pronouncing a word. The following article is certainly the same, the time for pronouncing 
a word being no more than the twinkling of the eye. Fr.) 

Kechap, a twinkling of the eye; any short space of time; immediately. 

Kecherik, a small variety of hand fishing net. 

Kedengan, to lie down upon. Meja di kedengan, he laid himself down upon the table. 

KedengkSn, to lay down, to place in a recumbent position. Kedengken di na meja, lay 
it down flat upon the table! 

Ked6r, fearful, uneasy in mind, startled. 

K e d i h , firm in character , not to be talked over. 

Kediri, name of a residency at the east end of Java, and the supposed site of the ancient 
kingdom of Doha. It was here that a remarkable woman, called Kili-Suchi, lived, 



would neither pretend, that karabha is our karbau y notwithstanding that in a similar way the 
Western nations called the Elephant »Indian ox" (Aleph Hindi, Pott.) the Romans even »bos Lu- 
canus" because they had seen the animal first in Lucania in the war with Pyrrhus: nor that the 
word karabha or karbau is derived from the root kri, to do, to work. The buffaloe is known in 
India and his principal name is mahisha, which is well known on Java and Bali. We might leave 
the karbau (k&bo) to the Polynesians, even as the word Munding. Fr. 



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AND ENGLISH. 213 

vide voce : and with reference to her failing , the natives of the country say that the 
country obtained its name, as Kcdih in their language means- the stoppage, or rather 
non-appearance of the menstrual flux. Hiri or iri is envy, and thus that KZdiri im- 
plies the stoppage above alluded and envy of others at the same time. Hiri, C. 794 is 
also shame, confusion, and Kedih-hiri would express-shame at not having the flux. 
Clough Page 158 gives Khadiri, a sensative plant, mimosa pudica, which would not 
be a bad emblem of Kili Suchi in her distressing position. Kili Suchi was not allowed 
to sacrifice herself on the funeral pile of her parents, in consequence of which, she is 
said to have borne great ill will , and thus may account for the iri or hiri in Kedih-iri. 
(Khadirt, mimosa pudica. Wilson. Jav. £5*3^ KSdiri, wherein the «> (dh) seems to in- 
dicate, that the Scr. word contained an aspirated letter. Fr.) 

KSdokan, a muddy hole that a buffaloe wallows in any ground or road kept muddy and 
cut up by the constant passage of buftaloes or other animals. 

Keduk, to pull towards you, either with your hands, or with some instrument, as with 
a pacAul, to scrape aside. L&utak na kudu di k&dukan, you must scrape the mud on 
one side. 

Keh, an interjection. Do you seel look now! 

Kehed, glans penis. 

K^hk^l, name of a small fish in rivers. 

Kfcjep, a twinkling, a wink of the eye; usually Sa kejep, any very short space of time. 
Jav. K$j&p and Kejep id. Vide KccAap.) 

K£jo, boiled rice, rice boiled fit for eating; called in Malay Nasi. 

Kek, the idiomatic expression of laying hold of- seize hold! lay hold! Kek bai di ch&tel, 
and laying hands on him he seized him. 

K 6 k e b , a variety of Seureuh found growing wild in the forests. It is used when the true 
leaf is scarce or not to be had. Chavica Blumei. 
K6k£d, having the fingers cramped or drawn together by disease. Daikkek£d y may I have 
my fingers cramped — a serious but common expression when a man wishes to insist 
upon the truth of what he says. (Jav. K6k6t, to stick to each other.) 

Kekejoan, the white frothy juice which first flows from the fruit stem of the Kawung 
palm, when cut for gathering the toddy to make sugar. This will not boil down to 
sugar and is thrown away. It is soon succeeded by more pure juice from which the 
sugar is made. 

Kekeng, the bit of a bridle. 

Kekeng rang" ah, a bit set with iron points, called in Malay Tom duri, used much by 
the natives. (Tom is the Dutch woord toom, bridle. Fr.) 

Kekeng chaching, literally- a worm bit, and thus smooth, A smooth bit such as used 
by Europeans. 

Kdkes, a variety of small squirrel, Sciurus; found in the jungle. It resembles the Bu-ut 
but is smaller. 



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214 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

KSketeg, the pulse, the beating of the blood. (Jav. Keteg id.) 

Kekompongan, the flank of either man or beast. The side of lower part of belly. (Jav. 
Kempong, the milt, the bladder; Mkempongan, would be the side, the place about the 
milt or bladder. Fr.) 

Kelalen, forgotten, Compounded of Ka-lali-an. The word lali however, is of rare occur- 
rence in Sunda for- to forget, which it more especially implies in Javanese. The com- 
mon Sunda word being Poho. 

Kelang, dry, desiccated. 

Kelar, to have an affection for. Kelar ka Pajajaran to feel affection for Pajajaran. (Jav. 
To have sufficient power, to be able.) 

Kelat, to connect with a bit of string; to tie lightly with a bit of string to fix to any- 
thing by tying down. A string used as a brace. (Jav. A ring, a string etc.) 

Kdl£, a bit of bambu, as much as is contained between two joints, used for holding wa- 
ter. Kele's are always seen about the doors of native houses , to hold water to wash 
the feet with. Kale C. 114- a water pot. 

K6\6k, the armpit. Di keUk, to carry under the arm. 

Kelem, sunk under water, covered by water, inundated. (Jav. id., also to sink under the 
sand. Batavian Tangfclem.) 

Kelengar, swooned away, fainted; in a fit and not recognizing people. (Jav. Mai. id.). 

Keletik, to extract oil from Cocoanuts by rasping the pulp and then boiling it down, 
as contradistinguished from di kampa , to procure the oil by squeezing in a press. 

Kelewek, Pichung nuts prepared for cooking by drying over fire and then burying in 
the earth for a couple of months, or else they are poisonous. 

Kclid, toward off, to parry. 

Kelinchi, a hare, a rabbit; derived from the Dutch word Kleintje, a little one. 

Ktflong, Satan, the devil, evil spirits or genii. 

Kelor, name of a tree Moringa Pterygosperma. The bark of the root of this tree rasped 
in shreds looks like and tastes like horse- radish, and is sometimes eaten with roast 
beef in same manner. 

K £ m a n g , an inferior variety of mangga , Mangifera foetida. 

Kemat, to influence, to be will disposed towards others. An incantation to induce others 
to marry you. 

Kern bang, a flower, blossom, the choice of anything. Gunung kembang flowery mountain. 
Kembang or kambang may be derived from ka , the preposition , and Bang or abang , red. 

Kembang ang'in, literally- the flower of the wind, means private information, secret no- 
tice. 

Kembang pala, mace; literally — the flower of the nutmeg. 

Kembang Sapatu, the shoe flower, Hibiscus, Rosa- Sinensis. The red flower rubbed 
on leather serves as blacking, hence the name. It is properly Malay and called more 
usually in Sunda, JFe'ra. 



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AND ENGLISH. 215 

Kerabar, twins, two children at one birth. 

Kembu, a large standing pannier used in boats to collect and retain fish, as it is caught 
with the casting net. Derived in all probability from Buwu with the preposition ka. 

KSmbung, swollen up, inflated, blown up, distended. 

Kembung, a small sea fish so called. 

Kem6ja, a shirt, as worm by Europeans. Camisa, Port: a shirt. (See Kameja.). 

KSraendur, a commodore, a title given to some petty native chiefs about Batavia. Is the 
Dutch word Commandeur. 

Kemit, a watchman about a dwelling house or store. A watchman in general, and espe- 
cially at night. (Jav. Aemi*, to watch at wigth.). 

KSmpds, small in volume, in a small compass. Said of a swelling which has gone down; 
reduced as a swelling. 

Kempis a small pannier to collect fish in as caught. It has a wide bottom and narrow 
neck, like a bottle. 

K^mpolken, to bend aside; to turn away or aside. 

Kemudi, a helm, a rudder; a paddle or sweep to steer with. (See Kamudi.) 

Ken, a particle placed after a word, which then becomes a transitive verb; as goring , 
bad, gorengkZn, to make bad. Su/ca, pleasure, sukakvn, to grant, to have pleasure irr 

Kencha, left, the reverse of right. Lcungan ti k6ncha, the hand on the left, the left 
hand. Ka kincha, to the left. 

K^ncha-an, to stretch out a rope in order to mark out work, where to cut the ground. 
To line out ground for a garden bed or the like. 

Kcnchang, fixed, fast, firmly set in, tight. Quick, expiditions, smart. Severe, strictly 
adhering to regulations. 

Kenchangan, to set fast , to tighten. To hurry. 

Kencheng, money down; for ready money, for cash. 

Kencherken, to turn out cattle from the Kandang, stable or place of confinement. . To 
turn out to graze. 

Ken dak, a paramour, 

Kendal, name of a district in the residency of Samarang. In a country where so many 
remains of Hindu antiquity are found, it is not unreasonable to suspect a Hindu ori- 
gin in all names of places which are not evidently Polynesian. Crawfurd gives Kvn- 
daUsadciy name of the country of Hanuman in the Ramayaua; name of a mountain in 
the province of Samarang in Java and from this probably our Kendal is derived. 

Ken dang, a roll or large package of anything. A roll of merchandise. 

Kcndang, a long narrow native drum only covered atone end, and often carried suspen- 
ded under the arm. 

Kcndang, viz. Gunung Kcndang, the name of a ridge of mountains which extends the 
whole lenght of Java , and is found of various elevations , from a few hundred to se- 
veral thousand feet. It is , as it were , the backbone of the Island of Java. It forms 



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216 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

the boundary ridge between Jasinga and the Prianger Regencies, and is there about 
5000 feet high. In the residency of Sourabaya, there are also Gunung k&ndang which 
are a few hundred feet above the sea. It is probably derived from Kanda, C. 104, 
a hill, with the Polynesian ng added to it; in the same way that it is supposed the 
Malay word Padang , a plain, is derived from Pada, C. 357 meaning a place, ascite. 
Khandha, C. 158, a multitude, the trunk of a tree- and hence the multitude of moun- 
tains , or the mountains in ridges like the trunks of trees. Mr. Friederich writes me — 
„Khanda (masculine and neuter Khandam) means , a piece , a part , a fragment , a por- 
tion, a chapter, a section (Kendang?). The root is Khad, to devide , to tear , to break 
off; a part, apiece. Khanda, Clough Page 157 has precisely the same meaning, word 
for word. 

Kendi, a water goglet, an earthenware jar with along narrow neck for holding drinking 
water. Kendiya, C. 136, a water goglet. Kundhi is the water pot carried by Siwa, 
as represented in images of this god, at the old Hindu temples in Java. Marsden 
gives this word as Kundi , Gundi and Gindi (Kondu in Greek , Poculum barbaricum , 
Persicum, certe asiaticum) a water-pot, Earthenware bottle, ewer. (Scr. kundi.) 

Kendit, a piece of string which is worn round the hips by way of a charm. Most native 
women wear a Kendit under their clothes. 

Ken dor, slack, wanting in tightness; remiss, negligent, slow. 

Kendoran, to ease off, to slacken, to be less severe. 

Ken£h, still, in continuance. Had6 ten&h , it is still good. Tahan Mneh , it will still hold out. 

Ken gke rang, the shoulder blade, the bone which joins the shoulder to the neck. 

Ken i ay a or Kanyaya, to oppress, to ill use, to tyrannise over; to persecute. Aniya, 
C. 29 a common word for violence or power , to which is thus prefixed the Polyne- 
sian Ka y and an ertra ya put at the end. 

Kening, as di kening, to cut and trim the eyebrows, as young coquette native girls do. 
See di dahi. 

Kenjeng, a title for high personages invested with power, and is applied as well to na- 
tive chiefs on Java and Bali, as also to the European authorities, such as the Resi- 
dents. Jeng in the Kawi of Java means foot, and thus the great man is designated 
by a part of his body not higher than the foot, as inferiors are considered unworthy 
to look higher. 

Kenong, a small round and convex metal musical instrument, belonging to a gamelan. 

Ken tang, Potatoes, any tuberous root of the Solanum kind. 

Ken tang, Chinese Cash, being a mixed metal, of which copper is the chief ingredient, 
with a square hole in the middle to string them by. Probably in common use in Java 
before the arrival of Europeans , as it is still to this day on Bali and Lombok. Called 
also Pichis and kupang. 

Kenteng, a tile, a roofing tile. 

Kentrung, the dull hollow sound of the stampers in the rice block. Any dull sound. 



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AND ENGLISH. 217 

Kenyan g, to pall at, to lug, to tug. 

Kcnyere, name of a tree with tough clastic wood. 

Keong, a small shell fish found in swamps; a variety of Ampullaria. A snail; any small 

land molusk in a shell. 
Kcpang, a peculiar kind of bambu platted work (Bilik, wliich see}, which is the best and 

most substantial sort which is made. 
Kopek, a sort of bambu basket with cover, the sides and top of which are covered with 

the cuticle of the branches of the Sarai palm, and which are impenetrable to water. 

The natives use Kejyvks , as we use portmanteaus for carrying about their clothes and 

other personal effects. 
Kepcng, any small copper coin, which is not a Dutch doit; any trilling value. Hayau<j 

ntjiar pikulihZ-un. sa kepvng, I want to seek work as a cooly, if it be hut for a triHe. 
Kepel, a young foal, with long shaggy hair. 
Kcper, generally called Ki-I&pitr , a large forest tree. Or properly the bark of the tree 

which is stringy, and taken off in large pieces to be used as a kind of boarding in the 

rouirh houses of the natives. 

o 

Kepes, to knock a side, to ward off by a gentle blow- to give a slap. 

Kepct, to eat one's own ordure under a foolish idea that we shall soon grow rich. 

Keplek, toss- penny or toss-duit: any wager whether heads or tails will fall uppermost. 

Kcpluk, indicative of anything falling heavily to the ground, a heavy plump in a fall. 

Ko pluk-kepluk, to make a clashing noise, as in clapping the hands. To clap the hands. 

Keprak-Kcprik, to knock about, to toss about to move frequently and injure; to ill 
use. 

Kt?prct, to sprinkle with water or any liquor, to throw water in drops on anything. Wa- 
ter shook from the hands on any object. 

Kcprik, to set after, to rouse up, to bustle at. 

Kepuk- k epuk , to pat or strike gently. 

Kepung, to encircle, to circumvent, to surround. 

Kerai, name of a fish, found especially in caverns where there is water. 

Kcrak, in boiling rice, that part which is next the pot, wh-eh adheres to it and gets 
done brown. The brown crust of boiled rice. 

Kcrak, name of a bird much seen about buffaloes, perched on their backs, ami pecking 
about their hide. Called also Jalak. The bird is black with a little white in the wings. 

Kerebek, the noise made by water entering a bottle or bambu kele, when immersed 
therein , caused bij the escape of the air. The bubbling noise of air in water so es- 
caping. 

Kerek, to snore, to make a snoring noise, to breathe heavily. Xyorok , is to snore from 
the bottom of the throat, and expresses a more strenuous action than fo'rek. 

Kerekan, small reeds round which threads are wound, and afterwards placed in the 
tvopoiKj or shuttle, when in the act of bchig wove into the web. The instrument is 

28 



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218 A DICTIONARY StfNDANESE 

probably called Kerekan, the snorer, from the sound made when winding the threadg 
upon the reeds, in the native spining whedl. 

Kergng, severe, rigorous. 

KerSp, set close together, crowded, thickset; frequently occurring. 

Kerepan, to set close together- to bring nearer to each other. 

Kerep^k, split bambu fastened together so as to make a temporary fence, and set in ri- 
vers to enclose and' catch fish. 

KSrgti, the constellation of the Pleiades, called also Guru Desa or the village monitor, 
as the Paddy cultivation is regulated by its rising. Karttika, C. 120 the month Asala 
(Oct and Novr.) when the moon is full near the Pleiades. Karttiktya, C. 120, the 
Indian god of war , ansevering to the Grecian Mars. (Krittikd , the Pleiades , who were 
considered as the nurses of Karttikeya, who is named after them. Fr.) 

Kerewek, to lay hold of a man and bind him; to pounce upon. 

Keri, growing slowly, stunted. 

KSrid, to turn out a population to work corve'es; a general turn out of the population 
for public work. K&rid balbk , a general turn out for work ; all available hands turned 
out to work. 

Keridan, people turned out to work corv^es. Di gawe keridan, to work by corv<5es. 

Kerik, to scrape with the edge of knife. To scrape gently in general. To scratch, to 
scratch out or efface. 

Kgrna, for the reason that, because. (Scr. Karana, cause, motive. Kdrana id.) 

KSrok, to curry-comb, to scrape roughly. To strike off grain even in any measure — 
as in a gantang. 

Kerong, to twist a rope round any object, so as to bind it securely; entangled. See Pan- 
g6rong. Sung^ut anjing di kerong, the mouth of the dog is bound (by a rope twisted 
rounjl and round its mouth, so that it cannot open it to bite.) 

Kerta, peace, peaceable, in a state of repose, tranquil. Appears to be a participle of Kara- 
nawa, C. 108, to do, to act, to perform. Kerta or karia is often met with in the 
composition of proper names , both of persons and places , and means then- auspicious , 
fortunate. (Karta, means on Java in the words Surakarta, Ngayogyaharta , rather town. 
How krUa, made, can mean peace, 1 have not yet been able to understand. Fr.) 

Kertas, Arabic, paper- Wang kertas, paper money. Sa kertas one guilder in paper mo- 

ney. The more usual word for paper in general is Daluang. (tuAsS (Jb£ cj^S 

Arab, but a vox peregrina, Freytag. Latin Charta.) 
Kfcrta-Sura, name of the Residency and Capital of Java, near the present Sura-kerta 

or Solo. The name of the Capital was inverted when removed. Karta, accomplished, 

perfect in all that is done. 
Kerud, a tiger, but not the Tiger royal, which is called Maung. There is a great variety , 

in the Sunda districts, of which the Black Tiger, Felis niger, is one. 
Keruk, to play as children by putting earth in half cocoa nutshells, and turning it out 

as from a mould. 



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AND ENGLISH. 219 

Kerung, hollow, concave, bending inwards. 

K^sang, perspiration, sweat Kisangan or Bijil kesaiig, to perspire. (Bijil will be Jav. 
midjily to come outside.) 

Kesat, a dryness in the throat impeding articulation. Rough, not smooth. 

AesSd, astringent in taste, tart like unripe fruit Said of any fruit which has a harsh 
rough taste. 

Kesdr and K^s^rken, to hand round, to shove rouud, to distribute. To move sideways 
as people standing or sitting in a row. 

Kesur, a large and thick rattan, always used to stretch across rivers in order to haul 
ferry-boats or rafts across. 

Ketan, a variety of Paddy, Oryza glutinosa. It is of a clammy nature and Used for sweet 
meats and KuoA. 

Ketan-nadin, such grains as look like common rice, but are said to grow on the same 
ear with ketan. 

Ketdl, Dutch ketel- a kettle. 

Ket^ng, in retail; anything sold in retail, or in small quantities. 

Keti, one hundred thousand. 100.000. Koti, C. 145, a number, 100 lacks or ten mil- 
lions- so that in Sunda , and the same is the case in Javanese and Malay- a wrong in- 
terpretation has been given to this word. 

K e t i n g , a kind of fish in the sea. 

Ketok, to strike gently, to tap. 

Keton, name of a piece of money; an old Dukaton of the value of about three guilders. 

KStrok, to knock, to tap, to strike, To strike somewhat harder than K&tok. 

Ketruk, to knock, to bray, to strike, but in a somewhat harder way than when Ketrok 
is used. 

Kg tug, a noise heard occasionally among the mountains, of which the people tell many 
marvellous stories. The sound is like that of cannon, where no cannon are known to 
be. A superstitious idea regarding any sound, heard among the hills, of which the 
cause is not known. 

K&tug, a small round brass musical instrument belonging to the Gamelan. It is smaller 
than the K&nong. 

Keu-eum, to soak in water, to put under water to Soak. To run water on Sawahs or 
other ground which is to be inundated for purposes of cultivation. 

Keu-eung, afraid, timid, timorous. 

Keu-eus, the fruit of KoU or wild plantain. 

Keuheul, impatient with waiting; vexed by delay. Tired out. 

Kgukeupan, to cuddle, to embrace. 

Kg una, hit, struck, as any tiling which is shot at, or aimed at in any way. To incur, 
to be subjected to, as Kvuna di bSwat, he incured a fine. Di b&dil to fauna, it was 
shot at but not hit. (Kcna Batavian, Malay, Jav., Kawi id. In Kawi it has also the 



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220 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

same meaning as the Malay dhan to, in the dative case. Akan after all seeins to be of 
the same origin, cf. aku , I, with Jav. Kawi kua, Batavian gua. Fr.) 

Keuneung, the heel ; the knuckles. 

Keupat, airs, pretensions. To kaivawa hi k£upat tia, there is no enduring his airs. 77a- 
yang kararvvpat , they want to give themselves airs. Kmari'ttpal, is plural. 

KeupSul, the clenched fist when holding anything; the clenched fist. Sa tenpeul , as 
much as can be clenched in the fist. (Jav. Batavian , K&pel id.) 

Kiurfiung, a small packet of any stringy matter tied together. Tuwa sa kZnrvnn , a 
small packet of Tuica or Tuba , a root with which fish are stupifyed. 

Keurcut, to pare off, to slice off with a knife, to slush ; to cut by drawing the knife 
steadily through any mass, not by hacking at it. 

Keusik, sand. 

Kuuyang, oppressively warm; close and warm without any air moving. 

Ki'uyeup, a small land crab, it burrows in earth on the edge of water, and is very trou- 
blesome in all earthen embankments made for the purpose of conducting water over 
hollows. 

K&w£uk, a mono valve sea-shell. Cypraea. 

Khali, a high priest of jYIahomedanism. (,*jli\ QddLi the judge. On Java and Celebes 

it is also pronounced Kali ; at Batavia (and in Malay) Kad/ii. Fr) 
Kharap, inclination, pleasure. Kumaha kharap sia do just as you like; follow your own 
inclination. 

Khemis, Arabic, Thursday. (.u^U- Khdmin , the fifth, { u i ^J>. Khams, five.) 

Ki, a sort of honorific designation placed before men's names or titles; also placed before 
the names of many plants or trees. In the first instance it is probably a contraction 
of Aki, grandfather, and in the latter of Ka-i, which is sometimes though rarely heard 
for wood. Before titles as- Ki Tarnrtnggung , Ki 7)&manj~ before proper names as- Ki 
Jaman, Ki Saman- before names of trees- Ki Cha-ang , Ki Julavg, and more others, 
for which see below. (Ki corresponds with Si, Xi and Hi, used as a kind of article, 
but with different application; from all of them Pronouns are derived, as lata, I, si- 
ya , si-ra he (and you), ni-a, possessive, Id-da, Bal. he (you). It is here not the place 
to explain this further. Fr.) 

Ki-ai, a term of respect for an old man; a term of respect to designate a father in law. 
Compounded of Ki, a honorific designation, and Ay a father. (Ki-ai (or-ahi) is another 
derivation from Ki, with alii added, Ki-ahi, Xi-alti (Xyai , a respectable female), 
Priy-ahi, I think, derived from priya, Scr. friend, a term of endearment ; the name of 
PriyaUi is given to certain inferior officers, who are for instance to superintend the 
koolies of Government, supplied by the native chiefs; who accompany strangers etc. Fr.) 

Ki-ajag, name of a tree growing among the mountains, from which a Gmiah or viscous 



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AND ENGLISH. 221 

gum is obtained , used to rub on scabs or on persons troubled with the cutaneous di- 
seases called Raget and Rodek. 
Kiamat, Arabic, the resurrection, the final dissolution of things at the end of the world. 
An expression indicative of matters having gone sadly wrong. Kiamat bZrod, things 

are in a miserable plight. Pot kiamat, the day of judgment. (jLeUi Qiamat.) 

Kiara, Ficus Procera, a large and spreading variety of the fig tribe. There are several 
varieties of Kiara, which is used a generic name. Kiara Paynng, Umbrella kiarn. 
Ficus terminals. The Ficus Procera is more definitely called Kiara laxcang , the door 
way kiara, from the stem, near the root dividing and forming a kind of porticoes. 

Ki-asahan, Tetracera Pichotoma, a liane much used for tying fences &c. 

Kiblat, arabic, the quarter towards which Mohammedans, of all countries, turn the face 

in prayer, which mubt be towards Mecca, (ijjj Qiblat.) 

Kiboma, name of a tree, otherwise called Pvubig, Pingko, Kad&per. Helittophyllum Javanicum. 

Kicha-ang, name of a tree called Cha-aug , clear, clean, from the leaves being beaten 
up in water, when they form a white lather which is used for cleaning the head. 

Kichep, a twinkle of the eye. Sa kichep, a moment, a twinkling. (See Kechap.) 

Kidang, name of a constellation of three very bright stars; the Belt of Orion. The word 
in Malay means a small variety of deer. Cermi* mnntjak, which is called in Sunda 
minchvk, so that the Sunda people have very likely borrowed the designation of the 
constellation from the Malays. The position in the heavens of this Kidang constella- 
tion regulates the time for cutting forest for yearly paddy clearings. 

Kidul, South; ljtut kidul , the South sea. 

Kidung, a prayer to ward off evil; such prayer brings misfortune upon the thief or the 
person evil disposed. The prayer is one of Mohammedan tendency, and not Bhuddis- 
tical. (67). 

Ki-endog, name of a large tree. Xanthophvllum excelsum. 

Ki-haji, name of a forest tree, with good timber. Dysoxylum Macrocnrpum. 

Ki-hiang, name of a jungle tree, Adenanthera falcata, or Inga Kihiang: it is called Ki- 
hiang from Xgalriaiuj, to disappear, to vanish, as now and then all the leaves d rot) off*. 



(07) On Bali the popular poetry is called Kidung, in contradistinction to the more honoured A'«- 
tri (kakaiiin); this shows that it is not originally Mohammedan, but existed already in Hindu times. 
The poor Javanese of the present day want to show themselves good Mohammedans, by referring 
their old property to the wholesome (!) introduction of the Islam. Bali alone and the inscriptions 
of Java give the measure of what originally belong* to the Arch! pel, and what has been introduced 
by the apostles of the Islam. The influence of the last has not gone till to the groundwork of re- 
ligion , institutions and customs of Java. Fr. 



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222 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

and leave the tree bare , as trees in winter in Europe. See Hgang : thus to this tree has 
been ascribed supernatural power, from the fact of its becoming bare, as if dead, and 
then coming to life again. 

Ki-hiy£ur, a variety of wild chesnut or Castanea. Fruit not eaten. See Saninten and 
Kalimborot. 

Kihkir, a file, a rasp. Miserly, avaricious. (Malay, Batavianid. Jav. only a file, a rasp.) 

Ki-hura, a variety of diminutive palm tree. 

Ki-ih, to piddle, to make water. 

Kijing, a bivalve shell fish, found in fresh water ponds, and muddy ditches. It is a mus- 
cle of about three inches long , and one and a half inch across. 

Kiju, Cheese. Queijo, Cheese in Portuguese. 

Ki-julang, a red wood used for gobang sheaths, brought from the south coast of Bantam. 

Ki-kSndung, a plant producing a pod like a bean. 

Kikis, a fence made of split bambu wattled together, set round gardens &c, and espe- 
cially used in native towns or large villages to set on each side of the road , so as 
to shut out the view of dirty homesteads. 

Ki-kon^ng, a wild turmeric , grows wild in grasslands, and small jungles. Vide Koneng. 

Kilang, viz. Sirgum kilang, name of a small brown ant found on the ground. 

Kilap, to shine, to glitter. (Jav. Kawi. K&lap. Malay, Batavian Kilap which means also 
lightning. Fr.) 

Ki-leho, litterally, the snot plant A genus of plants with several species. They have all 
white flowers growing immediately out of the stem of the tree, and which may have 
suggested the not very elegant name which it bears. They are called by Blume Saurauja, 
which ought to have been Sauravia. The bark of the Kiliho tree is used for tying 
round the ends of the Kawung fruit branches , when cut off for the purpose of getting 
the toddy, as it is thought that they draw out the frothy juice or snot which first 
comes out, and which will not boil to sugar. 

Kill Suchi, daughter of D£wa Kusuma, a sovereign of Eastern Java in the commence- 
ment of the 10th. century. She was the oldest of the family and remaining unmarried t 
performed a conspicuous part in the transactions of those days. To her is also ascri- 
bed the construction of the temples of Singa Sari. She was aunt to the celebrated 
Panji. The reason of her never marrying was that she was not after the habit of other 
women; which her name expresses. KM, C. 125 the menstrual flux. Suchi, C. 745, 
white, clean, cleansed, purified. Thus clean of the flux, or free from it. The scene 
of her adventures is connected with K$diri. Raffles Vol. 2. Page 88. Kili Suchi wished 
to sacrifice herself on the funeral pile of her parents , but it was not permitted her so 
to do. Raffles Vol. % Page 77. 

Ki lung an, to pretend ignorance, to pretend not to know. 

Kim a, the large sea shell Chama gigas, abundant on the South coast of Bantam, howe- 
ver, in comparatively small varieties. 



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AND ENGLISH. 223 

Ki-merak, name of a tree with box like leaf. Leucoxylon Buiifolitim. 

Kim pel, thick or ropy as liquids. Hard or set, as anything which has been melted, mel- 
ted, such as fat, wax or the like. Congealed, coagulated. 

Kimpul, a small kind of Tafeus, or Arum esculentum. 

Kim put, name of a vegetable planted in the humahs. 

Kinchang, name of bambu outriggers for a boat, to prevent its upsetting. 

Kinchir, the native spinning wheel. 

King, a form of ing y of — which in composition, when coming after a vowel, assumes an 
initial k or n, and becomes king or ing. Jaba sa king lafal, without, or not found in 
the text Hade ning pare, good for paddy (when growing). (Saking , means from, by. 
I suppose king is no word by it self, but Saka-ing which becomes sakeng , sangkeng 
and taking. Fr.) 

Kingkilapan, Musaenda glabra, a shrub with white floral leaf; the flower is red. Also 
called Wurungan which see- the kilap in this word denotes the glitter of the white 
floral leaf among the others which are green. 

Kingkip, a variety of orange tree with very small fruit like a berry; much used as a 
preserve by the Chinese. Triphasia Trifoliata. 

Kipas, a fan for fanning the person. A fanner for winnowing. To fan, to winnow. 

Ki-peuheur, name of a jungle tree, otherwise called Kihiang , see Peuh&ur. From the 
astringent and harsh nature of the bark , it becomes one of the chief ingredients in 
making a certain preparation with wood ashes to intoxicate fish, or render them sen- 
seless. See Nua and Tuba. 

Kipsau, Chinese, a pipkin, a small earthenware pot for boiling water. 

Kira, to think, consider, take thought; suppose, conjecture, guess. (Jav. Mai. id.) 

Kira-kira, computation, estimate; with moderation, discreetly; to be guided by circum- 
stances. Perhaps, about 

KirabkSn, to shake and pull out the short and dirty pieces from straw or long grass, 
so as to get the long stems clean and fit for thatch &c. &c. (Kirab Jav. to shake out 
Malay, to shake off.) 

Kirai, a Palm tree which in the Moluccos and straits of Malacca gives the Sago of com- 
merce. In Java its leaves aae extensively used for Ataps or thatch , for which purpose 
it is often much planted in swamps. One variety is Lagus, another Metroxylon. 

Kirim, to send, to dispatch. To entrust, to recommend to any one's care. (Jav. Mai. id.) 

Kiruh, dirty and muddy as water, turbid. Chai na JfciVuA, the water is turbid. 

Kisa, a small basket made of Palm leaves matted together, generally to hold fruit, cu- 
cumbers or the like. 

K i - s a 1 i r a , name of a tree , Acronychia Arborea. 

Kisas, clear, on which no claim can be made. 

Kisi, the small spindles or spools on which thread is wound. 

K ism is, raisins, dried grapes. Persian Kishmish (Marsden Page 155). 

Kitab, Arabic, a book. Alkitabj the book, viz. the koran. (v-JoT.) 



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224 A DICTIONARY SIWDANESE 

Ki-tahi, name of a tree, tke wood of which lias a very fetid odour. Saprcsma aruorea 
Name of a creeper with stinking leaf. 

Ki-te'je, tke wild jungle cinnamon tree. Cinnamomum Javanicum. 

Ki-tinggi, a kind of Centipede with black body, but red belly and feet. 

Kitri, an ancient rigkt, an inkerited right. 

Kitu, in that way, kit a tta^ so is it, so it must be. Kitu kahayang aiinj suck is my de- 
sire; Kitu bai hade, in that way is also good. 

Ki-tuwa, name of a shrub, Leea Sambucina, vide Tuica. 

Ki-urat-urat, Pantago Asiatica, name of a ribbed grass resembling similar ones in Eu- 
rope , grows in mountainous cool situations. Urut means sinew. Called in Malay Ku- 
ping inanjangan, deer's ears. 

Ki-wari, now, at tke present moment. Also Ti kitcari. 

Kiyas, a separation of man and wife for a skort time, witk a view to recover rvpok. 

Kiyo, in this way, such. Deng&k&n kiyo parentak na, Listen such are his orders. 

Kling, a country on the coast of Coromandel; the coast of Coromandel generally called 
Kali/iga , C. 113 extending from Cuttack to Madras. The people of Kling had great 
intercourse with the Archipelago before the arrival of Europeans, and by their means 
formerly, no doubt the produce of these countries reached Europe. 

Klir, name of a range of mountains on the western boundary of the territory of Jugjo- 
karta, west of the river Progo. It is thus called after a frontage of limestone rock, 
in the neighbourhood of the Coffee stores at Sumpul, which as seen from the Capital 
of Jugjo, has the appearance of the Screen , behind which the Wayang is exhibited, 
called by the Javanese Klir or Kelir. Tijdschrift voor Taalkunde, Jaargang 1- afl: 2. 
The Klir hills were no less a screen in days of old behind which the Brahmins in 
Bagalen had enshrined themselves. 

Klontong, a Chiuese hawker or pedlar. 

Koas, a runner which yields a pod containing beans. 

Koas Kujang, a large variety of the above. 

Kobak, pitck penny, or pitch doit, throwing coin into holes in the ground for a waiter. 

Kobar, in small squares, a pattern, looking as if disposed in squares. 

Kobet, to tear or scratch witk tke paw, as a cat or tiger does. 

Kobokan, a basin or bowl to wash the lingers in at meals; a finger glass. 

K o c h a k , arrogant, self- conceited , boastful , overbearing. 

Koch ok, to skake a vessel containing a liquid, to skake up in a vessel, as a liquid in 
a bottle. (Jav. Kochak and Kochok idem.) 

Kockolok, to skake up in a vessel, as liquid in a bottle. (Derived from Kochok.) 

Kockorken, to let water flow, to cause to flow, as by opening a sluice. Chat gens di 
kochorkva ka sawah , tke water lias been run upon tke Sawahs. 

Kodali, a bridle for a korse. (Jav. Batav. Kendall.) 

Kode'k, to scrape or scratck with the finger nail. 



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AND ENGLISH. 225 

Kodi, a corge, anything counted or sold by 20 pieces. 

Kodok, to grope with the hand; to feel for with the hand without being ablo to see. 

Kodokan, earth trampled down and made miry by any animals, especially by buffaloes. 

A Buffaloe slough. 
Kohkol, a joint of bambu with a longitudinal opening or slit, hung up in the wind, 

with a short piece of stick so arranged, that when it moves, it strikes the hollow and 

slit bambu, and makes a report which serves to frighten pigs or monkeys away from 

growing paddy or other cultivated plants. 
Kohok, a peacock, so called from its cry when it gets up into trees; vide Merak. 
K o i r k e n , to rake or pull away along the ground with any instrument , especially with a pachul. 
Koja, a bag of net work carried by the Sunda people slung over the shoulder, in which 

all kinds of small matters are stuffed. 

Koja, a Mohammedan of continental India, not an Arab. (jb*.L>. Khawdja, Persian, sa- 
piens; senior; herus.) 

Kojor, a bundle of palm sugar consisting of five Bungkus or packets. These five are 
tied up with split bambu and string, and form a long narrow roll. 

Kojor, dead. A vulgar expression, and implies contempt for the person of whom it is said. 

Koki, a cook, derived from the Dutch Kok^ a Cook. 

Kokod, the paw, the hand, the fist. The handle of anything. When used to designate 
a hand, it implies an indignity put upon the person who owns the hand. 

K o k o d 6 n , Chintz and prints which are sold by the Kodi or corge. Printed cottons generally. 

Kokod ok, to take fish with the hand, by turning the stones, or groping about into holes 
where the fish are concealed. (See Kodok,) 

Kokoloten, freckles on the face. 

Kokopan, the manger of a stable. A trough or contrivance for animals, especially hor- 
ses, to eat from. See Kop below. 

Kokoprok, a bit of bambu, generally a couple of joints so connected with a bit of wood 
suspended over a stream of running water, that it gets constantly jerked up and down, 
and so makes a noise, by knocking upon a stone placed for the purpose, to drive 
away wild animals from growing paddy. 

Kokoro, poor, needy, indigent. (Jav. Kuru, Mai. Kurns, thin, meager.) 

Kokoro, name of a Scitamcnefbus plant, something like Laja-goa. 

Kokos, to gnaw, to munch at, to corrode. 

Kokosan, a fruit tree with very hard wood. A variety of Lansium. 

Kol, the Dutch word Jcool, cabbage. 

Koldi, supposed to bo the forbidden fruit of Paradise. Some fruit which is not indigenous 
to Java, but not ascertained what it really is. 

Kole, tho wild plantain, Musa Trogloditarum. 

Kol da r, to fall from a height, to descend from on high. 

29 



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226 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Koleche'r, a fiz-gig or wind-mill set near humahs or Sawahs. The natives take a great 
deal of interest in this play thing and are fond of having it near their growing paddy, 
which growing during the north - west monsoon , there is always plenty of wind to 
drive it. 

Kolek, a small sailing prow or boat used at sea near the shore. 

Kolek, to boil Walu, or any fruit with sugar and so make an agreeable dish. 

Kole'le't, another name for Karet, the Ficus Elastica who produces the Gum Elastic. 

Kolomberan, a pool of water under the steps of a native house. 

Kolomod, covered with mud and dirt. Dirty about the mouth from eating anything. 

Kolong, the space below any object, especially when open. Ima/i kolong, a house built 
upon posts, with an open space under it. (Known at Batavia. Means commonly cor- 
ner, place beneath.) 

Kolong imah, the open space below a native's house which stands on posts. 

Kolong meja, the open space under a table. 

Kolong pedati, the open space under a cart. 

Kolosod, slipped or glided down. Descenling with impetus. 

Kolot, old; ripe, mature, strong in substance, not diluted; become consistent, used up, 
expended. Baris kolot , of the number or quality of old men; the elders. Buwah na 
gcus kolot , the fruit is ripe , of full age , mature. Tahmran gula geus kolot the boiling 
of sugar has got consistence. Pare na duwit na kolot his paddy and money are expended. 

l£olotken, to shove in up to the hilt; to insert anything still further into its place; to 
shove an implement still deeper in. To expend, to use up. 

Kolotok, a wooden bell hung to the neck of a buffaloe, by the sound of which it can 
easily be traced in the jungle. 

Komboi, hairy, having long shaggy hair, as an animal. Hanging in a fringe. 

Kombong, a bed chamber, a place of retirement. 

Kombongan, an enclosure made with nets &c in a river; an opening is left, and a 
man on watch shuts this opening, by pulling up a bit of net, which has hitherto laid 
upon the ground, as soon as he perceives any fish stray into the enclosure. 

Komed, I d'ont know, without my knowledge. 

Komo, the more, more especially; said of anything which is beyond one's reach or con- 
troul. Aing to bisa, sla komo ^ I am not able, what chance have you. Komo tmyn 
tmunang , It is quite out of the question my getting it. 

K o m p a , a water wheel for turning a mill. Probably a corruption of the Dutch word 
Pomp, pump. 

Ko rape's, to examine in order to elicit evidence or the truth, to cross question, to take 
to task. To inveigle in conversation. 

Komprang, said of trousers. Ctelana kom prang , long and wide trousers reaching to the 
ankles, such as worn by Europeans. (Used at Batavia, also by natives.) 

Kondang, a variety of fig-tree. Ficus Subracemosa. 



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AND ENGLISH. 227 

Konde, the hair of women tied up in a neat round bunch on the top of the head. Kon- 
dd y C. 143 the bunch or knot in which the Singhalese tie up their hair. (Kdnda> a 
stalk , a stem ; a cluster , a shrub. Scr. The konde of the women is perhaps so called , 
because it resembles a cluster. Fr.) 

K on dor, having a swollen scrotum. 

Koncas, yellowish. A contraction of the words koneng, yellow, and peas, pale. 

Kondng, yellow. (Jav. Mai. Kuning.) 

Koneng, Turmeric, Curcuma. Koneng is the specific name for a great variety of plants, 
which may be called Turmerics. They are called Temu in Malay, which word is also 
occasionally heard in Sunda, vide voce. The konengs are known for some peculiarity 
inflavour, and are used extensively either economically or medicinally. The following 
are the most common. 

Koneng Gede or Kikoneng, big turmeric, grows wild in open grass land. 
„ Hideung, black turmeric. 

„ Lalab, the Greens turmeric; from being used as a vegetable. 

„ Puti, the white turmeric. 

„ San ten, used in dying. 

„ Te in en, or the true turmeric of commerce, and called also Kunyir. 

„ Tinggang, a variety with unpleasant smell, used in dying. 

„ TVarangan, Arsenic turmeric, from deep yellow colour, used in dying. 

Koneng tungtung, yello wended, said of paddy which begins to turn ripe. , 

Kong'ang, of force in law. 

Kongkoh, separately, distinctly, as well as some one else. Kongkoh bai nicun ieflon, se- 
parately making a garden. 

Kongkol, to plot with another. To take council with another to do something wrong. (Bat. 
Is perhaps the Dutch konkelen, of the same meaning. Fr.) 

Kongkol akan, the orifice or opening in the skull where the -eye is placed. 

Kongkolong'ok, to crow as a cock. 

Kongkon, to give an order to do something; to issue orders. (Jav. Kongkon and kengkin.) 

Kongkong'ok, to crow as acock. Kongkong'ok kotok, cock crow -an early hour in the 
morning before it is light. 

Kongkorak, a wooden bell hung round a buffalee's neck, called also Kolotok. 

Kongkorong, a kind of bracelet worn by children. 

Kongkorong'ok , to crow as a cock. 

Kongsi, Chinese, a commercial association. The uniting of several persons for some mu- 
tual object. The house where such meetings are held. The dwelling and office of a 
government farmer or of a Chinaman conducting any business, which, however, gene- 
rally refers to conducting government pachts er farms. 

Konjara, a cage, a place of confinement, a prison. Perhaps a corruption of Panjaraya, 
C. 350, a cage, an aviary, a dove cot. Marsden gives Panjara, Page 231 as Persian 
which is PSnjrah a cage, a place of confinement, a prison. 



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228 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Kontan, the Dutch word Kontant: ready money, money down, for cash. 

Kontol, the testicles. 

Kontol anjing, name of a plant. 

Kontol munding, a variety of fig tree. Ficus Macrocarpa. 

Konyal, a creeper which climbs up old trees in old forests and has numerous blood red 

fruits of size of eggs , dispersed along the stem. 
Kop, the idiomatic expression for eating, of putting into the mouth. Art kop kana kejo, 

and when I took a mouthful of rice. Kop di Aakan, and putting it in his mouth, 

eat it. 
Kopak, a wooden sheath for an Arit. It is worn at the back and is a bit of wood about 7 

or 8 inches square, and a couple of inches thick, cut out so as to admit the arit being 

stuck in and worn at the back fast with a string round the loins. 

Kopi, coffee, evidently derived from the Dutch Koffij. Coffea arabica. (Arab. g-J', Kahwd.) 

Kopi alas, Coffee gardens planted in a forest where the original large trees are left standing. 

Kopi dengklung, name of a tree properly called Kapidengklung , which see. 

Kopia, a skull cap, such as worn by Moormen. 

Kopo, name of a tree. Myrtus speciosa. 

Kopo lalai, name of a fruit tree. Jambosa Hypericifolia. 

Koran, Arabic, the Sacred book of Islam or of the Mohammedans. (J\S 9 Qur&non.) 

K or ban, Arabic, offering, sacrifice. A goat or buftaloe killed with religious ceremony 

and eaten in commemoration of some deceased person, (^b Jf , Qurban , what is offered 

to god; a sacrifice. Fr.) 
Kor^d, to clean or scrape away weeds with an iron instrument. The iron instrument so 

called, being a small blade with a shaft hole set at an angle to the blade. 
Kor^han, to scratch and examine," to tease out; to elicit. To scratch. 
Kor^jat, to jump up suddenly, starting on your feet. 
Korek, to scratch, to poke with any instrument and draw out To scrape. To devise all 

manner of means to inculpate a person. 
Kor6k Kachang, to dig the ground nut, which is done first by ploughing it up, and 

by people then scratching out the nuts from the loose earth. 
Koreng, a scab or ichorous wound or eruption on the skin. 
Kor^t, unwilling to give anything; close fisted. 

Korma, Persian, the Date palm, Phoenix dactylifera. Dates, the fruit of a Palm tree im- 
ported from Persia- KAurma, Persian. 
Korod, a small variety of rattan, grows bushy and low, and sometimes almost impedes 

progress through old forests , as it is very full of prickles. 
Korohok, split and pecked by birds, said of fruit or vegetables such as cucumbers &c. 
Koromod, covered with dirt, splashed with mud, as the hands and body after work. 

Same as Kolomod. 



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AND ENGLISH. 229 

Koromong, a variety of round metal instrument belonging to the gam&lan. 
Koronchong, hollow armlets. Bracelets, armlets or little brass bells tied about the an- 
kles of children , which give a small tinkling sound. 
Korosokan, said of paddy not evenly ripening, especially in new made Sawahs which 

are of inferior value. Korosokan is where some ears .are ripe whilst others are only 

partly so, even only just forming. 
Kosara, a rope made of Buffaloe hide. 
Kosen, valliant, daring. (Used at Batavia.) 
Kosok, to rub, to scrub, to polish. (Mai. Batav. Gosok idem.) 
Kosong, empty, void, vacant, unoccupied. Omong kosong , empty talk, talk which has 

no real meaning- nonsensical talk. (Malay, Batavian, idem.) 
Kosta, properly the coast of Coromandel. The word is the Portuguese Costa. Kain kosta ^ 

or often simply kosta, a variety of printed cloth. Chaw kosta, a variety of plantain. 
Kota, a fort, a strong hold. Kuta, C. 127- a fort, a stronghold. Kota is the name by 

which the chief towns in Java are designated in their neighbourhood. Daik ka kota , 

I want to go to (the fort) Batavia. (Scr. Kuta and Kutl) 
Kotak and Kotakan, a square or division of a Sa wall, on which the water can be evenly 

distributed; a compartment; a garden bed. 
Kotak, a pyramidical medicine chest, consisting of a sort of small chest of drawers. 
Kotba, arabic Khutbat, an oration pronounced in the mosque on Fridays, or at the La- 

baran on the conclusion of the Fasting month, (Arab. hk±-> Khutbat.) 

Kotok, a fowl; the common domestic cock or hen. 

Kotor, dirty, both physically and morally, impure. (Batavian idem.) 

Koyan, a weight of 27 Piculs at Batavia, 28 at Samarang, and 30 at Sourabaya. 

Krama, a word frequent in the composition of proper names. The high or polite dialect 
of the Javanese language is called Krama , in contradistinction to Ngoko which is rough 
or vulgar. Krama, C. 151 order, method, a degree, power, strength; an overcoming, 
subduing, surpassing; a sacred pecept, a religious practice. 

Krang, small shell fish, as cockles, muscles &c. These shells are often found imbedded 
in limestone rock or tufaceous strata. 

Kranjang, a basket, a hamper. (Jav. Mai. idem.) 

Kranji, name of a tree, Dialium Indum-gives a small black shelled fruit which is eaten. 
Good tough substantial timber. 

Kras, severe, rigorous, impetuous. (Jav. Batav. Malay Kcras and Kras, strong, heavy, 
severe, impqtuous.) 

Kras-tulang, name of a plant , of which the natives amongst the mountains drink a decoc- 
tion by way of a tea. Chloranthus Inconspicuus. 

Kr^hkcl, gravel, pebbles, such as is laid upon roads. 

Kr^sa, pleasure, will, delight. Krisa nu gede, the pleasure of great men. Krisa ninq 
Allah t the will of God. (Cannot be anything else than Karasa. See Karasan.) 



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230 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Kr^ta, a carriage, a coach, a cart on European wheels. Karatte, C. 108. any kind of 
wheeled carriage. (Prof. T. Roorda derives the word from the Portuguese Carreto. Fr.) 

Kris, the well known Malay weapon or dagger of this name. 

Krisna, a Hindu god. Clough gives at Page 153 the following account. Krisna or more 
properly Krishna. In Hindu mythology Krishna is considered the most celebrated form 
of Vishnu, or rather Vishnu himself; in that form he is, however, distinct from the 
10 avatars or incarnations of Vishnu, being always indentified with the deity himself. 
One of the names of Arjuna the charioteer of the Sun. 

Kromong, a metal instrument to be beat, belonging to the gamelan. (See Koromong.) 

Krosi, arabic, a chair, a stool. ( ^Kursi.) 

Ku, with, by- Beak ku bedul, destroyed by the pigs. Ku aing, I will take it. Kubatur, 

taken by my companions. 
Kuah, gravey, juice, sauce, broth. 
Kuat or Kuwat, arabic, strong, able, vigorous. To mzunctng kuwat 1 cannot put strength 

to it. I cannot use my strength. Kuwat naker, he is very strong. (gjf Quwwat, 

strength.) 

Kuber, to stir up a water or liquid, into which some substance has been thrown, so as 
to mix the whole thoroughly. (Jav. Kvbur idem.) 

Kuchai, shalots, a variety of small onion planted in humahs. 

Kuchel, faded and soiled. Anything which from much use has lost its freshness. 

Kuchubung, the barrel of a gun , the bore of a gun. 

Kuchubung, name of a plant. Datura metel and ferox; the thorn apple. Dhuttura, C. 
302, the thorn apple, stramonium. It is a shrubby plant with deeply indented leaves; 
bears a round pod or seed cell , one inch in diameter , covered with blunt thorns , and 
contains a lot of small brown seeds which are given to Perkutut doves to clear their 
voices and make them sing; also given to Jangkriks, a kind of grasshopper to make 
them fight to death. For man it is considered a deadly poison , but in small quantities 
is mixed with adulterated opium to give it an unnatural stimulus. 

Kuda, a horse. Kudra in Tamil, a horse. 

Kuda, a denomination for some of the chiefs in old Javanese history. It is most probably 
Kuda, C. 128, small, little, diminutive, and thus indicating the younger, as it is still 
used in this sense in Ceylon. So Kuda Lalian, is the grandson of the celebrated Panji. 
(It means, I think, also in this title a horse, being a strong animal; cf. Kebo, or 
Munding and Mahisha, a buftalo, further Punggawa, a bull, Lembu id. and also Gaja y 
elephant, as titles of chiefs in Javanese and Balinese History. Fr.) 

Kuda awew£, a mare, a female horse. 

Kuda bapa, a stallion, a father horse; a stallion kept for covering mares. 

Kuda baralak, a cock-tailed horse; a horse with a stiff and rigid tail, 

Kuda-kuda, two stout pieces of wood joined like an X, with a pole projecting from the 
middle. Such kuda - kuda are universally used by carpenters to lay their wood on which 



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AND ENGLISH. 231 

has to be squared , or worked up in any way. The tie beams or triangular supports of 

a house roof. 
Kuda Sam b rani, a Pegasus; a wonderful horse which can fly. 
Kuda Si-dudul, the war steed of Ali, the son in law of Mohammed. 
Kuderang, to prepare green die for cloth. 
Kuderat, arabic, power, omnipotence; nature, disposition. Kud&ratna the nature of its in- 

herent disposition. (g jjQudrat, potentia, opulentia.) 

Kudu, must, a matter of necessity. Kudu di 6ere, it must be given. Kudu bai di datang- 
ktn it is obsolutely necessary that he should be made to come. (Kudu y Ngoko K$dah, 
Jav. it is absolutely necessary; to desire absolutely.) 

Kudup, a flower- bud. 

Kudus, arabic Al khuds- Holy, hallowed. Roh al kudus , the Holy Ghost. Al kAudus, 

is the name for Jerusalem among the Arabs, (/^jj Quds, puritas, sanctitas; Hiero- 

solyma.) 
Kudus, name of a small native town Eastward from Samarang, where the Mohammedan 

power was established after the overthrow of Majapahit, and hence it got the name 

of- the Holy. 
Kueh, a cake, any pastry or mess made of rice-flour. (Used at Batavia.) 
Kujang, a variety of iron chopper with crooked blade. 
Kujurken, to direct, to point, to give a direction. Kujtirktn ngater ngidul, lay it in the 

direction of North and South. 
Kuk-kuk, the native expression used for calling a dog. 
Kuku, nail, claw, hoof. (Jav. Mai. idem.) 
Kukubluk, also sometimes called Kutuk-bluk, the owl, especially applied to the bird 

when heard in the night time. (Also Kuknk-bluk at Batavia.) 
Kukuh, stanch, firm, stiff, holding well together; said of an animal, as a horse or a 

buffaloe, which is strong and compact. (Jav. idem.) 
Kuku-heulang, literally Hawk's claws , name of a shrub , a variety of wild mountain gam- 

bir : also called Kakait beusi ; Uncaria. 
Kukular, thread made from the fibres of the pine-apple leaf, waxed and fit for sewing. 
K u k u 1 u , a variety of mangga so called. 
Kukumur, the slime on a fishe's body; the slippery matter on the body of a fish; the 

greasiness of a fresh caught fish. 
Kukunchung, the feathers which stick up on the top of the head of a peacock or any 

bird ; a topping. (Jav. Kunchwng. Batav. Kunchung and TSJdkunchung , a bush of hair on 

the top of the head, worn by young female children.) 
Kukuprak, to rouse amongst, to chase away, to knock about- to look strictly after; to 

beat the jungle for game. 
Kukur, to rub down on a kukuran. 
Kukuran, an instrument for rasping cocoanuts. A bit of iron with notches or teeth fixed 



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232 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

to the end of a horse of wood, over which the cocoanuts, when split in two , are rasped 

Kukuruyuk, to crow as a cock, to coo as a dove; hence a dove is called Tikukur. Seems 
to have a common origin with Kukula, C. 127, a cock. 

Kukus, to burn incense to heathen or imaginary divinities. To distil. 

Kukut, to bring up the infant of another person; to act as parents to a helpless child. To 
take care of the young of any animal which has died or disappeared leaving its off- 
spring helpless. To foster, to nurse, to cherish. 

Kula, I, the personal pronoun of the first person. It is neither the highest nor the low- 
est designation of self, and is thus the most general in use among equals, and con- 
veys an idea of deference to the person addressed. The use of Aing places the spea- 
ker above the person addressed, and hiring below him. Kula, C. 132 a family, race, 
tribe or caste. May this word have been adopted by .the Sundas as a personal pro- 
noun, thereby designating one of the same caste or family, see Aing, and hence the 
idea , which it still conveys of some degree of equality , although of deference to the 
party addressed. 

Kulak, a measure in which the priest receives the Pitrah or Labaran dues. See Pitrah. 
This measure ia exclusively confined to this operation ; about three Kulak* 8 are one 
Gantang. 

Kuiat, semen virile, et etiam lubricatio feminis. 

Kulem, to sleep, asleep; a very elegant and refined expression. 

Kuli, a paid labourer, as contradistinguished from one who gets nothing, bat has to work 
feudal service; generally called throughout India- a cooly. Kuli, C. 133. hire, wages. 

Ku liken, to do any work with paid labourers. 

K u 1 i a , entire , every where. Sa kuliah dunya , the entire world. 8a kuliah jagat , through- 
out the whole land. 

Kuli ling, around, turning round and round, around and about without having any ap- 
parent occupation. 

Kuiilingan, to surround, to encompass, to work round. 

Kulinchir, circular marks, or disposition of the hair either in man or animals. From 
the kulinchir natives pretend to draw omens, or form an opinion of the merits of a 
horse or of a buffaloe. 

Kulisik, to turn the body, to get up, to arise from sleeping. 

Kulisik-kulisik, moving gently or making a small noise, as of a person or animal 
moving stealthily. 

Kulit, skin, hide, leather; bark, rind, husk, shell. Kulit j&Uma, a man's skin. Kulit 
Ae5o, a buffalce hide. Kulit asak, cooked hide- leather. Kulit kayu 9 bark of a tree. 
Kulit buwah , rind or husk of fruit. Kulit pinyu , tortoise shell. 

Kulon, the west. It appears to be compounded of the word IIulu head, as Ka-hulu-an, 
by a familiar process is contracted into Kulon. From this we must infer that the word 
had its origin in Java ; and it is not a little odd that the West- end of Java should 



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AND ENGLISH. 233 

have received from European navigators the name of Java Head. See Barat. (It is al- 
so Malay, Javan. and Balinese.) 
Kulop, the foreskin, the prepuce derived from the Arabic Ghulf, of same import. (Arab. 

iilS and iiic Qulfat, Ghulfat, praeputium.) 
Kulub, to boil, to cook in hot water. 
Kulumud, the soft eatable pulp of a fruit, which surrounds a stone or kernel, such as 

the Rambutan. 
Kulur, name of a tree, Artocarpus Incisa, called in Malay Kluwi and TimbuL 
Kulutuk, one of the names of a variety of plantain of which the fruit is not eatable, 

but the leaves sought for and used as wrappers. Vide Chaw. 
Kumaha, how? in what way? what is the matter; what do you want. Kumaha daik hadA, 

how can it be good, or right? Sa kumaha harga na, what is the price of it? Kumaha 

pihadcan nana, how shall we act in order to have matters right. Sia manan lumpat 

kadiyo kumaha , what is the matter that you come running here. 
Kuman, a small fine animalcule, adhering to the skin and causing itching; an atom, a 

minute particle. 
Kumat, a relapse of disease ; confirmed illness. (Jav. Kumat, to be sick and well by rotation.) 
Kumbah, to wash, to cleanse with water. The etymon of this word is Bah, which does 

not occur alone, in Sunda, but in Malay, Marsden P. 57 is- „a flood, an inundation". 

The Bah has the usual preposition Ka before it, elided with urn implying a frequent 

repetition of the act (Jav. idem.) 
Kutneli, name of a lowly plant with crenulated leaves, which is planted and produces a 

small potatoe. Plectranthus Tuberosum of the family of Labiatae , also palled Coleus Tu- 

berosus. 
Kuans, mustachios. The hair growing on the upper lip. (Mai. idem.) 
Kumisi, said of paddy when it is about to shoot the ear of grain. Literally- like a kisi 

or spinning wheel spindle. (Cf. Jav. Mai. hi, the contents; to fill.) 
K u m p a i , the fine straggling , dangling , long offsets of the roots of such trees as grow on 

the moist banks of water. 
Kumpani, The European government; the Dutch government. Derived from the East In- 
dia Company. Par6ntah kumpani, a Government order. Kapal kumpani, a Government 

ship, a man of war. Gaw& kumpani, to work for the Company or Government, to do 

feudal service. This is the name by which the feudal service on private Estates is known. 

The services of a man for one day in seven being at the disposal of the land owner. 

Orang kumpani, a person who is performing feudal service. 
Kumpul, to collect, to gather, to assemble, to accumulate. (Mai. Jav. idem.) 
Kum'pui, a small sized gong for collecting guests, or giving notice that an entertainment 

is preparing. (Certainly the same word as the preceding Fr.) 
Kumusut, entangled, in confusion. A kind of plural of kusut, and means kusut, only in 

a superlative degree. 

30 



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234 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Kun, said of anything which belongs to a question of religion which is not clearly u nderstood. 

Kunaun, why, for what reason, why not? composed of Ku with, and naun, what. Ku- 
nann aing to di bcjak&n, why did you not let me know? 

Kunchi, a key, a lock, a bolt. Kunchika, C. 126- a key. Lawang kudu di*kunchian y 
the door mast be locked, or bolted. (Jav. Mai. idem.) 

Kunchianak, a fabulous spectre said to haunt women in child-birth, or with small in- 
fants at the breast. This spectre is thought to often mysteriously destroy both mother 
and child. It is sometimes heard pronounced as Kunti beranak, the ber before anak 
betraying it, in lhat form, to be a Malay expression. The Malays may have made of 
Kunti liana , Kunchianak, by misunderstanding the meaning of the words, and adopting 
expressions of their own of nearly the same sound. Kunti, C. 129 is the wife of Pan- 
du, and mother of the five Pandawa princes by as many gods, and from her and her 
children this Javanese spectre appears to have its origin. Hana, C. 785, to hurt, to 
injure, to kill, and hence Hanaka or Hanaki would be a male or female destroyer, 
elided into Kunti- hana, or Kunti the destroyer. The Malays have evidently seized upon 
the resemblance of Flanak, to their own Beranak, to bring forth young, and so the 
expression has got currency in the Indian Archipelago. The Pandawa Princes were 
killed in the wars, as related in the Mahabarat. (They killed rather their enemies, 
and retired afterwards into the solitude. Fr.) 

Kundur, a gourd, a variety of large Calabash. 

Kungkang, name of an insect called in malay Balang SangHt^ the stinking fly. When 
touched it voids a very nauseous liquid. It is a great enemy of young paddjfr when 
just forming from the flower, and when still in a soft liquid milky state, as the insect 
then inserts its proboscis into each grain and sucks out the contents , thus often destroying 
whole corps. (The Sundanese eat these animals! Fr.) 

Kungkung, to make a dam of earthwork filled in between two wooden fences. The 
Kungkungs of such a dam are more properly the cross bars which hold the opposite 
sides of the fence from flying asunder. A bit of bambu or wood set in an arch. 

Kungkung, to tie as a dog, with a bit of bambu over the rope, by which it is led, to 
prevent its getting at the man who leads it, to bite. To bend bambus round a stake 
to retain it in its place and prevent its giving way. 

Kungkung, the sound of a gong struck at distinct intervals. 

Kungkuwung, the Rainbow, probably refering to its arched shape. 

Kungsi, going to the extent of, going as far as. Kungsi kabikeun, did you go as for as 
giving it. Kungsi datang , did he go to, the extent of coming. Mohal kungsi, it will 
not require to go to that extent. To kungsi iahakan , I did not get as far as to eat it. 
(Jav. Kong si , Kangsi, Kasi, till to, as far as.) 

Kuning, yellow, more usually Koneng. Much used in composition, K&mbang kuning, 
yellow flower , the name of a village so called on the Jasinga Estate. 

Kuningan, brass; properly the yellow metal, or something which is yellow. 



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AND ENGLISH. 235 

Kunti, C. 129 wife of Pandu and mother of the five Pandawa princes by as many gods. 

K u n t u 1 , a white bird of the heron kind , Ardea Egretta , common in new ploughed Sawahs ; 
disappears during the dry monsoon. 

K*unyir, turmeric, Curcuma; also called Konevg T&mzn, the real turmeric 

Kunyu, a monkey, a name of endearment. 

Kupa, name of a tree and fruit; Jambosa cauliflora. 

Kupa Ian dak, name of a tree; Flacourtia sapida. 

Kupang, name of the old Chinese coins formerly in use in Java, with a square hole in 
the middle. Also called Pichis. The word is most frequently heard in Bantam , where 
the Chinese traded before the arrival of Europeans. Limang kupantj , 500 such coins 
or about the value of t\vo guilders. (Called Pichis, Pitis, Pipisat Bali. Five hundred 
would be limang atus Pitts. Fr.) 

Kupat, rice boiled to a sort of paste and put up in young Cocoa nut leaves, matted in- 
to a fourcornered case; used much to carry on journeys. (Jav. idem. Batav. Kalupat.) 

Kuplok-kdplok, the splash of water less than waves ; the chop of the sea. 

Kuprak, the act of rousing amongst, of knocking about, of looking narrowly after. 

Kupu-kupu, a butterfly , a moth. 

Kupu-kupu, name of a bush with handsome flowers: Pterisanthes Cissoides. 

Kura, a tortoise. Occurs as a designation in Pan tuns, Sangkura, the mystic tortoise of 
which sometimes wonderful stories are told. The targe land tortoise sometimes impor- 
ted from countries beyond Java, is called Kura. (Scr. Kurma, a tortoise, a turtle?) 

Kura -an, Arabic, the Koran; the sacred book of the Mahomedans. (See Koran). 

Kura-an, to rince, to wash out as a bottle. (Jav. Kurah, to rince the mouth.) 

Kurabu, ear-rings. (See Karabu.) 

Kurai, Celtis orien talis, name of a tree. It is said that the Chinese burn this wood for 
charcoal to make gunpowder. 

Kuramas, to wash the hair of the head with burnt paddy straw by way of a lie. To 
wash the hair with any ingredients which yield a lather , as with Ki-cha-ang which see. 
The natives all kuramas or cleanse the hair of the head in this way, at the end of 
the Puasa or fasting month and just before the Labaran. (Jav. Kramas idem.) 

Kurang, to want, be short, deficient, wanting. Kurang chai, wanting water. Kurang I u- 
hur , wanting in height. Kurang perchaya y wanting in confidence. (Jav. Mai. idem.) 

Kurang'an, to reduce, to take from, to diminish. 

Kurap, a scorbutic humour, a totter, a ringworm. Daun kurap, name of a plant, Aca- 
cia Alata. In Malay, Marsdcn 22 Urap is to anoint, to daub over. Perhaps our ku- 
rap is so named from spreading over the surface of the skin ; and in that case the Sun- 
da has the derived word, without having retained tho root. (Mai. idem. Jav. Korep.) 

Karen, a family; man, wife and children. 

Kurenan, married, having wife and children. Or when said of a woman — having a 
husband. 



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236 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Kuriang, name of a personage in ancient native lore, called mostly Sang kurtang. Per- 
haps Kuru hyang, from kuru, C. 13 1, a bud, a bow, a tortoise; thus the supernatu- 
ral Tortoise god. Or Kurd, C. 13 1 , a dwarf, a pigm^; any male animal stinted in its 
growth. Sang kura hyang , the supernatural dwarfgod. • 

Kuring, I the personal pronoun; used by an inferior to a superior, and is a very hum- 
ble designation of self. (Perhaps from Kuzl Aku, I, with addition of ring, in. Fr.) 

Kuripan, name of a private Estate, South from Batavia. The ancient name of the pre- 
sent Grobogan, in the residency of Samarang; derived from hurip, living, thriving, 
prosperous. Ka-hurip-an the place of thriving or prosperity. 

Kuris, the small pox, variola. Tukang kuris, the man who vaccinates. 

K u r o g , a pretty brown coloured bird , size of a dove. 

Kuru, lean, thin, meager. (See above Kokoro.) 

Kuruchuk, a pole or straight thin piece of wood; a stake for a fence. 

Kurung, to confine, to shut up, imprison; to enclose, to include. (Jav. Mai. id.) 

Kurungan, a cage, a coop, a place of confinement. Kuda kurungan y a stall horse kept 
in a Kadogan, as distinguished from one which always runs loose. 

Kurunyung, sneaking out into view; coming leisurely along. Kurunyung bai lijil , and he 
came out leisurely into view. 

Kurupuk, the thick hide of the neck of some animals, especially of deer or buffaloes, 
which is scraped clean, and then roasted or burnt for eating; much relished by the 
natives. 

Kurusuk, to sneak or creep about any tangled thicket, as the jungle, in the way a ti- 
ger does, or as a man who is hiding himself. 

Kurusukap, to walk into or through the jungle; to struggle or make your way through 
any tangled jungle. 

Kusar, the zodiacal sign Sagittarius. (r^Ji) al-Kaus, the bow, used in the Indian way 

as a zodiacal sign en lieu of Sagittarius; the Greek sign Sagittarius is also known to 

* t 
the Arabs under the name of Al-Rdmi -JJ), the bowman. Fr.) 

•* * 

Kusial, jumping out inter view, coming suddenly in sight. 

Kusuma, a warrior, a brave man, a hero; a rebel, a man in arms against established 
government. Kusuma , C. 134, a flower in general, and hence has been applied in 
Java to represent valliant men. Dewa kusuma , the flower of the gods ; the name of a 
prominent hero of old Javanese romance; he flourished in the early part of the 10th. 
century A. D. and sent his children to continental India to be educated. Raffles Vol 
2 Page 88. He was the grandfather of the celebrated Panji. 

Kusut, entangled, perplexed, confused, intricate. (Mai. Batav. idem.) 

Kuta, a fort, a fortified place, a stronghold; a walled town. Kuta> C. 127, a waterpot; 
a house; a mountain; a fort, a stronghold; a hammer. Ngadangdangan kuta, building 
a fort 



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AND ENGLISH. 237 

Kutang, a short jacket without sleeves, but buttoning down the front like a European's 
waistcoat, (Also a waistcoat of women, worn under the Kabaja, buttoned and cove- 
ring the breast Mai. id. Jav. Kotang. Fr.) 

Kutel, foolish, daft 

Kutil, a wart, an excrescence on the sfcin. (Jav. idem.) 

Kutu, a louse; a flea; Kulu jetema, a louse on a human being, Pediculus. Kutu anjing , a 
flea on a dog. Kutu hayam, a flea on a fowl. In these two last senses, the Kutu is 
a Pulex. (iial. idem. Jav. every kind of small animals. Gericke.) 

Kutuk, a curse, damnation; Si kutuk^ the accursed one, the damned fellow. Kutui Al- 
lah , the curse of God. 

Kutuk-bluk, the owl, more frequently called Kukubluk 

Kutum, a bud, a flower bud. 

K u t u n g , a short jacket with what are called short sleeves , which only reach to the wrists ; 
whereas a native's idea of full sleeves is that they will pull well over the hands. (See 
Kutang.) 

Kutung, maimed so that the stump of leg, arm or finger remains. (Bat. idem.) 

Ku-ud, Arabic, sitting, remaining in one place on ocassion of praying, (jy^, Kuud> the 

act of sitting.) 

Ku-uk, a big full-grown Onggret. Also the beetle which is often found among old horse 
or buffaloe dung: in this latter sense it is a Geotrupes. 

K u w a 1 i , name of a place in the Regency of Galu in Cheribon , where some ancient in- 
scriptions have been found. The word will admit of the following solution. Ku C. 126 
an indeclinable particle of deprecation, implying sin, guilt; reproach; cortempt, mean- 
ness. Waliy C. 628, wild, living in a forest Ku-wali, a vile person living in the 
woods, say perhaps some unorthodox sage, who had retired to the solitude of the fo- 
rest, and hence called sometimes Sanghyang Kuicali , as reported by Raden Sale'h. Tijd- 
schrift voor land- taal- en volkenkunde 1854 Jaargang 2 aflev. 2. Page 155, in the 
same way as Kuw&ra which see. It may somewhat tend to confirm our acceptation of \oali, 
living in the forest, that no temple or ruins of any buildings have been found near 
the inscribed stones. (But there has been a Kuta! Fr.) * 

Kuweng, a name given to the Oah monkey, being an imitation of its cry. 

Kuw£ra, C. 133 from Ku> bad, vile, and wera, body. The Indian Plutus, the god of 
wealth. The name of the deity alludes to his deformity, he being represented us ha- 
ving three- legs and only eight teeth. See Soma. 

Kuwuk, a sea shell in some varieties. Cypraea and Oliva. 

Kuwung-Kuwungan, the rainbow. Called also Kungkuvmng. In Malay called Kung> 
Marsden Page 274. 

Kuya, a fresh water turtle or tortoise, found in the inland rivers. 

Kuya-batu, a smaller variety of the above, in swampy places or on dry land. 



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238 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Kuyuk,'Iwung or young sprouts of Bambu, put in the water to soak before boiling 

for eating. The young bambu sprouts so soaked. 
Kwali, a large pan for boiling in. A cauldron. 
La- as, said of the leaves of forest trees, which have been cut down, and which rot and 

drop off from long continued rain, before ^ie whole can be burnt. 
Lab an, a tree with white, hard, good wood, also called Kayu arak, Vitex leucoxylon. 
La bar an, the great Mohammedan festival held at the new moon, on the expiration of 

the Puasa or fasting month. (Batav. Zebaran. Jav. Zebar, to be at the end; vanished. 

Thus Zebaran the end of the fasting month; puasa ^ Scr. upavdsa, fast, fasting. Fr.) 
Labaran Haji, a Mohammedan festival held on the 10th. of the month of Haji, after 

4wo days fasting, which fasting is, however, observed only by the very strict part of 

the population, and not by the masses. This is the time when the pilgrims at Mecca 

collect to perform certain ceremonies, and obtain the right of becoming a Haji, and 

thus to wear a white turban. 
Labar-ldber, said of any vessel which is so full of water or other liquid, that with the 

least motion it runs over. Susukan kurang jvro , labar - leber sapanjang na , the canal 

wants deepening, the water runs over along the whole length of it. 
La bet, the spot where the Luluhur (which see) is to be conciliated, which is generally 

on some mountain top , as if he had left his mark there , which is frequently imagined 

to be the case , from finding there some vestiges of ancient times. Impressioh , mark ; 

ancient vestige. 
L a b r a n g , the shrouds of a ship , the ropes which support the mast. 
Labu, a gourd, a Calabash; Cucurbita lagenaria. Labu, C. 604 a gourd, a pumpkin. 

(Jav, IMivu Scr. Z&wu idem.) 
Labuh, to slip and fall on the ground, as a man in walking. To bring to, as a ship; 

to anchor. (Mai. idem. Jav. Mai. to let fall, to anchor.) 
Labuhan-bulan, holes which are found sunk in the ground naturally, especially where 

limestone formations prevail with natural cavities. The words Labuhan-bulan mean, 

anchorage place of the moon , thereby indicating that the native fancies that these holes 

have been caused by ^lie moon going to rest there. Similar holes occur in limestone 

districts in England where they are called Shake -holes. 
Labur, to pour out, to start, as grain, rice or similar matter emptied out of a bag upon 

the ground or floor of a store. 
Lachak, mark, trace, track of a man or of any animal on the ground. (Jav. idem.) 
Lachur, disappointed in getting anything. Anything tried for in vain. 
Lad a, peppery, pungent. Lada, C. 606, the beetle creeper. Lada in Malay is pepper, 

which in Sunda is called Pedes. Sir'cum lada , a black variety of ant found on trees 

whose bite is pungent. 
Ladaeun, having a peppery pungent taste- being warm and pungent. 
La dang, the money or other goods got in exchange for anything sold. Ladang pare, 

the money got by selling paddy. Zadang kuda di pake mvuli kzbo , the sale money of 

the horse was used to buy a bufTaloe. 



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AND ENGLISH. 239 

Laden, to oppose, to fight, to encounter in battle. To be ready to receive an attack. 
(Jav. epn&npl^ nglddenni , Bat. ladenin, to delivor; to serve; to bring on the table.) 

La dog, and Ladogan, to stroll about the country- to become a vagabond. 

Ladog, a Rhinoceros; also called Badak and Gandol. 

Lafal, an arabic word used to imply, text of the Koran, or authentic reading. Lefetl, 
arabic, Marsden Page 303, pronunciation, a word pronounced, a vocable. Jabasaking 
lafal, not in the text. Said playfully of anything done for which there is no express 

permission. (biJ, Laftz, or Laftl, vox, vocabulum.) 

Laga, antics, tricks, deceitful pretence; resistence, see lalaga. In composition of proper 
names, it means, war, battle. (In the first acceptation it resembles Jav. Balin. Kawi 
Ze//a, to be at ease, to live according to one's inclination, a way, in which monkeys 
children and natives are always prone to do mischief. Batav. Laga , Melaga. — Laga Kawi. 
Jav. war. Fr.) 

Lage\ a kind of native game danced or gdne through by a number of men to the sound 
of the gamelan or angklung. 

Lagu, tune, tone of music; an air. Used often to express the tone or tune of how mat- 
ters stand. Lagu na kudu di akntan kuorang his tune is that we must carry it away. 
This word is said to be Sanscrit. Lagu and Laghu, C. 603, light , soft , easy , swift , speedy. 

Lah, an exclamation of impatience, or indignity. 

Laha, a sen) or platted and wattled frame of bambu for taking fish; a wattling of sticks 
and lianes to carry earth with, called also Sarapeong. A screen for a house made of 
split bambu and hung at doorways or in open verandahs. 

Lah an, a plot or space of ground. Lahan Sawah, a plot of Swwah land. 

Lahang, toddy, the palm wine or juice which exudes from the fruit stem when beat and 
cut for that purpose. Called in Malay Tuwak. 

Lahir, arabic, come into the world, born; to become manifest, visible, manifest. What 

is seen arid understood, (y&lk Tzbhir or IViMir, apparens, conspicuus.) 

Lahun, to take in the arms and fondle as a child, to swing backwards and forwards in 

the arms. 
Lai, an idiomatic expression applied to the bending of soft iron especially. 
Lain, other, different. It is not so. (Mai. idem. Kawi also Lian, Bat. Len.) 
La in ken, to make different, to alter, to change; to separate, to part. 
Lair or Layer, pendulons, hanging down at length, dangling. The reverse of Puixk, 

which see. Long as a rope. 
Lai ran, to ease off', give length of cord. 
Laja, a scitameneous plant, Alpinia Galanga. Za/a, C. 606 the root of tho Andropogon 

muricatum. Called in Malay Langkwas. 
Laja-goah, a scitameneous plant, Alpinia Malaccensis. 
Laje'ran, to tie up a plant or bush to a stake in order to support it. (Jav. LajZr, the 

principal root cf. a tree; support, chief,) 



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240 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Laju, quick, rapid; straight on; immediately. .Laju naksr lumpat na he ran very fast. Laju 
bai di gtbugan , and forthwith he thrashed him. Laju balik ka irnah , and he immediately 
went home. Lagu, or LagAu, C. 603, swift, speedy. (Mai. Speedy. Jav. Kawi. To con- 
tinue; continually.) 

Lajur, straight on, continuous, unbroken. (Kawi. To go right through; a straight line. 
Mai. A furrow. A page with lines drawn on it.) 

Lak, to guttle, to eat vulgarly. 

Lak, sealing wax. This word is Dutch, but has been by them adopted from some Indian 
language. C. 606 has Lvikada and Laksha, sealing wax. (Ldxd> Scr. the lac -insect; 
the nests of it are used as sealing wax. It is also a red dye. Wilson.) 

Lak, does not often occursingly, but appears to be the etymon of NgUak to yelp, to 
keep bellowing out a song; Salak, a prickly thorny bush; and may be also of Galak, 
fierce , furious , savage , like a dog which growls and barks on every occassion ; Salak 
in Malay is to bark. 

Laka, a large forest tree, a variety of wild nutmeg. Myristica Iners. 

Laken, woollen cloth. The word is Dutch, of same import. 

Laketai, wiggle-waggle, said of any construction which does not hold firmly together, 
but works loose and shakes, as for instance a cart, a water-wheel or the like. 

Lakian, to get a husband; said of a woman who marries. Ewean, lakian pardnti alam 
dunya, To take a wife or get a husband is the custom of the world. (Jav. Lak&n, to 
live with a man.) 

Lak lak an, the uvula, the bit of flesh at the entrance of the wind-pipe. 

Lakop, any covering board along the ends of planking. The plank running the length of 
a natives house, alofag the upper ledge, and holding fast the Bilik. It corresponds 
to the Linchar which performs the same service below. 

Laksa, a lac. 10.000 in the Malayan Archipelago, though on the continent of India, the 
same word expresses 100.000. Laksha, C. 602, alack, 100.000. 

Laksa, vermicelli, rice paste made into long stringy slips; see Sangku. Probably the 
same word as Laksa , a lack , from the multiplicity of small round pipes of paste , and 
by giving it this name, the native perhaps thought that he persuaded his gods, to 
whom it was offered, that he was very generous towards them. 

Laksamana, the name of the brother of Rama in the poem Ramayana. (Scr. Lakshmana.) 

Laksamana, the title of the commander of the fleet in some Malay states. The High- 
Admiral. LakBhamana , C. 602, chief, principal. 

Laksmi, LaksAmi, C. 602 one of the three principal female deities of the Hindus; the 
wife of Vishnu, and goddess of wealth and prosperity. See Kamala-hiang. 

Laku, easy terms, endurable, possibility to do anything, acceptable. Laku di paksa, it 
is possible to enforce it Jalan ita to laku di sorang ,. that road cannot be travelled 
over. To laku, it cannot be done , it must not be attempted. (Jav. Mai. Going, course, 
voyage; manner; behaviour, action. Custom.) 



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AND ENGLISH. 241 

Lakuken, to accept or admit as possible; to put up with; to make use of for want of 

better. 
La lab, all kinds of green vegetable matter, as leaves or tender shoots, used as food or 

eaten. Greens in general. Yide Sayur. (Laldb Jav. according to Gericke - unripe fruit 

and leaves, eaten by the Javanese. At Batavia the meaning is the same with that 

given in this article. Fr.) 
Lalaga, to play antics; to play tricks with, to make a pretence of resisting, to show fight. 

(See Laga). 
Lalai, a bat, Ehinolophus vulgaris, called also Vespertilio. (Bal. lalawa). 
Lalaki, a male, a man. Owoh lalakian di imah, is there no man in the house. When 

Lalaki is used alone , it means a man ; but it -is also often applied to distinguish the 

male from the female of animals. Kuaa na dua , lalaki na 8iji , awewenasiji. There were 

two horses, one male, and one female. 
Lalakon, as the thing turns out, in this posture of affairs, under these circumstances, 

seeing that. (See laku) 
Lalamakan, the paunch of a ruminant animal , the tripe. 

Lalang'itan, the palate of the mouth; an awning, a canopy. From Zany' it t the sky. 
Lalangse, Bed- curtains. (Jav. Balin. langsu, lalangsG idem.) 
Lalar, a fly, the common house fly. Musca. (Jav. later. Mai. l&lat). 
Lalaunan, slowly, gently, carefully. (See laun). 
Lalawak, a variety of fresh water river fish, so called at Buitenzorg. It is also called 

Raranchak at Jasinga and in other places. 
Lalawora, talk in fun, not in earnest; a joke; carelessly, without attention, with in- 
difference. Ulah sok lalawora di gawe\ d'ont be working so carelessly. Omong tea sok 

lalawora lai , his talk is often in a joke (not really meant). 
Lalayatan, the rail of a bridge; any object fixed so as to be used, or to hold on by, in 

crossing a difficult pass, as over a river, ditches or the like. 
La lean, also called Maisaov Kuda Latean, a grandson of the celebrated Panji. One of the 

early princes of Pajajaran , and a great promoter of agriculture in the Sunda districts , 

having tamed the buffaloe to the joke. Raffles Vol. 2 Page 94/96. 
Lalemahan, in spots, only in places; only to be found in certain spots. (ZZmah Jav. 

Balin. ground, spot, earth.) 
Lalemper, boiled ketan rice put up in leaves, as retailed in small quantities. 
Lale'ngkahan, a stick or bit of wood laid over a ditch by which to pass. 
Laler, to pass along, to be in the neighbourhood of. Later liwat, to frequently pass by; 

to be in the neighbourhood but to pass by without stopping. Ilanto ngalater kadinyo , 

I did not go into that neighbourhood. 
Laleumpangan, to go away together. Geus lateumpangan, they have all gone away 

together. 
Lalewa, playing, trifling, making fun, nonsense, monkey tricks. 

31 



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242 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Lali, to forget, used when speaking to nobles- less frequently used than Polio , but its com- 
pound Kalalen forgotten, is frequently in use. (Jav. Ngoko. Mai. idem.) 
Lalimasan, a house built with a limas roof, which see. Imah lalimasan, a house built 

with a four sided roof. 
Lalongkrang, a ravine, a gully down which water pours, especially on the face of a 

mountain. 
Lalumbutan, part of a native loom, on which the threads are first wound and afterwards 

rolled upon the Totogan. 
Laluwasa, able to follow the bent of one's own mind, unrestricted. Enough for use and 

some over ; superabundance of anything ; having abundance of materials , or means for 

doing anything; having the means to obtain our object 
Lamak, a rag, a bit of torn cloth. 
Lamar, the tokens of asking a woman in marriage. The quids of sZureuh carried for that 

purpose : see Ngalamar. 
Lamat, a spider's web; more frequently called EamaL 
Lam at, expert in climbing. 
Lam bar, the leaf of a tree when used in enumeration or particular designation- daun 

seurZuh dua lambar, two leaves of the Seureuh. To sa lambar achan> I have not got 

a single leaf (of seureuh). A leaf of paper , or df any thin expended object- Daluang 

tilu lambar three leaves of paper. A distinct and separate hair , Bu-u/c sa lambar , a single 

hair of the head. (Jav. Zhnbar, single; a single leaf.) 
Lambaran, the tie beam in building a house. The beam running lengthways along the 

tops of the posts, by which they are held together and in their places. 
Lam beta, name of a variety of grass, also called Kalam meta. 
Lambing, as CA^uli lambing, the loops on a native spinning wheel in which the Kisit 

or spindles revolve. 
L ambit, a small hand net — fixed to a circle of wood. The same as SambeL Word in use 

about Buitenzorg. 
Lambungan, the wand to which the hidi or fish- spear is attached. 
Lam bu sir, the flesh on an animal's back which extends along each side of the spinal bone. 
Lam but, long in the ear as paddy; lengthy and pendulous — long. 
L a m 6 h , a tree so called , Alstonia Scholaris. The wood is white and softish , much used 

by the native turners for making bowls and platters. 
La mo, said of work which is done unwillingly. Zamo lai di gawe you work as if you 

were very unwilling; to work unwillingly. It also means — as long as, if only that. La- 
mo meunang bai , as long as it can be got. 
Lamot, to lick, to take up with the tongue. 
Lam pah, to take in hand, to undertake, to receive in charge, to take possession of. Pa- 

gawian eta kudu di lampnhan, That work must be taken in hand. (Jav. Krama^: Laku.) 
Lampang, a disease or defect in the skin, by which the black colouring matter becomes 



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AND ENGLISH. 243 

discharged from the epidermis, leaving the skin fair and white as in Europeans. It 
occurs in blotches on the bodies of some natives, but chiefly on the hands and feet. 
It is the incipient stage , which if sufficiently extended would make the native an Albino. 

Lam pat, to line a dam in the rivers with leaves, clay &c so as to close the apertures, 
and by raising the surface of the water cause it to flow into the canals of irrigation. 

Lam pes, a plant growing wild, with leaves which, when bruised, smell like those of 
Surawung , which see. LampZs is a small shrubby plant with fructification terminal to 
the branches; is of the family of Labitae, and most probably an Ocymum. See Selasi. 

Lamping, the slope or inclination of a hill: a hill side. 

Lam pit, a rattan mat; a neat mat made of split rattans strung together. 

Lamp or, said of the water which rises over the top of a dam in the rivers. 

Lampu, a lamp. Dutch and European generally. 

Lampung r the South end of Sumatra, bounding the straits of Sunda on the north. 

Lampuyang, a scitameneous plant. Zingiber Zerumbet. *> 

Lamun, if, in the case that, supposing. (Jav. idem. Balin. Lamun and Amun.) 

Lamur, dim- sighted, not seeing clearly- purblind. (Jav. idem.) 

Lanang, properly Javanese, but still occassionally used: male, masculine; a man. 

Lanat, Arabic, a curse. Iblis lanat y the curse of the devil; an ofihand expression telling 

a man he is lying. *ry 

J ° (jjuJ) 

L a n c h a , a spider. Ramat lancha , a cob- web. 

Lancha-maung, literally the Tiger spider , a tarantula , the bite of which is venomous. 

Lanchar, divided, split as in numbers. 

Lancheuk, the oldest child of a femily; the oldest brother or sister of a lot of children. 

Lanchongan, having an itching desire to move about; always in motion and prying every 
where. 

L an dak, a porcupine. Hvstrix longicauda, Hystrix fasciculata. 

Landean, the head of a kris; the handle of a kris. (Jav. trwnnmw^ Zandeyan, handle 
of a spear or of a kris.) 

Lando, below, lower ground, a lower relative position. The converse of Tonggo which 
see. Di lando , down the hill, below where we stand. 

Landung, long, lengthy, particularly said of anything which looks long when hung up. 
Pare na landung , the paddy is long in the ear (when held up in bundels). Uluh lair , 
ulah landung, D'ont let it be pendulous or dangling long. These two expressions con- 
vey nearly the same idea. (Jav. ^,^,vi N Landung , extended, lengthy.) 

Lang, a shallow basket for carrying Seureuh leaves to market, or other articles of mer- 
chandise. 

Langganan, a constant customer, or a person who constanly supplies any article at a 
fixed rate or on fixed terms. Langganan beas, a person who is in the habit of supply- 
ing us with rice or to whom we regularly sell rice. 

Langgar, to attack, to assail; to encroach upon, to interfere with; to break a law or re- 
gulation. (Jav. Mai. idem.) 



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244 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Langgar, a small house set apart for reading the Koran or for saying prayers, where 
there is no regular mosque; may be thus translated- a Mohammedan private chapel. 
See Sanggar. 

Langgari, the spatha or case of the flowers of the Kawuiig palm, whilst yet close to- 
gether and unexpanded. 

Langge, a large fishing net, like a bag, kept open by a circular hoop, and fastened to 
a long handle, with which to sweep in deep water for fish. 

Langgir, a scorpion. Manuk langgir, the scorpion bird, a very pretty bird which bur- 
rows in soft banks, and is green and brown. 

Lang'it, the sky, the heavens. (Jav. Mai. idem.) 

Langka, C. 602 Lanka, the ancient name of Ceylon, much celebrated in Hindu history, 
as being the place where the famous Rawana had his capital. 

Langka, no, not at all, decidedly not, none at aU. Langka boga b6as, I. have got no 
rice at all* Langka daik lilumpang , he would not budge. 

Lang k ah, a step, the distance which a man covers at every stride. (Jav. Mai. idem.) 

Langkahan, to step over, to stride across. 

Langkap, a variety of Palm tree, stem like Pinang, leaves like those of Kawung; wood 
is used for Bar6ra or the staff for striking the threads together in weaving 

Langlang, to visit and inspect, to patrol, to look after; to frequent and go along. Ari 
pagaw4an tilok di langlang, if you never look after your work. 

Lanjam, a plough-share, especially such as are used on the Chinese plough drawn by 
one buffaloe. The small rim of iron fixed on the share of a sawah-plough. 

Lanjang, growing up to puberty. Budak lanjang, a young man or woman who has at- 
tained the age of puberty. (Jav. LZnjang , a woman of a tall and beautiful figure. At 
Batavia it means careless young people.) 

Lanjung, having a headache; pain in the head. 

Lantaran, having connection w T ith, relating to, being concerned in or with. Lantaran 
mimiti unjal par6, relating to the time when we began to carry away the paddy. Lan- 
taran harita about , or connected with that former period. (Jav. Lantaran , way , means , 
instrument.) 

Lantayan, bambus tied horizontally to upright stakes, on which fresh cut paddy is hung 
to dry. The straw ends of the upper tier of bundles* of paddy are covered by a slip 
of atap or thatch to keep the rain . from penetrating downwards. 

Lantayken, to hang paddy on a lantayan. 

Lantis, said when water touches the whole body, head and all; immersed. 

La n tor, long and broad; said of an implement, as of a pachul or hoe. 

Lantung, Petroleum; earth oil, a sort of natural tar found willing out of the ground 
in many parts of Java. (Jav. idem.) 

Lanus, said of an infant growing ill and sickly, when the Dukun, or native doctor, not 
being able to assign any other cause, blames one or both the parents w T ith indulging 
too much in carnal lusts. 



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AND ENGLISH. 245 

Laos, the tender inner middle shoot of the Laja, or Alpinia galanga, which is eaten. 

Lapak, mark, trace. (Jav. A saddle. Mai. Ldpik, ground, footing, where something rests 
upon.) 

Lapang, as Tamuh lapang, a clear, open bit of ground, not encumbered with either 
trees or buildings. Lapang is properly Malay, but is still current in Sunda in this 
sense. 

Lapang, lost past finding; goods stollen which cannot be traced. 

Lapis, a fold, a thickness, a lining, a layer. Kapal di lapis tambaga, a ship which is 
coppered, or covered with copper. Par6 iilu lapis, three layers or thicknesses of pad- 
dy (in bundles). Jamang buludru di lapis kain putih, a velvet jacket lined with white 
cloth. (Jav. Mai. idem.) 

Lapok, plated; anything fixed on to something else. 

Lapor, a report, a public notice; the Dutch rapport 

Laporan, to make a report, to give notice. 

Laporan, an inclosure into which the paddy rents are collected to dry, as they are cut 

La pur, lost past finding, goods stolen which cannot be traced. 

La put, covered over, hidden from view. 

Laput-liput, just covered over; not deeply covered; covered over carelessly. 

Larang, to forbid, to interdict , to prohibit ; scarce, dear, rare. (Bat. Rarang. Jav. Arang , 
Larang.) 

Larangan, anything which is forbidden or prohibited. A prohibition. Unlawful thing?. 
Larangan kumjyani, it is forbid by the government 

Larap, wandering away, strolling off. Ka mana larapna, wither has he wandered. 

Lasem, Europe spun cotton twist. The name of a place on the north coast of Java, ce- 
lebrated for its ship building. Perhaps formerly it may have produced the cotton twist, 
which now bears its name, as when Europeans first visited Java, such native twist 
was a very common article , and used to form part of tho tribute of the native princes. 

Las-ius, the idiomatic expression of skulking out of the way; sneaking oft one by one. 
Las-lcs bai j6lma tea , the people keep sneaking off. 

La sun, a brown four-footed animal of the civet cat tribe. Mangusta Javanica. 

Lata, a person who is half mad, often a woman who labours under aberration of mind 
and has extraordinary fancies. (Known at Batavia and Bali. Gericke gives — to laugh 
without interruption , which is the sign of people who are Latah.) 

Lau, a conical sugar pot, from which the molasses drain out. 

L a uk , fish , flesh , meat. Lauk hanc/iang , fish that swim near the surface and cast their eggs 
by mija. Lauk Munding , Buffaloe flesh. Lauk chat, river meat^: fish. Ngalalauk, 
to catch fish. # 

Laun, slowly, deliberately, gently. (See lalaunan.) 

Laur, the idiomatic expression of walking or running away. Laur bai pulang ka imah , 
and he walked himself off home. 



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246 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Laut, the sea, the ocean. This word is apparently of Sanscrit origin and means Saltwa- 
ter. Lawanoda, C. 605. Lawana, salt and Uda, water, the sea of salt water; and 
ought thus properly to be written Lawud, according to this etymology. The word 
Laut for sea, prevails most in Sumatra and Java, but does not appear to have penetrated 
into the Great Pacific. On the Western side of the Archipelago it is found in conjunction 
with Sagara , which is another Sanscrit term for sea. The furthest east where a word resem- 
bling Laut for sea is found, is on the Talaut islands, a group between Gilolo and 
Mindanao, where the word Lauri occurs for sea, which may be derived from La~ 
Lawana G. 602 Salt, and Wari, C. 638 water. It is not a little strange that two 
Sanscrit words should be found in the Archipelago to represent the sea, both analj- 
zable into salt water; yet that the word to express the idea of water is, in one case, 
Uda, and in the other Wari, two Sanscrit words, which point to a very early and 
extensive influence of the natives of continental India on this part of the world. The 
spice trade must have brought the navigators of the continent , and their name for the 
sea, to such remote regions. 

Laut-kidul, the South sea, the sea to the South of Java, to which many mysterious 
influences are ascribed , as the Javanese know of no other land in that direction. 

Lautan, the high seas, the open seas- Nyabrang lautan t to cross the seas. 

Lawai, appearance, quality. Pari diga kiyo lawai na, paddy of this appearance. 

La wan, to oppose, to resist, to stand in opposition to, to compete with , to rival ; an ene- 
my, a foe, a rival, an antagonist; a match, a mate, a fellow. 

La wan g, a door, a gate. 

Lawangan, to set up a door; to put a door or gate in house or fence. 

La was, old, ancient; a long time ago. Lumbur lawas> the old village. Gcus lawas, his 
a long time ago. (Jav. Balin. idem.) 

Lawayan, a bambu frame made like X, to wind thread upon, in order to be able to 
put it up in hanks. 

Lawayan, as Tunjang lawayan, a diagonal prop or. shore. 

La we, thread for weaving, more usually called Kanteh. 

Lawu, a mountain in Java, to the East of Solo, 10.414 feet high. It stands as an im- 
mense circular mass by itself, and hence probably its name of- the Gourd, as it is 
the same as Labu, C. 604>, a gourd. Lawu, "Wilsons Sanscrit Dictionary Page 754, 
'a pumpkin, gourd; Cucurbita lagenaria. On the Lawu are found the old Hindu re- 
mains of Suku. The group of the Lawu seems more especially to bear Polynesian 
names , which have reference to vegetables or cooking. Thus a little to the South of 
the chief mass of the Lawu is the Gunung Baligo. The Baligo is a variety of gourd, 
the Cucurbita Villosa of Blume, and Leor of the Sunda language. Gunung kukusan, 
is a neighbouring mountain and means the conical basket in which rice and greens are 
steamed. Gunung kcndil, is another and means, a pan, a pot, a kettle. 

Lay an g, to soar, to float in the air. 



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AND ENGLISH. 247 

Layangan, a kite, a plaything made of paper and sent up in the air. 

Layar, a sail for a ship or boat; a screen hung up about a house to keep away the sun 

or rain. To set sail , to sail ; navigation. 
Layaran, to set sail, to saii f away. Navigation, sailing. 
Layes, rafters of a roof which support the ataps, or on which the laths and tiles are put. 

Layip, very poor, very destitute, most miserable. Arabic Zlaif, weak, feeble. (uJua^). 

Layur, a long narrow sea fish. Trichiurus haumela. 

L£ah, a variety of bambu, striped like Awi Gede, but is smaller and of less use. 

L£at, name of a common but very good fish in the mountain streams. 

Leb, the idiomatic expression for water which overflows its banks or brim. lAb bai Ivber, 
full up and overflowing the brim. 

Lebak, a valley, a vale, the low, flat land 'between two hills. Often enters into the com- 
position of proper names of places. 

Lebak, is also a word used in the formation of certain numerals, and appears to mean 
a deduction, something less- It is used in the following expressions, which probably 
applied originally to counting chinese cash or pichis- Lebak Satus, is 75, something 
less than 100- Lebak Satak is 175 and Jjebak Samas is 375. (The word Lebak is used 
on Bali. Lebak sepah means 1600 cash, or 8 rupies kopper. Here is a deduction made 
of 10 rupies. Lebak alone is used in the meaning of 75. Fr.) 

Lebar, done, dished, disappointed, not getting what we expected. (Jav. L&bar finished ; dis- 
appeared, not at hand.) 

Lebar, a sort of open account kept with a bujang or paid monthly labourer. 

Leb£, a man learned in Mohammedan lore. 

L^b^r, brimfull, full with a liquid to overflowing. Overflowing the edge. Sometimes you 
hear leber - lobar , or labar - liber , as indicating running over in all directions. 

Lebok, a vulgar expression for eating greedily or voraciously. To glut, to fill the guts. 
Di lebolz maung , he was voraciously eaten by a tiger. Sia ma§n kana ngaVtbok bai n 
all you can do is to guttle- or fill your guts. 

Lebu, dust, fine ashes, soot. The word in Malay is abu y and in Javanese awu. (I&bu Jav. 
Mai. idem.) 

Lebur, spoiled, destroyed, injured so as to be of no further use. To melt down as metals, 
to smelt, to dissolve. Imah na fcbur his house is tumbling to pieces. Wang perak di 
leburken, the silver money was melted down. 

Lechet, chafed as the skin. The skin worn in sores by friction. 

Ledat, slipped down or ofl, slipped from its right position. 

Le dat'ken, to slope off, to cut off with a slope* 

Ledis, dialled, done for. 

L 6 d o g , said of fire which has burnt up clean ; a clean burn. Rarahan di hum ledog , the 
fallen jungle was burnt clean off. 

Ledok, muddy, miry; Jalan gedb ledok naker, the great road is very muddy. 



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248 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Ledug. muddy, when said of water; turbid. Thick dust flying about. 

Le-eh, melted, softened with heat; to become liquid. 

Leg, the idiomatic expression of swallowing , of bolting down the throat. L&jr bai di tZur&ui 
and he gulped it down his throat. 

Legah, broad, roomy, extensive, wide. Saxcah Ugah, an extensive sawah; Enggon na 
iZgali, its hole is wide. 

L ^ g e , a cockchafer , melolontha vulgaris. The beetle , shape of the onggr&t grub , which see. 

Legedu, dirty, muddy. 

Legdr, a leager. The Dutch word legger; a water cask. 

Leget, a property of well boiled rice. Adhering together when squeezed in the hand and 
still not clammy: nearly the same as Pulvn. which see. 

Legeudeut, to move in mass, to slip down in a heap, as the side of a hill when satu- 
rated with rain. To move as a crowd of men or an army. 

Leglegan, to swallow, to gulp up. 

Legok, hollow, having a cavity. A hole in the ground. A depression on the surface. A 
deep narrow valley. 

Legon, a small bay or inlet of the sea. Quere? is the English word lagoon this word 
adopted ? 

Leguk, a draught of anything to drink, a gulp of water. 

Ldho, snot, mucous matter coming from the nose. 

L^jdt, a variety of gourd. The outer skin or shell is thick, hard and firm, and when 
the soft contents are extracted, the shell is in very general use for a drinking vessel 
or for holding drinking water. Cucurbita idolatrica. 

Leko-leko, the bends and recesses of a winding river. 

Lekoh, strong of ingredients, as tea or coffee made too strong. Said of a flood or inun- 
dation which comes down in the shape of very muddy water. 

L 6 1 a , a long and thin native brass cannon , generally turning on a pivot. 

Lei a, pleased, content, satisfied, as the natives say, but it is apparently arabic to corres- 
pond with Lahir and Bati?i, and may thus mean- events or times w r hich are gone by. 
Occurs in the expression Lela, lahir , bati?i, an expression which conveys the idea of 
full and unreserved consent and approval. L6la y approved of; or what has occurred 
in former times; Lahir, what is seen, or the present; Batin, what is yet in futurity, 
and thus not known. As if a man gave his consent regarding all that which had gone 
before, what now exists, or may exist hereafter. Past- present and future. (Scr. Ilia, 
play, sport, pastime. Much used in Kawi.) 

Lei ah, weary, faint, tired from exertion, exhausted. 

Lelang, an auction, a public outcry. Leylam or Leilao, Portugeese, a public sale. S«- 
rat l&lang, a newspaper, literally a written paper about auctions. 

L61e, a fish found in swamps or stagnant pools, and also in rivers. It is provided with 
sharp spikes at the end of the fins, near the head, which give painful wounds. Cla- 
rias punctatus. 



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AND ENGLISH. 249 

Lelep, to thrust down under water, to plunge into mud or slough. (Jav. id. To sink 
under water; ngVblvppaktn , to plunge under water.) 

Leler, to give, to bestow, to confer upon. A refined expression as applied to the act of 
a great man or a superior. Di I6l6rk&n ka hula ku nu bogah, it was bestowed upon 
me by the owner. 

Leles, the same as Kondang. Ficus subracemosa. 

LSmah, spot, place. Lvmah pi-imahan, a spot to build a house on. Lzmah gor?ng , a bad 
spot (often being considered as haunted.) (Jav. Bali. Ground, place, earth; land.) 

Lembang, to wash ore; to wash the earth to seek for ore of metals. 

Lembang, a small insect so called, of about size of the thumb nail, which often attacks 
and injures growing paddy, creeping up out of the mud and water in the Sawahs. 

Lembing-batu, a variety of the foregoing insect. 

Le'mbong, cleared away, freed from encumbrances, put in order as a piece of ground 
or a garden. Limbong aySunah human , the plot of ground in front of the house is now 
cleared up. Lembong hum ah na , his paddy plantation has been weeded all over. 

LSmbu, cattle of the cow kind- properly Javanese. Sa kuru ning /em&w, such as the lean- 
ness of a cow (still lots of meat on so large an animal). A proverb. 

Lembu, is sometimes an appellation for a chief, especially in ancient history, and origi- 
nally means- the Bull- in the same way as Maisa, iCeio, Panggawa, and liangga are 
used. See Raffles Vol. 2. Page 80. Lembu Ami Jaya; Lembu Ami Luhur. 

Lembuhan, part of a native loom. The stick which separates the alternate threads. 

LSmbuhken, a variety of wild pigeon. 

LSmbut, small, diminutive. 

Lemek, to speak, to articulate. To bisa lemtk, he could not speak. Lemek gunung, to 
speak the mountain (language). To speak Sunda. 

Lempag, to throw a spear or sharpened bambu. 

L^mpdn^ng, yellow. 

LSmpeng, straight not crooked. Kayu tempting, straight wood. Ltmphng bai moro ka 
imah, and straight on he went home. 

L e m p e n g , flat and thin like a slab of stone. 

Ldmpengan, anything which is put up in small flat parcels like shred tobacco. Flat like 
a slab of stone. 

LSmper, ketan rice made up in leaves and roasted on hot embers. 

Lemper, crippled in the arms or legs, said only of mankind. 

L e m p o g , a preparation of Kadu or Durian fruit and sugar. 

Lempong, the slope of a hill. Lempong na gunung ti wdtan y on the Eastern slope of the 
mountain. 

L6ndeh, laid flat; trampled down; as a standing crop of paddy or the like. 

L^ndehkSn, to lay flat, as any growing vegetable matter, either by trampling upon it, 
or by beating it down with a stick. 

32 



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250 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Lendi, name of a fish inhabiting pools in caverns in the ground. 

Le'neng, beardless as paddy; without awns. 

Leng, the idiomatic expression of telling to walk off, or of walking off. Z&ng, gerrah 
kaditu deui, be off! and bear a hand and go there again. Zng bdlik ka imah, and off 
I went on my return home. 

Leng'Sr, naughty as a child. 

Ldnggang, the swinging about of the arms, either in walking or in dancing. A pole 
tax called Pajeg lenggang, exacted from those who do not plant and therefore do not 
pay a regular Paddy tax. The synic idea conveyed is that such persons are taxed for 
swinging their arms about. 

Lengk^h, a small waist; a mark of beauty in a native's idea. 

L^ngke'ng, The celebrated Chinese nut and tree of this name. The dried nuts are much 
imported from China. Euphoria Litschi. 

Le*ngkeng, afflicted with the venereal disease. 

LengkSp, complete, perfect, prepared beforehand. 

Le'ngke't, clammy, viscous. Said of Kawung toddy which will not boil to sugar and set, 
but remains like molasses or treacle. 

Lenglengan, daft, imbecile; not in a right state of mind. 

Le'ng'o, unloaded, not carrying anything with one, unincumbered; unmarried. Nuntun 
kuda ling^Oy led an unloaded horse. 

L^ngsar, smooth and even on the surface; free from asperities. 

Lengse'r, a petty official. A subordinate used by men of rank. 

Lenjeng, straight, not crooked. 

Lentah, a leech, a bloodsucker. Hirudo. 

L 6 n y a p , to disappear , to vanish. To kebel d&ui lenyap bai , not long afterwards he disappeared. 

Leob, to boil, to cook in water. 

Leor, a variety of long gourd- Cucurbita villosa. Called in Malay Baligo. 

L e o s , to act contrary to orders , to be perverse. 

Lep, the idiomatic expression of folding down, or laying down in layers. This is the ety- 
mon of the lap in Salapan , Dalapan , the numbers nine en eight , which mean literal- 
ly-one fold down -two folds down, from the ten fingers held up. 

Lepan, a fold down, a layer. Lepan pari, a layer of bundles of paddy as piled in store. 

Lepe'hkSn, to spit out the superfluous saliva from the mouth, which accumulates in che- 
wing beetle. 

L£pot, let go, let slip, slipped out. 

Ldpotken, to let go, to release, to set free. 

Lep us, every where examined, and carefully investigated, especially as a country, a dis- 
trict , a forest , or a plantation. 

Les, the idiomatic expression of getting out of the way, of sneaking off. Z& bai ngitei* 
and he suddenly sneaked off. Ze* owoh^ and in a jifiey he was gone. 



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AND ENGLISH. 251 

Lesang, smooth and slippery, as the hair on a cat's back; without any asperities. Slip- 
per j, as the surface of anything. Slippery and smooth but not oily or greasy which 
is expressed by Zew-Swr. 

Leslesan, running away and disappearing, sneaking off; creeping out of the way. 

Ldsot, let go, parted hold, relinquished. 

L^sotken, to let go, to loose your hold, to relinquish. 

Lesu, languid, a feeling of aversion to exert one self. (Jav. Mai. Batav. idem.) 

Let ah, the tongue. Goreng Idtahna, his tongue is bad; as we would say- foul- mouthed, fond 
of talking evil. (Jav. Mai. Lidah, which T. Roorda wants to derive from Scr. Lidha licked.) 

L£tah badak, Rhinoceros tongue, Opuntia, Cactus for feeding Cochenille tforms. 

L^tak, to lick with the tongue. 

L^takan, to lick. Uching ngalitakan man6h> a cat licking itself. 

LuubSut, having abundance of fruit; fruit hanging in abundance on a tree. Mangga na 
ItubZut tahun tyo, the mangoes have an abundant crop this year. 

Leuchir, smooth and fair, pretty; free from asperities. Budak bikang UucMr, a fair young 
woman. Leuchir beunang aing ngabresihan, it is smooth now that I have made it clean. 

Leu-Sur, slippery, without friction, possessing oliagenous properties, greasy. Jalan na 
fcw-ewr, the road is slippery. Kulit na ISu-Sur b&unang ngaminyakan y his skin was slip- 
pery from having had oil rubbed on it. 

LSuggut, gum, bird-lime, any clammy exudation from a tree. Manuk b&unang ngaleu- 
gtutan, a bird caught with bird lime. 

LSuhang, hot water containing astringents or some medicinal herb for a bath, prescribed 
in some diseases. 

Leukeunan, to stare at, to look with a vacant stare. To look on with indifference. To 
had6 di l&ukvunan. It w'ont do to look on with indifference. 

Leukrah, scattered about; loose and disconnected. Tulang fedul g$u$ leukrah, the bones 
of the hog are separated , scattered about. 

LSuksa, a creeper in the jungle, with pretty pinkish campanulate flower. 

L&uleu-eur, any application made to make a thing slippery. Any oily or greasy matter 
rubbed on to anything to make it work easy, to destroy friction. (See Leu-gur.) 

LSulSus, soft and pliant, flexible, not stiff; the reverse of J&ger which see. Hoih #u- 
leus , the flexible rattan , a variety in great request for splitting and using in number- 
less ways. Called also Hoih lilin, the waxy rattan. Is of the thickness of a man's lit- 
tle finger. 

LSuleuyi, slack as water, without current; slowly moving, sluggish. 

LSumgung, common rice, not KStan, cooked in a joint of bambu stuck in the fire. The 
same as lului> only that in the latter instance the rice is Ketan. 

LSumpang, to walk, to go away, to proceed on a journey. To bisa leumpang, he cannot 
walk. Gtus kumpang, he has gone away. Gtus Unmpang munggah haji y he has pro- 
ceeded on the journey to become a Haji. 



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252 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Leuncha, a shrubby plant. Solanum nigrum. 

Leunchang, and leunchangeun, said of the skin rubbed sore or chafed. 

Leung'an, the hand. The fore leg of a beast, especially when killed for food. The fruit 

stem of the Kawung Palm tree , from which is tapped the toddy , which is boiled down 

into Java Sugar Panjang leungan, long handed, means a thief. (Cf. Mai. Tangan. Jav. 

and also Mai. *nQ<m^ tengZn, *) langan, the fore arm). 
Leung'it, to lose, lost. The same etymon is heard in the Malay word Hang, to lose. 
Leung'itan, lost, disappeared, gone without our knowledge. Uneasy at missing. 
L e u n g s i r , name of a tree. Irena glabra. 
Leunyai, a glow-worm. Lampyris noctiluca. 
Leupas, let go, discharged, set at liberty. Flown or run away. Remote, going quickly 

or far. Zeupas naker, he went off very rapidly. Lzupas manuk dta lamun liar, that 

bird goes far away when it goes abroad. (Jav. Lvpas. Mai. Lapas). 
Leupasken, to let go, to liberate, to discharge. 
Leupeut, either ketan or common rice put up in small packages, made of young cocoa 

nut leaves, either already boiled or preparatory to cooking, used to take on journeys. 
Leuseuhan, to use for the first time, to make a first trial with. Ngaleuseiihan samping 

anyar , to wear for the first time a new cloth. Ngalvusvuhan panggilingan anyar , taking 

a first trial with a new mill. 
Leut, the idiomatic expression of coming into sight, of making appearance, as growing 

up as a crop of anything on the ground. Zeut bai datang manuk na, and the birds 

made their appearance in a flock. ZZut bai jefema moro, and the people made their 

appearance in a crowd. ZZut bai pare na gvdc , and the paddy had grown up and looked 

thriving. 
Leut, and leut-lcutan, an interruption, a space between, at intervals. See JTeuZeid , and 

Sclat. 
Leutak, mud, mire, wet clay. 
Lcutik, small, diminutive. The final syllable is evidently Tika, C. 216 little, small in 

quantity, few. Nu teutik, those of humble degree, the common people. Leulik ang'm, 

faint hearted, wanting courage. 
Leuwek-liySuk, staring about, looking in all directions, prying about 
Leuweung, a forest, a wilderness. ZeuwSung manwangan, an ancient untouched forest 

Zzuweung ganggong, old forest. 
Leuwi, a deep spot in a river with little current, called in Malay Kedung. This word often 

inters into the composition of proper names of places , as LSuwi Liang , name of an es- 

state under Buitenzorg. 
LSuwih, more, in excess. I/euwik hade, better, more good. Leuwih jangkong , taller, 

more tall. LZuwih jero , deeper. Zeuwih teuyn , vastly in excess. (Mai. Lcbeh. Jav. Luioih) 
LSuyir, late in the season, long in coming to perfection or ripening. Pare leuyir, late 

paddy, long in ripening. Di pelak na geus l&iyir, it was late in the season when it 

was planted. 



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AND ENGLISH. 253 

Leuyit, the native granary where the paddy is stored. It is a small building of wood and 
bambu placed on the confines of the village , out of the way of accident from fire. 

Lian, other, different. Lian ti dinyo to ay a, other than this, there is none. Bere nu 
lian, give another, or give one which is different. (Kawi idem. Jav. Liya. Mai. Lain.) 

Liang, a hole, an aperture, orifice, opening. 

Liang cheuli, the ear hole. 

Liang irung, the nostrils, the nose holes. 

Liang panggalak, the touch hole of a gun. Called also Pasumbon. 

Liang tahi, the anus. 

Liar, to go abroad, to stroll out To stroll carelessly about. To come out to feed as a 
wild animal. 

Liat, tough, tenacious. Daging kZbo liat, tough buffaloe flesh. Kayu liat, tough wood. 
Liat is not always so much tough, that is hard, as resisting any attempt to cut or 
tear it asunder; a cutting instrument only makes small effect upon it. 

Lichik, skulking from work, evading obligations. 

Li dig, well beaten down by people passing over; trampled down. 

Li gar, roomy, having space. 

Ligar kawung, the spatha or flower case of the Kawung palm expanded. 

Ligarken, to make roomy; to set aside or clear away. 

Ligur, lying about in confusion; in numbers but without order. 

Liket, stiff* and adhesive. Clammy. 

Likur, a word for forming numerals from and with 21 to and with 29. Salikur, 21. 
Genap likur, 26. Salapan likur 29. Likur has an analogous force between 20 and 30, 
to W&las between 10 and 20, but this system of notation ceases with 29. 31 is ti- 
lupuluh siji; 41 opat puluh siji, and soon. Likur is probably a modification of Ligur, 
to lie about in numbers, but in confusion. As when the fingers of the hands had been 
used for counting the WUas , probably stones or other small objects were put down to 
keep count, and in continuing the process beyond 20, these numerous objects were 
found to accumulate to an inconvenient extent, and thus Ngaligur to lie about in num- 
bers and confusion. 

Likur an, the numbers between 20 and 30. Bulan grew* likuran. The month or the 
moon is in the stage between 20 and 30 days old. 

Lilah, slow, slowly, taking much time to do anything. A good time ago, long since. 
Geus lilah , it is long since. Lilah jasah , extremely slow. 

Lilin, wax, bee's wax. Damar lilin, a wax candle. Hoih lilin, the same as Eoih feuteus, 
one of the most serviceable rattans growing. 

Lilir, to begin to recover health or strength after sickness, to revive; to rouse up from 
sleep. Pare na g£us lilir, the paddy has revived (after being transplanted). 

Lilir an, an interval of sleep till one awakes again. 

L i 1 i t , to twine round ; to fold round as a string round a stick , a pea- stem round a rod. 
(Jav. Mai. idem.) 



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254 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Liliuran, to take turn and turn about; to work alternate turns. To help a neighbour 
with any work in order to have the same assistance in return. 

Lima, the number five. In the languages of the Pacific, Lima is the word for the Juind, 
and no doubt indicates the origin of Lima as the numeral 5 from the fingers of the 
hand. Though the word no longer exists in this sense on Sumatra or Java, still Lima 
is hand on Bali, Lme on Lombok, Lima in Bugis, Limei, in the Aroo Isles, and 
Liman on Kissa, one of the Serwatty group to the eastward of Timor. 

Lima bias, fifteen. 

Lima puluh, fity. 

Liman, an elephant. In South Bantam there is a Chiliman, which probrbly originally 
meant „Elephant River", though no elephants are now found wild on Java. Gaja is 
the more usual word now a days for elephant. In Malay also the Sanscrit word 
Gaja is the usual word for elephant , though in that language is still retained the word 
Biram, which is thought to have been the indigenous designation of the animal. Liman, 
will be derived from lima. Lima-an , having a hand , from the use to which it puts its 
trunk. If this acceptation is correct we might almost be sure that the elephant was 
once a denizen of the Sunda forests, as it is still found wild in the Lampungs across 
the straits of Sunda. 

Limang kupang, five hundred, the number 500. Litterally five kupang or 500 Chi- 
nese kupang or pichis, the value of which in money of the present day, according to 
the natives is 20 Dutch doits. The final ng is added to Lima five. 

Li mas, a leaf twisted into the shape of a cup and made fast with a sprig of bambu, to 
be used as a temporary cup to hold bubur or pap. 

Limas, a roof with sloping ridge at four comers, abutting against a common ridge pole. 
A four sided roof. 

Limbung, top heavy, heavy towards the top so as easily to upset 

Limo, a small sour orange or lime used in making samb&l. Lima-d&ii, C. 608, a tree, 
citrus acida. D£hi- C. 285 , the lime of which there are several species in Ceylon. 

Limpas, covered over with water, overflown. 

Limus, a bad variety of Manga. Mangifera foetida, which with the K&mang is probably 
indigenous [to Java. These two are not called Mangga by the natives, but have, as is 
here seen , purely indigenous native names and grow wild. The proper Manggas were 
probably originally introduced from the continent and brought their name with them. 
The Limus is called Bachang about Batavia, a word dirived from Amba, C. 43, 
mangga, Chan, C. 191, vile, base. On Sumatra especially, it is sometimes called 
Ambachang vide Marsden Page 14 and 360, which is still nearer its real origin. 

Lin char, the plank running the length of a native's house, along the lower ledge, and 
there holding fast the Bilik. See Lakop. 

Lindeuk, tame; familiar to man, as animals. 

Lin dung, shade, shaddow, shelter; concealment. See Ngalindung. 



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AND ENGLISH. 255 

Ling*as, wild, and avoiding the familiarity of man; said of wild animals. Said of a skit- 
tish horse which gets easily afraid. Said of a man who skulks out of the way for fear 
of being apprehended. 

Lingga, name of an island on the East coast of Sumatra between Bangka and Singapore. 
It has a tall peak on it high 3604 Ehineland feet, which may have been fancifully 
taken for the Lingga, or Ling a, C. 607, the penis, the phallus of Siwa under that 
emblem; according to the Hindu philosophy the Androgynal symbol of the creative 
power Brahma, to whom, as not being the living god but an agent or emanation of 
the supreme being, no temples are erected or dedicated. 

In the Singapore Journal vol 5 Page 544 we have the following remark about this 
island. — „ Lingga , an island on the East coast of Sumatra. It is almost a perfect Tri- 
nacria; it is volcanic, conical and cleft, and thus combines four Hindu mysticisms, 
the explanation of which , in addition to its Hindu name , will form a long chapter for 
any one willing and able to undertake that work. The equinoctial line passes almost 
through the centre of the island". 

Linggis, a crowbar, a rod of iron used as a gaveloc. 

Linglung, forgetful as an old man. 

Lingsig, quick, expeditious; having time. 

Ling sir, descending, declining; Mata poi geus lingsir, the sun has begun to decline. 
The sun has passed the meridian. (Jav. Mai. Bal. idem.) 

Lini, an earthquake. Lina, C. 608, hidden, concealed. Is the Sunda word derived from 
this? as the Earthquake arises from a „hidden source". Zinayi it is concealed, contrac- 
ted into Lini. (Balin. Linu. Jav. *&™\ Lindu). 

Lin tang, a star, more generally called Bentang. 

LintSuh, fat, corpulent, in good case. 

Lin ting, to scorch and bruise, as in preparing some roots for food. 

Linu, on edge, as the teeth from any unpleasant grating or sound. 

Lio, a place where briks and tiles are made, a brickery. 

L i p 1 a p , a person whose parents are one of them European and the other native. Mostly born 

of a native mother by an European father. 
Li put, covered over with anything, as with earth, with water &c. &c. 
Liron, to take in turns, turn and turn about; a person assisting another by helping at 

some work in return. 
L iron ken, to take in turns, especially said of sawahs left to a family of children, each 

works the sawah for a year and then passes it on to another. 
Lisan, word, speech. 
Lisung, the stem of a tree cut out like a boat with aflat bottom; it has a conical hole also 

at one end, in this implement paddy is pounded and reduced to rice in every village. 

A rice-block. 
Lita, covered over, buried under, as under water, under the surface of the ground. Any- 



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256 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

thing which has sunk irom sight or is covered over as if nothing was concealed , or 
no opening had been made, as when a stone has been thrown into water. 

Liuh, stagnant as water, not having a current. Still and quiet. 

L i u n g , to surround , to encompass , to gather around. 

Liur, a turn at any work; a turn at work alterately with some one else. The person 
taking such turn. 

Liwat, to go past, to go beyond; to pass over; to exceed. (Batav. Jav. idem.) 

Liyek, to trample down, to paddle upon and injure; to tread under foot. 

Loa, a variety of fig tree. Ficus Lucescens. 

Lob a, many, abundant, plenty. Loba jelema, many people. Loba amat omong sia, what 
lots of jaw you have got. 

Lob ah, about at a particular place, in the neighbourhood of. Lobah tuwer> about the 
knees. Loba imah batur, in the neighbourhood of my companion's house. 

Lobak, radish. Kaphanus caudatus. 

Locheng, a bell. 

Lochot, tumbling out, getting loose ; -detached. 

Lod, the idiomatic expression of anything falling or plumping into water. Lod bai chai di 
inngan, and plump he eased himself into the river. 

Lodoh, dirty, foul, impure in conduct; foul in his actions. (Jav. idem. At Bata via it means 
foul, overripe said of fruit.) 

Lodong, a large joint of bambu or more commonly two joints with the intermediate dia- 
phragm knocked out for holding liquids, as water, oil &c. 

Logak, a small hole or hollow in any surface when horizontal. 

Logat or Loghat, arabic, word, meaning, interpretation; a vocabulary, a dictionary. 

(iai Loghat , words, to which a meaning is attached; word, saying. LiiUJx, Uniul- 

loghat, the lexicography.) 
Lohong, forward, impudent. 
Lohor, the time of day which answers to our 2 o'Clock P.M. The first period for Mo- 

s > ' 

hammedan prayers after noon. (Arab. ^& thluAitr, which means the backside , dorsum, 
tergum. The backside of the day.) 

Lohor akhir, about 3 o'Clock P.M. (Arab. y sJ.y^). 

Lojor, long and narrow. Batu lojor, a long narrow stone. 

Loklak, Conus, a hard solid shell fish. From the apex of the shell large white rings are 
made, which the natives like to wear, under the idea that these rings snap asunder y 
when they come in contact with any vessel containing poison , and thus give the wea- 
rer timely notice of the danger. 

Loklok, solitary, stuck away by oneself; moping alone. 

L o 1 , the idiomatic expression of projecting , or sticking out , protruding. Lol bai ku teun- 



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AND ENGLISH. 257 

gan di ragapan, and sticking out his hand he caught hold of it. Lol hai nontot ti it- 
to ruas and projecting it stuck out of the bambu case. 

L o 1 o c h o , to pound Seureuh in a small hand cylinder for old people who have no teeth 
to chew. To clean iron weapons with acids. 

Loloh, to feed animals, to stuff with food. Kvbo di loloh ku hu-ut b&unang nguyahan , 
the buffaloes were fed with bran which had salt in it. 

Loloh kebo, name of a plant. Eaphidophora laura. 

Lololken, to stick out, to cause to project. Letah na di lololkvn, he stuk out his tongue. 

Loiong, blind, unable to see, though the eyelids are open and the eyes appear perfect. 

Lolongkro, a ravine on the face of a mountain; a gully, a chasm. 

Lolong'ok, the door at the back of a native house. The door at the Goah. 

Lorn a, an intimate friend. 

Lone her, loosened, shaking as the handle of any instrument; getting loose or detached. 

Long, a cage- word made use of in Pantuns. Long kanchana , a golden cage. 

Long, a squib; an instrument consisting of a bambu tube for firing off moistened gun- 
powder. (Chinese. Used at Batavia.) 

Longlongan, spirits or fairies who take away our goods without our knowledge. 

Longsong, speedy, quick, expeditious. 

Longsor, to give, to present with. 

L o n j o n g , long and even , said of a stone ; a slab of a stone. 

L on tar, name of a palm tree, from which in some parts of the country much toddy is 
drawn. Borassus Flabelliformis. The Javanese in East Java , call this tree Siwalan , 
and apply lontar merely to the leaves. Siwalan may still be Hindu, Siwa y the god 
so called, alan, C. 49 an ornament^ the ornament of Siwa. It is generally supposed 
that the original name of this palm was Rontal> but that the initial and final letters 
have been transposed. Ron is said to be an old Polynesian name for leaf- and on, 
Bali , Don means leaf which is evidently a contraction of Dahu-an ^ Don , see voce 
Daun. Tal is Tala, C. 229 the Palmyra tree. Dontal is thus the leaf '- Palmy ratree , 
on the leaves of which, in former times, the natives used to write, and by a slight 
inaccuracy of understanding the original words , they have transferred to the tr e* , a 
name which in its original only strictly applied to the leaves. (According to Gericke 
also the name of the tree in Javanese and Malay. In Bali also. The leaves are in 
common use on Bali and in some parts of the interior of Java as the only writing 
material Fr). 

Lontii, a harlot, a whore, a prostitute. (Jav. «twi™»m Lonlc id.) 

Lopak, to plate, to cover with a plate of metal, especially silver or gold. 

Lopang, name of a creeper with deeply scolloped leaf, and rough to the feel; Cower 

white; fruit round and red, but not eaten on account of its bitterness. 
Lorcng, striped, streaked, as some animals, dogs, tigers &c. (Jav. Ltreng according to 

Gericke, but there also is heard mac/tan loreng , the striped tiger Fr.) 

33 



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258 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Loro kidul, generally called Nyai Loro kidul, the beautiful lady of the South. Is a fa- 
bulous personage to whom the Javanese attach much mysterious importance. She is 
the spirit of the mysterious Southern ocean whom the natives fancy they can consult 
on grand occassions of emergency. Her abode is supposed to be in the grotto of Man- 
chingan in the territory of Jugyakarta. (She is also known at Bali, and is a form of 
the consort of Siva. Her abode being placed in the South is a token more of the 
Hindus, at least partly, settling first on the South coast of Java. Fr). 

Los, the idiomatic expression of going; to go; the act of going. Los ka saw ah ngurusan 
chai na, he went to the sawah to look after the water. Los sia pulang , go you and 
return. 

Loteng, a loft, a garret; more especially in a European built house. (Jav. Batav. idem). 

Lowih, more, in excess. Lowih teuyn, far too much. Kajhm lowih kejo, asal ulah 
kurang lauk> never mind there being to much boiled rice, as long as there is meat 
to eat with it: a common native witticism. Lowih is also used to form a comparative 
degree. Lowih hade , better , more good. Lowih panjang , longer , more long. (Jav. 
Luwih. Kawi Lewih. Mai. LZbih). 

Lowihan, to give more, to make an addition. 

Loyog, going away without permission or asking leave; going carelessly away. Ka mana 
loyog na, wither has he made his escape. 

Luah, spittle, siliva. 

Luahan, to spit upon. 

Luang, without, deprived of, having the want of, missing. Tilok luang balanja, he is 
never without pocket money. To luang pox, never a day goes past without it; never 
missing a day. 

Luar, outside, without, beyond. Luaran pager, outside the fence. Di luar imah, outside 
the house Di luar, outside, without. Ka luar, towards the outside; left any service 
or employ. Come out! 

Lubang, a fresh water eel. Common in mountain rivers, where it nestles in holes or ca- 
vities in the banks. 

Luchut, to slip or drop out of place. To get loose. Same as Lochot. 

Lud^ung and Ludeungan, bold , fearless. To ludeung , I dare not ; I am afraid. 

Ludi, done out of, swindled, something lost or taken from us, dished. 

Lugag-logog, knocking gawkily about; strolling about without any apparent occupation. 
(Jav. Legeg and l&gog , being dumb from astonishment). 

Lugai, with the hand open; with the fingers stretched out To bisa lugai I cannot open 
my hand (from something being the matter with the fingers- so stiff as not to open). 

Lugudur, to roll along in mass ; as earth which is saturated with water or rain , and 
slips from its position , as in a dam or hill side. Lugudur bai jSfcma , the people ad- 
vanced in a thick mass. 

Luhur, high, elevated; top, upper side or point. Gv,nung luhur, a high mountain. Di 



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AND ENGLISH. 259 

luhur gunung , on the top of the mountain. Di luhur , on the top , above. 

Luis, sleek and clean. 

Lak, the idiomatic expression to indicate anything bending down or curving round like a 
hoop. A bend, a twist. See Ng§luk> Ptluk, T&luk. Sabraha luk deui iyo chat manan 
daik datang, how many more bends are there in this river before we arrive. 

Luku, to plough; a plough. (Jav. Batav. Waluku. Luku is an abbreviation). 

Lukun, the quids of Seureuh tied up in a particular manner, which are carried and pre- 
sented by the parents of the man to the parents of an intended bride, when a mar- 
riage contract is agreed upon ; this is done in the ceremony of Ngalamar. 

Lukut, moss, any small mossy vegetable incrustation. 

Luluguh, the chief person, the leading man whom other follow. The chief ingredient in 
any compound. The original outlay. 

Luluh, to trample on and mix up; to knead. To trample on earth so as to knead it, in 
order to make a stiff homogenous clay for the purpose of making bricks or tiles. (Jav. 
Luluh , melted; Luluwan, clay, wherefrom bricks are made). 

Lu luhur, a progenitor who has become deifyed. This idea still adheres to the Sunda 
people from ancient pagan times, that their progenitors were a sort of demi-gods, and 
that they have still a supernatural influence over human actions. The word is derived 
from Luhur , high , elevated. (The same idea as on Bali prevails about the Pitara , the 
ancestors, who are called also Buyut. Fr). 

L u 1 u i , to prepare ketan rice by putting it in a bit of bambu which is then stuck into the 
fire or among embers to cook. The bambu burns but the rice is withdrawn in due 
time properly cooked. 

Lulumbungan, to catch fish by piling up aheap of stones in the river, amongst which 
the fish creep, mostly small ones. At intervals a large casting net is thrown over the 
heap of stones and the fish secured. The Etymon of this word — Lumbung , is in Ma- 
lay and Javanese, a granary , but is not used in Sunda. 

Lulup, to steep in mud, as is done with some barks preparatory to making them into 
string or cords, which process renders the material durable. Tali lulup, is string so 
treated. (Jav. Lulup, a string, or cord made of the bark of the Waru-tree, from 
which a kind of rough clothing is made. Gericke.) 

Lulurung, an avenue , the passage between two rows , as of planted tr£es or the like. 

Lulut, a fine chain, as for watches &c. Fine gold or silver chain. 

Lumaku, to have employment, work or occupation. (Derived from Laku in the common 
Javanese way). 

Lumampu, to exert oneself; to do anything for a livelyhood. (Cf. Jav. Lampu and Ma- 
lay Lampoh or Lampau). 

Lumar, name of a sort of fungus growing on old trees or rotten wood and which shines 
bright in the dark. Called also Supa lumar, the lumar fungus. 

Lumar, dim- sighted, obscure or perverted in vision. 



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260 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Lumayan, a trifle, something better than nothing. Lumayan bai di here kulitna, he 
gave me the hide, which was better than nothing. 

Lumayung, said of fruit which hangs invitingly ripe on trees. 

Lumbrah, with common consent; of one accord. Notorious. What is usual or customary. 
Lumbrah batur , what is usual with other people. 

Lumbur, a village, a collection of native houses. The final syllable Bur, poured out, 
dispersed, would seem to denote the spot from where the people poured out daily to 
their occupations. The urn is constructive, denoting the act of dispersing. Bar in the 
sense of dispersing or pouring out is heard in many words, as Lcbur, melted down 
as a metal (so that it can be poured out.) Tabur , poured out. Kabur, run away. Ma- 
bur, run away. Labur , to pour out, to start out- in the Malay of Java. 

This idea may have arisen among a people uniting in villiges for mutual defence, 
as the natural state of savages would be to live much apart, or every man in his pad- 
dy field, or where he had the means of getting his subsistance, where they probably 
lived in a Ranggon, which see- here and there, as is still the case with some of the 
ruder tribes on Borneo and Celebes. 

Lumbur , on the above supposition , would be the converse of the malay word Lum- 
bung, a granary, a Paddy store. The Bung in this sense is very probably heard in 
the word Bungkus, a parcel, a roll; Bumbung , a bambu for keeping anything in. 
Khnbung swollen, inflated. Jubung, a circle of mat work set in a boiling pan, to pre- 
vent the matter boiling over. Bung in these senses being indicative of containing, 
having capacity, and is again heard in the Sunda Lulumbungan , which probably is the 
w r ord , now in its simple sense of Lumbung only retained in Malay , but still indicating 
in Sunda- a place into which fish collect. 

That savage natives do not often, in the early stages of their existence collect 
into villages, may be learned from the present state of the ruder parts of Celebes. 
Captain van der Hart in his „Reize rondom het eiland Celebes 1854" says at Page 
70 when speaking of the Half ours of the East coast of Celebes — „ Their dwellings 
are made of bambu and wood, and all rest on the top of high posts, elevated above 
the ground. They are not collected in Kampongs (villages) but every one lives by him- 
self, scattered over the country, close to their Ladangs (Humahs), and as they have 
to change these every year, such also is the case with their dwellings". 

Lumeho, said of the pulp of a cocoanut which is still soft and young- hardly fit for use. 
(Cf. Lcho). 

Lumpat, to run away, to scamper off, to run hard. (Jav. Mai. Spring; malumpat, to 
spring). 

Lumping, a buffaloe hide, streched out and dried for use. 

Lumpuh, lame, crippled with disease, palsied, numb; having legs swollen with Elephan- 
tiasis. (Jav. Mai. idem). 

Lumpui, a small dwarf shurb, with red berries and broad leaf. It is said that when 



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AND ENGLISH. 261 

young women use this plant medicinally , it relaxes the female organs , and is used be- 
fore marriage. 

Lumuis, grown up as an animal; coming to maturity, and the hair of the skin getting 
smooth and shining. 

Lumur, a drinking glass, a tumbler. (From the Dutch Roemmer). 

Lumur, occurs in the expression Chukup lumur, to hush up an unpleasant business. 

Lumut, short moss or excrescences growing on wet stones, when long it is called Lukut. 
(Jav. Mai. idem). 

Lumut, the oily sliminess or slippery matter on fresh caught fish. (The same as the pre- 
ceding). 

Lunchat, to jump, to take a spring. (Cf. Lumpal). 

Lunglum, to sit on eggs like a hen, to brood eggs. 

Lungsar, stretched out at full length when lying down 

Lungsur, to start on* a journey, as a great man with many attendants. 

Luntak, cleared off as a debt; discharged- paid off. 

Luntur, to discharge colour like a piece of bad prints: loss of colour; washed out. 

Luput, in vain, no use trying. Not getting what we try for; to fail; to miss. 

Lurah, a head man, a chief over several villages, or a small district Ngrurah implies 
anything that casts a a shade- Palindungan , an umbrella; and also the vault of hea- 
ven. Ngrurah, Angrurdh, and Anglurah , are on Java Lurah, a chief of the 4th. class. 
Friederich on Bali: Batavian Transactions Vol. 23 Page 31. 

Luri, a beautiful, red, middle sized parrot brought from the Moluccos. (Another name 
used at Batavia is Kori). 

Lurung, a path, a lane, an avenue; a street. (Jav. Mai. idem). 

Luse, hungry, faint from want of food. (Cf. Lvsu). 

Lusean, the warp or threads lengthwise in a web of cloth. 

Lutung, the black monkey, Scmnopithecus Maurus. 

Lutung Kasarung, a character in the history o Pajajaran. See Kasarung. 

Luwer, muddy, opaque with dirt; said especially of muddy water. 

Luwer-leor, to wriggle as a snake moving along the ground. 

Luwuk, a place, a spot of ground. Nyambut sawah dua luwuk, to work sa walls in two 
places. Luwuk na hade gcusan imah, the spot is good for building a house on. Lu- 
wuk iyo ulah di kcbonan, do not make gardens in this place. 

Ma, mother, mamma. Amma, C. 44, a mother. Amama, C. Vol. 2. Page 372 mother. 

Ma, an expletive particle which has its force in composition, but admits of no definite 
translation. Imah na ma hade ', as to his house , it is good. It will often answer to the 
English expression- as far as, as to. Sia ma tilok visa bog ah urusan, as for you, you 
can never come right. Kalakuan nana eta ma to mCunang di wada , as far as his con- 
duct is concerned , you cannot find fault with it. Ma is also a constructive particle 
not only in Sunda but in most of the Polynesian languages, and is an inseparable 



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262 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

prefix giving a verbale power to a substantive or idiomatic expression , as Mabur , to 
run away, from Bur, which see. 
Ma-akham, burying ground, a place of interment for human beings; a cemetery. Ma- 

kam, arabic, place, situation. Makamken in Malay, to bury, to inter. (Arab. JJU-Va- 
qam remaining at a place; a place). 
Ma-ap, arabic, absolved, pardoned, excused. The word is in common use for asking 

pardon , or begging excuse in occurrences of every day life. Pardon me ; Excuse it. (c-iU*)- 

M a b o k , drunken , intoxicated , as with strong drink. Made giddy , deprived of your right 
senses by any deleterious matter taken into the stomach. Exhausted, giddy from fa- 
tigue or exposure to the hot sun. Perhaps it has a common origin with the Bo or 
crude part of the verb Bonowa, to drink, Bee Lambrick's Singhalese grammar Page 
85. The ma prefixed is the Polynesian constructive particle. (Mai. /^to Mdboq). 

Mabur, to run away, to skulk off; to make off without leave. (Jav. To fly, to get off 

quickly). 
M a c h e t , close fitting , said of clothes which fit close to the body , as sometimes worn by 

native coxcombs or belles. 
Madang, to eat, to make a meal. To take a snack after the great meal of the day 

from remnants. See Mumuluk, which is to take a snack, nearer the next great meal. 

(®»aoi\ Madang, Jav., to eat i^ice). 
Madang, name of a tree, a variety of Huru or Litsaea. The Madang, Litsaea Elliptic a 

is covered with blood red leaves, when they first evolve, but turn green after a few 

days. 
Madat, a preparation of opium, boiled down to a black substance resembling treacle; 

in this state it is sold by the opium farmers and ready for smoking. (Jav. Mai. idem). 
Madet, pressed together; forced down in close contact as by pressure. Especially said of 

earth which has been well trodden down. 
Madion, name of an inland residency of Java. Madya, C. 512 the middle, centre. Yon, 

C. 576, a caste, a race; also the the Elu form of Yawana or arabic. Quere also of 

Java, and thus „the centre of Java". (Written in Jav. ^if!^*^ Madiyun). 

Madraseh, arabic, a college or academy tor learning the Mohammedan religion. QL ^ 

Madrasat, gymnasium, academia, collegium). 
Madu, Honey. Madhu, C. 513, honey, the nectar of flowers. (Scr. Madhu). 
Maduk, hit against, coming in contact with, clashing, mutually opposing. 
Madura, an island next last to Java and forming part of the residency of Sourabaya. 

Madhura, C. 514 from madhu, honey, ra, to have or get. Sweetness, the sweet taste; 

sweet, pleasing, agreeable, liked. [Madhura, Scr. sweet taste , sweetness ; adject, sweet; 

pleasant). 
Magah, to teach, to instruct, to have an idea of, to entertain opinion. Magah na ka kufa 



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AND ENGLISH. 263 

hade 9 his instructions to me were good. Utah sok magah man6h, D'ont be surprised. 
D'ont be thinking to yourself (that you are not wrong). 

Magalan, name of the chief place in the residency Kadu. Magul> C. 504», the Elu form 
of Mangold, fortunate, happy, auspicious, festive; of the marriage ceremony. Alan, 
C. 49. an ornament. Magul-alan auspicious ornament. Or maga, C. 504, the Elu form 
of marga, a road, a path. Maga-dlan road ornament Both or either name may point 
out to some connection with the approaches to the neighbouring grand temple of Boro 
Budor. The name of the place is sometimes spelt Magalang , and also sometimes Ma- 
g a la an. (Bhagelana or Baglana is part of the Mahratti country. Might this Indian 
name have been transferred to a part of Java ? Magalan could be in this case the same 
as the name of the residency of Bagalen , which is proximate to Kadu. See Bagalen. Fr.) 

Mag as, to cut away the seedy strings from the end of the fruit stem of the Kawung Palm, 
preparatory to obtaining the Toddy. 

Mager, to fence in; to put up a fence of any kind, to shut out, to preclude. See Pager. 

Ma go an, fixed and firm in some place. Unmoved, not changed. 

Ma gut, caught, arrested by catching against anything. Impeded in its course by striking 
against some object. 

Mah, in composition seems to indicate a place, a spot. As Imah y a house; probably de- 
rived from Diarriy to dwell, to put up, to be quiet- this Diam, however, is not Sun- 
da but Malay- and Mah. The / in imah may be derived from the Singhalese Innawa 
to sit, to be at rest, to stand. The final nawa is constructive. HumaA, an upland Pad- 
dy plantation , from JHua or Bua fruit , and Mah. RZumah , an abandoned Paddy 
plantation, after the crop of Paddy has been got off it; the meaning of RZu is not 
very apparent, as it does not occur as a separate word in the Sunda language, but 
we have the following. Reu-ai, having many children, prolific. R&uneuky pregnant, 
with child. Renting , springing up; so that RZumah, may be the place of prolificness, 
from the vigour with which the native jungle regains its ascendency when left to itself. 

Mah a, Great, eminent; very, extremely. Malta , C. 526, Great, large, big. 

Mahabharata, C. 528, from Maha 9 great, Bharata, the poem so called from Bhara, 
C. 491. a weight, a load, a burthen. The name of the great epic poem so much ce- 
lebrated amongst the Hindus; so called in allusion to the fable of the Rishes putting 
it in a scale and weighing it against the four Vedas, when it was found to outweigh 
them. 

Mahadewa, C. 530. Maha, great, dewa , a god. A name of Siwa. 

Mahad^wi, C. 530, the goddess Durga, the wife of Siwa. 

Mahal, dear, high priced; scarce. (Mai. idem). 

Mahi, enough, sufficient; equal to, to have in one's power to do anything. Chai na aytunah 
ma At, there is now enough water. Budak ij/o mohal mahi ka kolot, It is but a youth , 
and not likely to be able to contend with an old man. 



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264 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Mahomet, vide Mohammad. 

Mahugi, to make love- presents; to carry presents to the intended one. 

Maido, to disbelieve, not to put trust in. Sok maido lamun ka kula y he never believes 
-what I say. See Paido. 

Main, to play, to have motion as a piece of machinery. To play for money, to gamble. 
To play- in the sense of seeking amusement, is not main in Sunda, as in Malay, 
but Ulin. 

Ma is a, a title applied to the ancient chiefs or kings on Java, both at Janggala and 
Pajajaran. As Maisa Lalean occurs at the former place Raffles Vol 2 Page 94 and 
Browijaya Maisa Tandraman occurs at the latter. Raffles Vol. 2 page 96. The word 
means buff aloe. Mahisn., C. 533, a buflaloe. Mahisha, C. 533 from Malta , to wor- 
ship; a buflaloe, the emblem and vehicle of Yama\ the name of an Asura or demon 
slain by Durga. Mahishi, C 533. a female buflaloe; the wife of a king, but especial- 
ly the one who has been consecrated or crowned. A queen. 

Mahisa or kZbo , both words implying buflaloe, are ancient appellations of the 
Kshatryas on Java. Friederich , Bat Trans. Vol. 23 page 21. 

Maisa, is a title of some of the Chiefs in early Javanese history. Thus we have Kuda 
or Maisa Lalean , to whom one of the discrepant accounts ascribes the foundation of 
Pajajaran. He is said to have tamed the buflaloe to the yoke , from which circumstance 
he was called Maisa or the buflaloe, whilst his decendants went by that of Munding , 
which is the buflaloe in colloquial Sunda. Maisa, however, is no doubt the MaJwsa of 
Clough Page 534, from Maha, great , and Isa> Lord, or god, and as such an appel- 
lation of Siwa, which cognomen had been applied to a distinguished prince who had 
either founded a new empire or taught the people the use of agriculture. Maisa, a 
name of Siwa , might have been applied to the buflaloe as taking the place of the sa- 
cred bull of that deity , which is still observable in some of the old monumental ruins 
in Eastern Java. 

Mahesa , however the case may be , passed for a buflaloe in ancient Javanese times, 
thus we have Mahesasura, the demon in the form of a buflaloe slain by the Hindu 
goddess Durga. 

Maja, a large forest tree, with reticulate and aromatic fruit. Aromadendron elegans. 

Maja, a liane which produces a round fruit of the size of a man's fist, Crataeva marme- 
los , has a hard shell , but contains- a soft inside , which can be easily removed like the 
contents of an egg. The word has a Sanscritical sound, and from the nature of the 
fruit may be so called from Majja> C. 505. marrow, pith, sap. From this Maja, 
the old capital of Java — Majapahit, derived its name (MajapaMt is a translation of 
Wilica-ti/cta, the Scr. name of the same place. Wilica is Aegle marmelos, likta is the 
same as the Polynesian pahit, bitter. Fr). 
Maja, used in the expression. Nista, maja, utama, three methods of warning which are 
considered by the natives as a sufficient display of patience. The Maja in this case 



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AND ENGLISH. 2G5 

appears to be a form of majakklia, C. 505, the middle, the centre- thus a first war- 
ning, a middle warning, and a final warning, with which its position in the aphorism 
corresponds. (Maja is here a corruption of madhya, middle. Cf. Oesana Bali in „Tijdschrift 
voor Ncderlandsch Indie 11 Vol. IX. Part. 3 pag. 340. Fr). 

Majakani, gall nutc, imported from Persia. Majja, C. 505, the marrow of the bones, 
pith, sap. Khani, C. 158 the Sun, 

Majapahit, the name of an Empire on Java, towards its eastern extremity, before the 
introduction of Mohammedanism. Majapahit has its name from Maja, the fruit Crataeva 
marmelos , and Pahit bitter , Raffles Vol 2 page 98. The date of the foundation of 
Majapahit was Anno Javae 1221, to which must be added 78 years giving A. D. 1299. 
It was destroyed on the introduction of Mohammedanism at the close of the 15 Century. 
The ruins and remains of Majapahit are still found near Mojokerto in the residency 
of Sourabaya. 

Majer, to have an idea, to be of opinion, to have an objection. Most commonly used along 
with Maneh, self, as majer maneh to make an objection, to suggest an idea. To bisa 
majer maneh he must comply, he can bring no objection, he can suggest no opposition. 

Majir, a female animal, especially a buffkloe, which will not breed, will not bear young, 
but being generally fat and in good condition is frequently chosen to slaughter. 

Maju, to go forward, to advance, to proceed. Majukajtro, to proceed inwards. To tulus 
maju fca teuicizung , the going into the forest did not take place. (Jav. Batav. idem.) 

Maju and Majuhan, to eat greedily, to guzzle. (Kawi Majuh, to eat Gericke.) 

M a j u m , oakum , made either of untwisted rope , or of the scrapings of dry bambus. (Chinese.) 

Maka, let it be, cause to be. Maka kajauh, cause it to go to a distance. Maka luhur , 
let it be high. Utah maka ka mana mana, maka deukeut , D'ont get yourself out of 
the way, remain near- or more literally d'ont cause yourself to go any where, let 
you be near. (Jav. Mongka „,**,, *n and; now. Mai. Maka, and.) 

Makasar, a nation and town on the west coast of Celebes, called by the natives them- 
selves manghasara. 

Makaya, to excercise a trade or calling, to do something to gain a livelyhood. (From 
Kay a, Jav. goods, means. Mai. rich.) 

M a k b u 1 , conceding , a prayer granted — getting what we pray for. (Arabic , J*jJU maqbul , 

acceptus, gratus.) 
Makul, appropriate, convenient, fitted for the purpose , suitable. Makul, aribic, just, rea- 

s ' c 

sonable. Crawfurd. ((JJU*c Ma" qui.) 

Makuta, a crown, a diadem. Makuta , C. 503, a crown, a headdress, a tiara. (Set. Ma- 
kuta and Mukuta). 

Mai, corpus delicti in law questions. Some tangible proof of a crime or offence commit- 
ted, as the goods stolen, the weapou with which a wound was given, or the like. (Per- 

8 " 

haps JU, Mdl, property). 

34 



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266 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Malabar, name of a volcanic mountain in the Preanger Regencies, South of Bandong. 
The word does not occur singly in Sunda, but may be the word Lobar as occurrvin^ 
in Leber-labar or Labar-leber, running over in all directions, on all sides as a Volcano 
might discharge its ashes or lava, first on one side, and then on the other, all round 
the crater. Ma would then be the usual Sunda constructive particle, giving the word 
a verbal form. In Sunda is also used Bar-bur bai which sec. (Malawar, Kawi according 
to Gericke, to spread every where, to cover, to make dirty all together). 

Malah, rather, by preference. Mohal di b6rc ', malah di balangkcn ha chai, as if he will 
give it to us , he would rather fling it into the river. (Batav. Mahihan idem. Jaw Ma- 
lah, besides, and also, even. Mai. £[^ Mnlah, so that, till- that, till so far. Fr.). 

Mai ah -Mai ah, a duplication of the above word by which it gains force. Used in an ar- 
gument showing an objection. Aing leumpang , malah-malah di gcbuga?i , I go , I would 
rather have a thrashing. Malah-malali sia to Umch sakali, on the contrary you never 
said a word. 

Malaka, name of a tree, Emblica officinalis. 

Malaka, a town in the straits of that name The name is familiar with the natives as 
connected with many objects which are thought best as coming from that place. The 
town was founded by the Malays in A. D. 1252, and conquered by the Portuguese 
in A. D. 1511. 

Ma lam, bee's wax; any adhesive waxy matter. Malam Sircum, such wax prepared by 
ants, a sort of lac. In malay this is called gala-gala, which also means rosin. Ma- 
lum is a dry, caustic, cant expression for food; grub. Hade malam na, he served 
good grub- something that will stick to a man's ribs. 

Malam is of Sanscrit origin. Mr. Friederich writes me- mala (masculine — neuter 
malam) and gives explanations from the Sanscrit which are word for word the same as in 
Clough 521 , who says- according to Sanscrit authorities it is derived from mala, to 
hold, to contain, in the body. Any excretion of the body, as serum, semen, blood, 
marrow, urine, faeces, ear-wax, nails, phlegm, tears, rheum, and sweat; sin; dirt, 
filth; dreg, sediment; rust; and Mr. F. adds camphor. 

Malang, name of a fine romantic mountainous district in the residency of Pasuruan, con- 
taining many remains of Hindu Antiquity. 

Malang, athwart, across, barring the way. The converse of mujiir which see. Malam] 
jalan, across the road. Malang ntrnfah, where something is athwart in the middle. 
A not unfrequcnt name for a place. Malang chai, athwart the stream. (Mai. Malang , adver- 
sity; unfortunate, of bad success. Jav. Alang and Malang the same as in Sunda. Fr.) 

Malarat, indigent, destitute; labouring under privations. (Jav. idem. Arab. Mai. madlarat i^ 

dammage, injury; originally perditio.) 
Malay u, Malay. Basa malayu, the malay language: orang malaiju, a malay man or 
woman. Malayu in Javanese and Balinese means- to run away, to be a fugitive- and 



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AND ENGLISH. 267 

is supposed to have been given to emigrants from the interior of Sumatra, who 
settled in various parts of the Indian Archipelago, founding the old kiugdom of 
Singapore. It is supposed that these emigrants got the name of the Fugitives from their 
wandering and marauding habits. They thereby contrived to make their language the 
Basa Malayu the lingua franca of the Archipelago. 

Malayuken, to conduct into the presence of. 

Malegi, a palace. Maligawa, C. 540. a palace. (Jav. Malige> the throne, the golden seat; 
a cupola. Mai. J3U rn&ligei, palace, princely dwelling; the place in the palace where 

the sleeping rooms are.) 
Maleikat, arabic, angels, an angel. The word is the arabic plural of Malik, which the 
Javanese do not use except in the expression Malik al mnut, the angel of death, 

which however is entirely arabic. /££f QU Maltukat plur. of CS L* possession. Malak-uLmaut 

ought to be malik \jSl+ jiossessor; rex.) 

Male la, occurs only in the expression Chadas maUbx, an indurated sedimentary rock. 
See Chadas. (Jav. Malela, shining black ground, or sand. Mai. Kawi steel.) 

Mai em, is properly Malay for night. In Sunda it indicates the nights from the 20th to 
the 30th of the Picasa or Fasting month , when the prayers in the mosque are redou- 
bled, and the Koran expounded. 

Mai em an, to keep up the ceremonies of the Matem nights. 

Maleng'ek, inwardly vexed, provoked, feeling dissatisfied. (Batav. To fel eenvy). 

Males, to rebound, to fly back, as a spring. To retaliate. See Hates. 

Malik, arabic, a king. Used in connection with Scripture history. (cjXo and {^J]\^ Malik and 

Malik). 
Malim, arabic, a man skilled in any science or occupation. It is usually applied to men 
who are wise in the construction of canals of irrigation, and whose services are in 
great requisition. Malima, C. 540, the science of navigation. The Singhalese have, no 

doubt, derived this word from the Arabs. (From JLc Alima, to know.) 

Ma ling, to steal, to purloin. (Jav. Mai. idem). 

Malingping, a slope , a declivity of the land. Malingping ti kater , on the northern slope. 

Mali pi r, to skirt along the edge; to walk or pass along the boarder. Malipir kebon, to 

sneak round a garden (as if looking to get in and steal something). Malipir chai, to 

follow the windings of a river. Malipir lambaran, to creep round by the tie- beam (of 

a roof). See Pipir. 
Mali wis, the wild duck of Java. Anas Arcuata, of Horsfield; Dendrocygna arcuata, of 

Cuvier. Called in Malay Balibis, Marsden Page 46. 
Malulu, assuredly, clearly, evidently; quite true, indubitably. (Milulu } Kam, true, indeed). 



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268 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Mam, to cat, to take food; a rather cavalier expression. Musim pecheklik, owoh gtusan 
mam , it is the season of scarcity of food , and we have nothing to eat. (Batav. Used 
in adressing children). 

Mama, an uncle or aunt, indifferently whether younger or older than the parents of 
the person to whom it applies, an uncle or aunt in general, without reference to age. 
See Uah and Paman. Mama, C. 537, a maternal uncle. A father's sister's husband. 

Ma mah, to chew, to macerate in the mouth. (Jav. Mai. idem. Cf. Mam , in stead of maham). 

Mam aha, to assassinate, to secretly make away with, to murder. 

Mam a la, anything or person lying in the way, so as to impede or render unsafe the pas- 
sage. Said of a wild animal which makes a road unsafe. Mala, C. 521, according to 
Elu authorities (mra to die?) a Vedda, a forester, one who lives by his bow. Dead, 
deceased, extinct. 

Mamangsen, an inkstand; something to put ink or mangsi in. 

Mamanik, the poraum Adami, the. projection on a man's throat; also the upper part of 
the throat, close to the root of the tongue. 

Mamarakan, name of a creeper in the jungle. 

Mam ay u, to recover the appetite after a fit of illness. Feeding greedily after illness has gone 
off. Picking up the flesh. 

Mampu, having the means; possessed of property. To mampu mayar , unable to pay. Je- 
IZma mampu, sl man with means. (Batav. idem.) 

Man a, where, in what place. Di mana, in what spot; where. Kamana, to where; where 
are you going. The word is often rendered forcible by duplication. Dl mana mana ge 
sia mohal bisa urns, in whatever place you live, you will never do any good. (Mai. 
idem. Jav. he, that; he there, that there; such, such a one). 

Mana, meaning, signification, sense. Marsden says it is arabic, but it is also Singhalese: 
Mana, C. 514 to know, to understand. (Arabic Jut* Ma'ni, significatio , sensus; the 
Ceylonese word to be derived from the Sanscrit root man to think. Fr.) 

Man an, before, than, more than. A word formed of mana, where, and the constructive 
particle an. This suggests an idea of comparison. Where of the (two or number). 
Manan is used in forming the comparative degree. Ljo hade manan itu, this is better 
than that. Daik manan, the more preferable; I would rather have this alternative. Siji 
dcui manan maid, we must have one more before we have enough. See Pang. 

Mancha-nagara, the provinces of a kingdom, which are at a distance from the chief 
seat of government. Mancha, C 506 derived from machi to be high or tall- a bed, 
a bedstead; a plat form, a scaffold; an elevated shed raised on bambus in a cornfield 
&c, where a watchman is stationed to protect the corn from cattle , birds , wild beasts 
&c; a sort of throne or chair of state, or the platform on which it is raised. Our 
Mancha-nagara , are therefore outlying districts, or district watch stations, where an 
officer is put to watch the interests of the sovereign. (I suppose mancha to be derived 
from pancha, five, the five (outside) towns. Fr.) 



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AND ENGLISH. 269 

Manchak, ground disposed in consecutive flats, like the steps of stairs. 

Manchal, said of water which rises in a flood and overflows the land. Chai na manchal 
ka darat, the water rose and overflowed the land. To jump up, to hop. 

Manchal, said of a woman who goes to the priest and asks to be divorced form her 
husband. Probably a simile taken from the foregoing word and expressive of an un- 
natural course of events. 

Manchas, a method of taking fish, by enticing them into an enclosure, which can be 
shut up when the fish are in, so as to prevent escape, when they may easily be groped out. 

Man chat, to climb up, to scramble up, to ascend. 

Mane her, and mancheran, said of the sun when in the zenith. Right over head. 
Matapoi mancheran t&ng"ang''ni, sun stood right in the zenith or overhead; exactly noon. 

Manching, to fish for news, to try to get information slyly. The Malay word Punching, 
to fish with a hook, is not in use in Sunda, as the people use instead Uscp; but the 
derivative simile is of frequent occurence. 

Manchirang, the flower of the TZpus or Geanthus Coccineus; it grows not upon the 
stem of the plant, but from the root, and shows itself sessile on the ground near the 
root of the Tepus; it is a pretty scarlet and yellow flower. 

Manchuh, presents made to the parents of an intended wife by way of securing her. 

Mane hung, the spatha of a Palm fruit, the case which envelops the unexpanded spa- 
dix. When these are dry, they are collected and being tied together, serve as flam- 
beaux. 

Manchung, a hooked nose. What is called a Roman nose. 

Man da la, a Sanscrit word often used in the composition of proper names. Tt is evidently 
Sanscrit word mandala, C. 507, the disk of the sun or moon; an orb, a ball, a 
globe, a wheel ; a province , a region , a district; a assemblage; a sort of mystical diagram. 

Man da la giri, is the Pantun name by which the Jasinga mountain, usually called the 
Gunung Gede , is known ; it is thus the mountain of the province , or the orb mountain , 
from not forming part of a chain. 

Mandapa, a porch, a portico, an open hall. (Scr. In Javanese Pandoppo). 

Mandeg, to hault, to stop, to cease. (Jav. Balin. Advg, Madtg , standing, exercising power , 
reigning). 

Mandi, to bathe, to dip the body in water. Nanaica, C. 318 bathe; Xanta, to bathe. 
Nanda % C. 308, the tank of Sakra in the garden of Swarga or the region of the 
gods , in which that god is accustomed to bathe. (Mai. idem. Bal. Mandns. Kw. Madyus. 
Jav. Adus or Dus). 

Mandi an, to bathe or wash another person, as a child. To wash a dead person prepara- 
tory to burial. 

Mandor, a native headman, a village chief. A foreman over work. It is the Portu- 
guese Mandhar , to command. 

Mandh, self, one's own self. Often your, his, her. Manfh na , mij ownself, your own 



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270 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

self, his ownself. Lamun ht maneh di boro, tilok tajyanggih, if I go myself towards 
it, I can never meet it. Maneh na to hayang? D'ont you yourself long for some. 
Saha ngaran manehna , what is your name. 

Maneuh, to remain stationary. Bumi mantuh, name of a portion of the Mountain of 
Jasinga, means either that the Earth is stationary, that it has not been broken down 
by earthquakes or volcanic eruptions ? or that there was there formerly a stationary resi- 
dence (of some great man or of mountain genii). 

M a n g ' a n , an aspect or facing of the Naga, as connected with old superstitions. This aspect of 
Mangan is towards the north and the period of the day is between 9 and 10 o'clock A. M. 

Ma n g 1 en, to have an affection for, to feel tenderly for; the word is derived from the 
word Ang'cny the heart, the disposition, which sec, prefixed with the verbal Ma, and 
is thus litterally heart-felt. (Any en, Kw. heart. Anfeti-nfen, Jav. to meditate , to have 
in mind] to desire). 

Mang'ender, name of a liane, the leaves of which being scorched, are used in place of 
Dclan or Trasi in Sambcl. It is the Salacia oblongifolia. 

Manggah, the Manggo tree. The wel known Indian fruit of that name, Mangifera In- 
dica , of which there are many varieties. Amba , C. 43. a mango. 

The following is a list of different varieties of manggah. 1 Manggah Bapang — 2 
Chcngkir — 3 Chupu — 4 Daging — 5 Dodol — 6 Endog — 7 Kalapa — 8 Kukulu — 
D Marunda — 10 Pari — 11 Sengir — 12 Scngir gadung — 13 Udang — 14 Wangl. 

The following six varieties are also botanically manggahs, but the natives never 
prefix that word to them — 15 Bembeni or Gandarusa — 16 Kadeper — 17 Kawini 
IS Kemang — 19 Limus. 

Man g gala, a word often used in proper names, and is no doubt Manggala, C. 505 hap- 
piness, good fortune, lucky, auspicious. 

Man g gale, to refuse to obey orders. To be disobedient 

M a n g g a r , the fruit branch of a palm tree , especially of a Cocoanut tree ; the stem to 
which the fruit adheres in clusters. When the nuts have been removed , and the stem 
is dry and falls from the tree, it is called Baralah. 

M a n g g i h , to meet , to come in contact with , to observe. Ma?iggih mating di jalan , met 
a tiger on the road. Ari manggih buah asak , a la, if you find , or observe any ripe fruit, 
take it. (Panggih, Jav. , finding, encountering). 

Manggu, The celebrated fruit of the Archipelago, the mangosteen, called in Malay 
Manggia. Garcinia mangostana. This tree grows wild in the mountain forests of Jasin- 
ga Estate, south of the Chiberan towards the Gunung Kt-ndang. It grows grouped 
with the primeval forest, evidently naturally, and is seldom thicker than a man's thigh. 

M a n g g u n g , upon , above , particularly said of a superior. Manggung lautan , above the 
sea, hovering over the sea. To be seated or placed relatively higher than some other 
person. Manggung adhipati, sitting higher than the Adhipati, which is improper. (Jav. 
Panggung , a ctipola , a spire). 



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AND ENGLISH. 271 

Mangka, the same as Haka, which see. 

Mangkala, at what time, when, now if. Mangkala panas, IS — ch at what time it becomes 
hot, it melts. Mangkala bijil, laju hibcr, now if it comes out, il immediately flies 
away. Kala, C. 120. time, period. 

Mangkalan, to remove temporarily to any place for the purpose of some work. Mang- 
kalan di AumaA, to remove to the humah while the paddy is growing. Mangkalan di 
lumbur batnr , to take up one's quarters in a neighbour's village. See Pangkalan. 

Mangkaluk, people, persons, fellows. A rather cavalier designation. It is the Arabic 

Mak/tluk, creatures, created beings. (Arab. ,jJb^ Makhluq). 

Mangkered, drawn together, shrunk within a small compass. Said of cloth which shrinks, 
or of a swelling or wound in the flesh which contracts. 

Mangku, to take on the lap, to cause to sit on one's lap. See Pangku. 

Mangku Burni, a title for a person of high and noble birth; literally the man who 
holds the earth in his lap. Out of Java, in Malay states, the Mangku Bumi is the 
prime minister of State. 

Mangku Hat, a title of distinction. One of the former emperors of Java was so called. 
Mangku , to carry on the lap. Rat the world, or country. 

Mangkuk, to live at another man's house, and on his good nature; to sponge upon; 
to be perched with. To familiarly go and take up your quarters with any one. 

Man g' lid, name of a large forest tree, with good sound, durable wood. 

Mangparang, lying on the ground athwart or across your road; lying loose upon some- 
thing else, athwart or across it, but not bound or fixed. 

Mangsa, season, period of year; also especially of fruit ripening, fruit-season. Tac/ian 
datang ka mangsa na, it has not yet come to its period of the year. Sala mangsa, the 
interval between two seasons of the year. Mangsa is most probably a corruption of 
masa, C. 540, a month. See mangsi formed in same way from masi. 

Mangseuh, to go forward, to advance, especially in the teeth of danger, as to attack a 
wild beast or an enemy. To go forward to attack. 

Mangsi, iuk, any black liquid prepared for writing or making black marks, as the black 
matter in the native carpenter's lining apparatus. Masi y C. 525 ink. Formed in same 
way as mangsa, from tnasa, which see. 

Mani, semen virile. (Arab. \^ Mini). 

Mani-is, name of a hill on Jasinga. Probably means the hill of cool breezes, from 7i-w, cool. 

Manik Maya, the delusive gem, a romantic account of the origin of worldly things. 
Name of a Javanese work of which a translation is given in vol. 2 of Raffles , appendix 
II. being a sort of romantic account of ancient times. Mani, manikyaija, 536, a gem, 
a jewel, any precious stone. Mat/a, C. 537 philosophical illusion, idealism. Unreality 
of all worldly existence. Thu3 the „ Gem of Illusion" 1 . 



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272 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Manikem, a jewel, a precious stone. 

Man is, sweet, of pleasant taste. (Mai. idem). 

Man is, the first day of an ancient Javanese division of times,- a week of five days, which 
are called Mania , Pahing , Port, Wage, Kaliwon. Still used in Jampes or incantations. 
Manis is the first day of the moon , but as the moon is seldom seen when only one 
day old, the natives can seldom accurately tell what is the right day. 

Manisan, sweetmeats. 

Manjarakah, name of a tall reedy grass, with numerous grains, or seeds hanging at 
the end, terminal on the stem. 

Manjar^, the spatha or unexpended pod or sheath, which contains the flowering parts of 
a cocoa nut. 

Manjing, sufficient in number or quantity. Complete, full up. 

Man tang, small yams, a native potatoe. Also called BoUd. Convolvulus Batatas. Called 
in Javanese and Malay KatiUi and Ubi Jaxca. 

Man tar d, during the time that, in the intermediate time, whilst; unawares, suddenly. 
Mantare kula ha cliai , whilst I went to the river. Mantare ka kebon , imah kahuruan , 
in the intermediate time of going into garden , the house was burnt. Kadatangan man- 
tare, some one came upon me unawares, unexpectedly-before some other act could 
be accomplished. (Skt. Antara, interval. Locative Antare, in the interval). 

M ant as, just having done some act; coming from doing. M ant as nyabrang , having just 
crossed the river. Mantas nyatu, having just done eating. Mantas tiimah, just come 
from home. (Cf. Lantas). 

Mantega, Butter. Manteiga, Portuguese for Butter. 

M a n t o g , absconded, run away, made off, bolted. Ka mana mantog na, where has he absconded to ? 

Mantra, incantion, charm, secret prayers. Mantra C. 517, a mystical verse or incanta- 
tion ; a formula sacred to any individual deity. 

Mantri, a petty official on Java. The official assistant of a native chief. Mantri kopi, 
such an official charged with looking after coffee gardens. Mantri kantor , a petty official 
attached to a Resident's office, mantri, C. 517, a minister, a counsellor, an adviser; 
a king's minister; one of the names of Brihaspati , tutor of the gods. This title has thus 
lost caste on Java, and become degraded. 

Manuk, a bird, a fowl of the air. (Jav. idem). 

Manuk apung, a lark; see apung. 

Manuk Biru, a beautiful blue bird, found only in some districts among the mountains. 
It is found about the base of the Gunung Gcde on Jasinga. Biru is properly Malay 
for blue , but passes current in the name of this bird. Irena Puella ; also Edolius Puella. 

Manuk Greja, from Igrija in Portuguese, Church, literally thus, „the church bird , \ 
The common house sparrow, which has no doubt been introduced by Europeans. It 
is not found even every where in Java , though plentifull about the towns of Europe- 
ans on the tea coast. It does not exist at Jasinga only 45 pauls from Batavia. 



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AND ENGLISH. 273 

Manuk Haur, Pica. The little bird, black and white, frequent about gardens; it is a 

magpie in miniature. See Karawachi. 
Manuk Langgir, the scorpion bird. A very handsome bird , size of a martin ; brown and 

light blue feathers; burrows in soft banks. 
Manusa, a human being, mankind. Of same import as the following word which it 

closely resembles. Manusha, C. 537. a man, mankind. 
Manusiya, a human being, mankind. Man as distinguished from brutes. Manuskya , 

and Manuska, C. 516 & 537, man, mankind. 
Manwang'an, ancient and untouched. Leuweung manwang 'an , a primeval forest. 
Manyar, name of a bird often very troublesome about ripening paddy. The bird is of 

the size of a sparrow , which it somewhat resembles , being brownish in colour , but it 

has a little red on its head. 
Manyar^, the fruit stem of a cocoa nut, after the fruit has been gathered; withered 

cocoa nut fruit stem. 
Manyeupa, name of a small but handsome bird , with a scarlet head . 
Ma pa, to go on foot, to walk, to perform a journey on foot. 
Ma pal, to feed on grass or tender shrubs: to graze, to browse. 
Marada, to assist a poor or indigent person to discharge his debt. 
Marah, properly Ki marah, name of a tree in young jungle. Mappa Tomentosa. 
Marai, to pay, to discharge a debt or obligation. To bisa marai, I cannot pay. 
Marak, to take fish by diverting the stream and laying the bed and fish dry. Much 

practised in mountain streams, where such a process is easily managed. 
Mar a rat, poor, indigent, needy. 
Maras-miris, simpering, having the appearance of self-sufficiency. Showing symptoms 

of delight. Laughing in one's sleeve. 
Mardika, free, not in slavery. At large; not subject to any imposition or restraint. 

Mardika Lutung , free as the Lutung monkey. A favorite native expression. 
Marek, to await the orders of a superior. (Jav. Parak, Marak; cf. Parek). 
Mare'ng, said of the year; Tahun mating, a year in which there are equal proportions 

of sun and rain , neither in excess. 

Marikh, Ar: the planet Mars, (^u^o Mirrikh). 

Maringkil, mischievous, wicked. Using all kinds of low and dirty means to do another 
person an injury. Jahil maringkil, malicious and evil-doing. These two words are al- 
most synonymes, but generally joined together to encreasc the force of the expression. 

Marin io, a petty village official, the assistant of the mndor or headman. 

s " <-' 
Maripat, Ar: knowledge of God. (ki.^ McCrifat, notitia; familiaritas. Freytag). 

Marukan, said when one thing is taken for another; labouring under a mistake. \\\it 
aya jelUma di leuweung , marukan satoa , so there is a man in the forest (or jungle), 

h 



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274 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

I took him for a beast. Marukan ajang na, laju top bai di bawa, he took it to be 
meant for himself, and seizing hold of it, took it away. 

Ma run da, a variety of Mango so called. 

Mary em, a great gun, a cannon. 

Mas, gold , golden ; a jeweller's weight. 

Mas, C. 525, a small stone, a pebble; a part, a portion. 
Massa, C. 526, a small coin so called. 

Mas ha, C. 540, a sort of kidney bean, phaseolus radiatus: a jeweller's weight, 
the seed of the Abrus precatorius, and weighing about 17 grs: troy. Mas is the name 
for gold in almost all the languages of the Archipelago , and was probably adopted 
from the Indian Mas or M&sha, a weight for gold, which the Indian traders would, 
every where, have in use, when purchasing from the natives. In Letty alone, one 
*\ of the Serwatti group, east of Timor, is still preserved the final a in their word 
Masa^l gold. Timbang mas, gold weight, said when any particular care or minute- 
ness is used in weighing. See Sa mas — Domas. 

Mas, a title of rank amongst the natives of Java, below Raden, which see. The word 
is prefixed to their usual Mohammedan name as- Mas Muhammad , Mas Nargan &c. The 
word very likely comes from Mas, C. 525, fish, flesh. As the Radens are of the 
blood (royal) , so those denominated Mas , are only of the flesh , being the next me- 
taphorical approach to royalty. 

Mas Kawin, literally — „the gold of marriage" — the money agreed upon to be paid for a 
wife. This is never actually paid down at a marriage , but is agreed upon , and deter- 
mined as to amount, and is to be forfeited by the party who insists upon a divorce. 
The Mas Kawin forms a point of agreement at the settlement of marriage between 
all persons of property. It is agreed upon with a view to be a check on either par- 
ty wishing for a divorce on insufficient grounds. 

Mas a, Portuguese Mas. A word expressing doubt. Is it likely, just as if, forsooth. Ma* 
sa aing daik meri , Is it likely that I will give. Masa sia daik mayar , lamun to bo- 
gah hutang, just as if you would pay, if you had no debt 

Masakat, poor, indigent, without means. 

Masigit, the mosque, the Mohammedan temple, or house of prayer. Mtsjid,' Marsden 
323, Mosque in Arabic. 

Masih, yet, still, continuously so. Masih kench bai, it still remains so; they are still 
there. Masih hayang , do you still want some? 

Masing, separate, separately, distinctly, individually. 

MasinikSn, under the suppositional- talk of. Masiniktin daik hade, geus lila angg^us, un-» 
der the supposition , that it could become good , it would long ago have been done. 
MasinikVn nyokot pare, gerrah de bayar heula, talk of laying hold of the paddy, bo 
quick and pay first. 

Mas-masan, golden trinkets, 



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AND ENGLISH. 275 

Mastaka, the head of a great man. Mattaka y C. 525, summit, pinnacle, the top of any- 
thing; the head, the skull. 

Masui , name of a spongy and aromatic bark brought from the Moluccos and new-Guinea, 
much used by the natives as a medicine. 

Masurung, properly Mas wurung , false gold; name of any glittering stone which has 
crystals in it looking like gold. 

Mata, the eye, the visual organ. The edge of a sword or other cutting instrument. A 
sore pimple on the skin. The sprout on a bulbous root as on a potatoe. Mata chai r 
a spring of water. Chi mata , water of the eye , a tear. Mata kaju , a knot in wood. It 
occurs also [in many more figurative senses. A pattern in cloth. Mata dadu y dice 
pattern. Mata is also a point of the compass- the subdivision of an inch, the 1/8 or 
1/10 of an inch. A term denoting the fineness of gold. 

Mata -an, to have an eye; to be provided with an eye or small aperture of any kind. 

Mata Kotok, literally fowl's eyes. Said of a person whose eyesight fails him or becomes 
dim and indistinct towards dusk , or as night comes on. A slang name for small silver 
coins, of value of J or \ a guilder. 

Matak, to be the cause of, of importance, of consequence. Matak naun y of what conse- 
quence is it? Matak hadd, will be the cause of good. To matak, it is of no conse- 
quence. 

Mata-lembu, Bull's eyes, a variety of shell fish in sea. Tujbo. 

Mata-mata, a spy, an inspector. A man set to watch secretly. 

Matang, of even height, on the same level; having a similarity of proportions. To go 
oft as a gun ; to take effect. 

Mata-poi, literally- the eye of the day ^the sun. 

Mataram, name of the district to the south of Jugjukarta, and long the seat of the 
Javanese sovereigns after the conversion to Mohammedanism. Taram in Sunda is to 
begin , to make a commencement , and with the verbal prefix ma will imply — • to make 
a commencement (of empire?). 

Matih, having efficacious power; excersing strong influence; efficacious. Sometimes poi- 
sonous , virulent. Orai na matih nakcr , the snake was very poisonous. Parintah tuan 
matih nakcr , the master's orders are very efficacious , cause the disired effect. 

Maulud, or Mulud which see. The nativity of Mohammed: a great Mohammedan festival. 

Maun ad, virtue, supernatural efficiency. 

Maung, the Tiger Royal, the large striped tiger. Felis Tigris. 

Maung tandang, a sort of parasitic Pandanus, which is found in old forests adhering 
to old trees. It is very rarely known to bear flower, but in November 1854 I saw 
it in flower at Pasir Madang on Jasinga Estate. The flower opens at the end of the 
branches, somewhat like the true Pandan, and has rather an unpleasant smell. 

Maung tutul, the spotted tiger, a leopard. Felis leopardus. 

Maut, Ar: death. Matak al Maut , the angel of death. 



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27G A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Mawa, to carry, to bring. Mawa ka dio , bring here. Mawa ha ditu y carry yonder. 

Ma war, the rose, the rose tree. Ayer mawar , Rose water. The word Ay2r is not San- 
da, but Malay, and shows whence the designation has come. 

Maya, visual illusion, phantom, apparition. Used chiefly in Pantuns and in the history 
of the Hindu demi-gods. Maya, C. 537, according to the Hindus, philosophical illu- 
sion, idealisin; unreality of all worldly existence. In the plural this word becomes 
Mayu, vide Indramayu. 

Mayakpak, full of, covered over by. Chai mayakpak bai di sawah, the water is abun- 
dantly spread over the whole Sawah. 

Mayan, a variety of large sized bambu. It is, however, of little use as the worm soon destroys it. 

Mayan g, even course, continuous, without interruption; said of anything which keeps 
steadily in the same course or state. 

Mayang, name of a sea- going native craft, sharp at both ends, and carrying a large 
lugger sail. They sail fast and well, and may have obtained the name from the cir- 
cumstance of keeping steadily along with a quick speed. 

Mayang, the flower bunch of the cocoanut and pinang, or areca Palm, as well as of 
most other Palms. 

Mayang-Bingbing, name of a fish in rivers , rather scarce. 

Mayar, to pay; see Bayar. 

May at, sloping gradually. or gently, going gradually off , or away. A long and gentle slope 
of a hill. Working long and evenly, not all at once in hurry. Steady and secure. 

May it, Ar: a dead body, a corpse, a deceased human being. Buntel mat/it, a corpse 
wrapped up for interment. The term applies to a peculiar formation of some horses 

tails, which is considered as prognosticating no good, (e^x* Mayyit, mortuus). 

Meber, to flee, to run away, to skulk away. 

Me c hah, in abundance, in great numbers, exuberance. 

Medar, spread out, opened out; to spread or open out to the sun in order to be dried. 
To set out one by one. To expose (goods for sale and the like). 

Mede, a tree called in Malay Jambu monye't , the monkey Jambu, the cashew apple, 
Anacardium occidentale. See Kaju. The name Jambu monyet is given from the small 
excrescence of the kernel at the lower end , which is thought to resemble a monkey 
coiled in a heap. 

Medina, a twon of Arabia, where Mohammed found refuge when he fled from Mekah. 

Med ok, wet and slippery, sloppy. 

Mega, a cloud. Mcgha, C. 556, a cloud. 

Mega Malang, a long lowering cloud; frequently alluded to in Pantuns. 

Mega Men dung, where the clouds form a dam or embankment; clouds hanging lowe- 
ring. Kaioe of a celebrated pass on the high road from Buitenzorg and Chianjur, 
upwards of 4700 feet above the sea. 



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AND ENGLISH. 277 

Megai, a very small bitterish Chokrom or Terong. Solanum Pseudo-Saponaceum , called 
also Takokak. 

Mygar, to come out of the shell , as chickens. To slough the skin , as a snake does. To open , 
as the bud of a flower, &c. &c. 

M c g r i b , arabic , the close of day ; just at dark. Sambayamj mZgrib , vespers , prayers at even- 
tide. Maghrab, Marsden 325 the west, the western regions. Tanah Maghrab , Africa, 

Barbary. (^Jc* and l_>jU Maghrab, Maghrib. Freytag). 

Meh, nearly, very nearly , all but. Me'h tiivaa, I nearly had an accident Meh pa-ih , nearly 
dead. Afehbai, it was all but. Meh to tidus, it was all but not taking place. 

M ohm at, comfortable, easy. Tranquillity. 

Meh me' ban, a verbal duplication and more forcible form of meh which see. It was all 
but over. It was within an ace of happening. Mehnehan to di btre ', It was within 
a shave of his not giving it. 

Meja, a table. Mesa, Portuguese for table. 

M^kah, the town of Mecca in Arabic, whither all good Mohammedans are bound to pro- 
ceed once in their lives to visit the Kabah. Mekah is about 50 or 60 miles inland 
from Judah. 

Melai, flexible, easily bending, weak. 

Melak, to plant. Melak pare, to plant paddy. To plant out the first few heads of paddy 
seedlings, at the Pcmpuhunan, the general planting being called Taudur. Melak had, 
to plant potatoes. 

Melang, name of a fish in rivers; it inhabits holes in the banks and is only very indif- 
ferent eating. 

Melang, anxious about, caring for, having ;m affection for. Melang ka Pajajaran, having 
an affection for Pajajaran. 

Melati, a small, white, sweet-scented flower in round buds, much used by the women 
to put in their hair. Jasminum Sambac. Malati, C. 539, the great flowering Jasmine; 
a bud, a blossom. The word is probably derived from Mala y C. 539 , a string, a chain, 
a necklace; as the Malati flowers are generally strung together and worn as a wreath 
or garland. 

Melendung, bending outwards in a round shape; bulging out. 

Meleng'ek, sorrowful in mind, vexed in spirit. Feeling regret. 

Melentung, burnt, scalded. 

Melepuh, burnt, scalded; rising in plishes, as the skin from burning. 

Melesat, slipped out of place or position; broken away from its true posiiion. 

Mel inching, skulking from work; seeking to avoid your liabilities. 

Memang, as a matter of course, nnturally, r.s a natural consequence; for the precise 
reason. Memang to daile datavg , for the precise reason that he does not intend to 
come. 



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278 A DICTIONARY SUDANESE 

Mem'anuk, an ornamental bit of stick or wood placed in the middle of a buffaloe yoke. 
The word is derived from Manuk, a bird. 

Mgmayu, to recover from sickness; to again have a liking for food and the usual ways 
of life. Convalescent. 

Memeh, previous to , before , prior to. M6meh hudang kudu beuntdh , before getting up , 
you must open your eyes. Memeh sugi kudu dai/c pusing, before you can be rich, 
you must be content to have many troubles. 

Mem6h na, beforehand. Previously. 

Menak, a nobleman , a person of good family , of title. 

Menangkabau, the ancient and central part of Sumatra, of which Vriangen was the 
capital. Man, C. 514, a man- it is the Elu or ancient form of the Manmhya; the 
head , the heart ; pride , haughtiness. Manushya , C. 516 , a man , man , mankind. Angka, 
C. 11, a mark, a spot, a stain, a sign, a badge, a vestige. Baku, C. 470, the arm, 
the hand— and as such represents authority. Thus man-angka-bahu , would imply the 
people who are the emblem of authority , or the head , or the mind which is the sign 
of power. Mhianghabahu was probably in early times the seat of a Hindu gouver- 
ment which became a sort of Lord paramount over the neighbouring States. 

Mencha, to put oneself on guard, to fence. To defend oneself with an instrument called 
SiJcU'siku ; which see. There are people who exhibit feats of address by defending them- 
selves with this Siku-siku, which is called MVncha. 

Mencheret, having the squitters, great laxity in the stomach. Constantly troubled Tvith 
a discharge ab ano. 

Menchil, out alone by oneself; solitary, single, unassociated with others. 

M fin chug, quick, speedy. 

Menchus, having a tapering end, spindle ended. 

Menda, done, exhausted. 

Men dang Kamulan, the seat of an early government in Java, said to have been on 
the site of the present Prambanan, and founded by Saw£la Chala, who came from 
the continent of India in the beginning of the Seventh century of the christian era. 
Raffles vol. 2 Pages 82/84. Kamulan, derived from Mula C. 552 , origin , commencement. 

Mendelik, with the eyes open, staring, intently watching. 

Mending, better, in improved condition, inclining to a better state. Nagara eta gens 
mending sa hebcl di chekel ku kumpani, That country has been in an improved con- 
dition ever since the Government had possesion of it. Mending pa-ih jeung di rante, 
it is beter to die , than to be put in chains. Jelema na gfois mending , the man is get- 
ting better (from sickness). 

Men dung, said of clouds which lower and hang threatening to pour down rain. Clouds 
forming a black bank in the sky. 

Meng'a, a fish found only in the rivers which flow into the southern ocean, on the 
south coast of Bantam. 



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AND ENGLISH. 279 

Meng'a, an aspect or facing of the Naga , as connected with old superstitions. This as- 
pect of Meng'a is towards the West, and the period of day is between 8 and 9 
o'Clock A. M. 

Meng'andeuh, parasitical plants, plants growing on other trees. 

Meng'i, having the asthma, a difficulty in breathing. 

Mengk^, wait, stop; a word used to indicate the future tense, in the same way as Nanti 
serves in Malay. MengU huela , wait a bit , stop a while. MUngke aing leumpang ka 
JBogor , when I shall go to Buitenzorg. Mengke sia di here, wait and you will be 
given some. 

MengkSl, said of fruits drawing towards ripeness, as kadu, nangka etc. 

Hongkong, to take fish by damming off part of a stream of water, where it is shallow 
and easily done. Mengkong is on a small scale, what Marak is on a larger one. 

Mengpeng, in full force, in the midst of any act, the prime of any thing. Cha-ah na 
mengpeng keneh, the flood was still rolling strong in full force. Eukeur mengpeng di 
buat, in the midst of the paddy cutting. Si umur jelema eukeur mengpeng harita, the 
lifetime of the man was at that time in its prime. 

Menjebol, knocked up, done up, used up (as the Americans would say), spoiled for 
further use. Disabled. 

Menta, to ask for, to request, to solicit. Menta ampun, I ask pardon. 

Me'nteng, name of a fruit tree and its fruit. Pierandia Racemosa. 

Men til, to feel the nipples of a woman's breast. Said mostly of infants when they play 
with their mother's teats. See Pentil. 

Mentilan, said of a tree where the fruit is just setting. 

Menur, the tusk teeth of a Rhinoceros. 

M6ong, a cat, any animal of the cat or felis tribe, and as such applied to the several 
varieties of tigers. Derived from heong-hcong , to mew. 

M6ong Rambat, a wild cat or felis. A. small variety of tiger cat. 

Mepedan, to glean in the remnants of a paddy crop; to cut the straggling heads left 
as unripe when cut generally. 

MepSs, said of fire which is going out, nearly extinct. Figuratively, at the last kick, 
expiring, done up. Kajeun apes, ulah mepes, It matters not being nice, as long as 
we d'ont get done up. A native aphorism. Seuneuh na geus m K epes , the fire is dying out. 

Merak, the peafowl, peacock, peahen. Pavo Spicifer. Also called Kohok which see. 

Merang, causing an itchy sensation, anything brought in contact with the skin which 
causes a desire to scratch it. 

Merangkang, to crawl as a child; to creep. (Jav. Batav. idem.) 

Mfcrdika, freed, set at liberty from slavery, manumitted; free. Merdika lutung , as free 
as the Lutung mgnkey (in the forest): a common simile for people not subject to con- 
tributions to the government or landowners. The beau ideal of a natives liberty; no 
one to bother him with unwelcome orders. (Jav. Mai, idem.) 



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280 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Mer£, to give, to bestow. (See Bere) 

Merebet, moving in quick succession- as the legs of an animal in running; said of fruit 

which keeps tumbling fast from the tree, when shaken; and on similar occasions. 
Merebis, said of slight drizzly rain. Hujan iriirVbis sahsutik bai, the rain was only a 

slight drizzle. 
M e r e b o t , a petty official attached to a mosque , whose duty is to beat the drum for prayers , 

and sweep out the place. (Arab. L^-* Marbut; originolhy bound.) 

Mdr£h£wa, full of spite, vexed with anger. To detest, to have in aversion. To feel re- 
sentment against. 
Mereji, nice- tasted; anything which has a good relish. 
Merelek, to crumble down, to fall down grain by grain. 
Merem, blind, with the closed. Marhum, Marsden Page 341 arabic, the deceased, one 

who has found mercy. The Sunda word may be derived from this Arabic one, from 

the eyes being closed in death. 
Mereng'ut, frowning, having a sour look. 
M6res, full to the brim, full measure. 

Merih, with energy, with exertion, with activity; smart, active. 
Murjan, Ar: blood red coral worked up for ornaments. A precious coral brought from 

the Persian gulf. 
Merjan, Ar: the zodiacal sign Libra. 

Murong, looking earnestly at any one; standing staring, often impudently. 
M e r u 1 , unwinding , unravelling ; coming loose , as by a rope slackening. Crumbling down r 

as earth from a bank in dry weather. 
Mesat, slipped out of place, displaced. 
Meseum, to smile. 
Mdsiat, vicious, wicked, evil-disposed. 
Mesir, Ar: Egypt; grand Cairo. This wordMfesir is evidently taken from the first part 

of the arabic name of grand Cairo — Mesr-el-kahira , the city of victory. Europeans 

have seized upon the latter part of the name and converted it into grand Cairo. 
Mo sum, frowning, looking sour, looking displeased. 
Metel, to fly off in chips when struk, especially if anything hard, as stone, when struck 

by a hammer. 
Meteng, to buy an unborn animal, as a buffaloe. A bargain made sometimes by natives , 

by which they sell for alow price an unborn buffaloe calf. The cash is paid, and all 

the risk is for the purchaser. 
Me toll a, a father or mother in law, called in Malay Mertutca. In the Marquesas and 

Sandwich islands Matua is a parent, and has no doubt a common origin with our 

Sunda word, Crawford's dissertation Page 143. Vide Toa. 
Miiu-i;U3, somewhat better, an improvement Very nearly the same as Ml'ndhig. To Oogah men- 

his, There is no improvement in it. Tojmguh treu-eus, you cannot decidedly consider it better. 



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JLND ENGLISH. 281 

Meu-eusken, to call fW, to send for to come, to invite to attend. 

Mouli, to buy, to purchase. (Mai. Beli.) 

Meumpeung, in full career, in full force or activity, possessed of facilities; whilst, 

during, lahun mVumpVung , a good or advantageous year , when crops have been good. 

Meumpeung sia Jiirup urusan, whilst you live, put the matter in order. 
Meun, apparently the last syllable of Lamun, if — pronounced in a short flippant way. 

Mvun sia peupeuli mohal to meunang , if you had told me , as if you would not have 

got it. 
MSunang, to get, to obtain. 
MSunangken, to help to get, to put in the way of obtaining, to cause to triumph. To 

get a wife. Meunang ken ha anak balur , to obtain (in marriage) the daughter of a neighbour. 
Mcundeut, shut up, closed. Lawang na gens menndent the door is shut. 
Meuntas, to cross a river or water; to ferry across. Chai cha-ak to bisa meuntas, the 

river was in a flood, and I could not cross. Pameuntasan, a ferry, a place to cross 

a river at. 
Meupeus, to arrive at a crisis, to come to a result; the end or termination of a dispute, of 

a question at law, or the like. Meupeus na sia kudu mayar, the end of it is, that you 

must pay. 
Meurah, name of a fish in the rivers, somewhat resembling Kanchara and is scarce. 
Meureun, assuredly, no doubt, that is evident; as the thing looks. Meureun pa-ih la- 

mun di hakan, no doubt we should die, if we eat it. Meureun, gebleg sia, there is 

no wonder, what a fool you are! 
MSurit, an insect from the eggs of which come the worms which get possession of rotting 

meat, or ulcerous sores. The eggs deposited by bottle flies. Meuritan to have got such 

eggs in a sore. 
M Suting, to pass the night- to stay all night anywhere. 

Meuweung, to chew, to eat, to champ in the mouth. To chew the cud of reflection. 
Mi char ek, to mention, to allude to in conversation; to speak of. 
Mi dang, to fly out, abroad, and about as birds. To stroll out, as a man or an animal. 

To go about for pleasure. 
Midua, to divide, to become two. (From Dua, two). 
Mih an e, to work with cotton thread in preparing for weaving; to wind the thread on the 

Pihanean, which see. 
Mih ape', to entrust, to give into the care of some one else. See Pihapi. ITulu hami mi- 

hape, take care of my head. I entrust my head to your care. An expression said when 

working together in any difficult place. 
Mi- is, leaky, water or any liquid coming through. Said also of a secret which leaks out. 
Mija, to play as fish in water, as if gamboling, when they desposit their spawn. 
Mikat, to catch birds by having a decoy bird to call towards a cage, near which other 

birds of same kind come, and perching on slips of stick covered with bird lime, are 



so caught. To entice and entangle; to decoy; to ensnare. 



36 



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282 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Mikono, to report, to tell, to give notice. 

Mikrah, to read the Koran in the mosque during the Pwasa month, after the ceremony 
of Tarawi is over. This happens in the night time, and is performed by the more re- 
ligiously disposed. The great mass of the congregation leaving "when the Taraice is 

done. (Ar. From )J karata, to read). 

Milir, to flow down, to go lengthways with the current; to follow down a river. (Jav. Mai. 
Bat. idem). 

Milu, to follow, to accompany, to go along with. (Jav. idem). 

Mi mis, small shot for a gun- bird shot. 

Mimiti, to begin, to commence. (Jav. Wiwit, commencement, cf. Mai. libit, seed; Jav. 
Mhcitti, Mimitti, to begin). 

Min, to take up money in advance under promise to do some work. Ptidati min, Peda- 
ties or carts which receive money in advance to be paid off by dragging loads. 

Minantu, a son or daughter in law. Probably from Bantu to help, to succour, and 
Minantu may be thus very fairly translated litterally- „an assistant"- as with the na- 
tives, the son in law becomes subservient to his wife's parents, and becomes as it were, 
one of their family, leaving his own. This is after the fashion of the old worthies of 
the Bible , who served for their wives , as is seen in the 29 chapter of Genesis , where 
Jacob served Laban, twice for the space of seven years, for his daughters Leah and 
Kachel. 

Minatu, a washerman, a person who washes clothes. 

Minchek, an animal of the deer kind, called in Malay Kidang. Cervus muntjac. Jloih 
mincK&k, a small and thin variety of rattan. 

Min den g, often, frequently. 

Mindi, the Indian bread tree. Melia Azedarachta. 

Mindo, second cousins , being children of first cousins or Misan. (FromDua, two; relations 
of the second degree). 

Minggat, to run away, to make an escape. (Jav. idem). 

Mingsiri, the sort of smoked opium. 

Mintalu, the third time of ploughing upland, especially upland tipars. The upland plough 
only scratches the ground slightly the first time of ploughing, and the process must 
be done at least three times before it is fit for sowing. (From Telu , Jav. Tilu , Sund. 
three). 

Min tar, to proceed, to get under weigh. To start. (Jav. according to GerickeKawi, idem). 

Min ton, to show oneself, to present oneself in token of obedience. (From Ton, Annon, 
Jav. to see, to look; to know.) 

Mintul, blunt, not sharp. Figuratively, being disregarded, not obeyed^ 

Min yak, oil. Minyak kalapa, cocoanut oil. Minyak jarak> castor oil; Minyak laneuh, 
earth oil, Petroleum. 

Min y an, Gum benjamin, Benzoin; imported from Sumatra, as it is not an indigenous 



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AND ENGLISH. 283 

product of Java. Maeliyan, C, 563 gum, glue, any glutinous substance exuding from 
trees or plants by incision. 

Mi pit, to cut the first of any growing crop. See Pipit. 

Mi rasa, to become conscious of, to feel convinced, to have a feeling of. To feel the 
consequences of anything. (From Rasa). 

Miring, to lean downwards, or to one side; to incline, to decline; shelving, sloping. The 
crude part of this word appears still to be preserved in the Pacific, as in Tahiti, sun- 
set is called ma-irite ra, the falling of the Sun. Ellis Polynesian Eesearches vol 1 
page 89. The ma is a very general Polynesian preposition for verbalising a substantive; and 
the final ng is constructive. 

Miringkil, curling up in small folds; shrinking up in curls. Jahil miringkil, malicious- 
ly disposed, as if curling up with malice. 

Miruha, to rub two sticks together in a peculiar way in order to extract fire. To rub fire 
out of sticks. 

Mirun, used in the expression Mirun S&un£uh y to light up a fire. To set on a fire To 
draw a little fuel together and set it alight. 

Misah, apart, separate, disconnected. 

Misalah, to put out of joint, disjointed. From Salah, wrong. 

Misan, first cousins, male or female. Massing, C. 526, a cousin as if the Polynesians 
had transposed the a and t, for the sake of making their favorite termination in An. 
(The word is derived from Jav. piian , Bal pesVn , at once , one time ; also : very , 
all, altogether. Fr.) 

Misanan, distant relations, distant cousins. (From Misan). 

Misti, must, what is absolutely necessary; indispensable, necessary. Ziioat ti misti , going 
beyond what is absolutly nescessary. (Jav. Pisti or Pasti £}*3\ moSn Mai. idem). 

Mitembai, to commence, to make a beginning. 

Mi t rah, to make the offering to the officers of the mosque, made by every good Mohamme- 
dan , at the labaran or end of the Pwasa month. (At Batavia Pitta , which is to be 
explained by the Hindu custom of making offerings to the ancestors, Pitarah, at new 
year. So at Bali. Mitrah is the verbal form. Fr.) 

Modal, capital, principal, means to trade with. Miulala, C. 550 money, coin. 

M o d a r , dead , lifeless. It is a coarse word , and conveys an idea of humiliation on the per- 
son so dead. It corresponds to the Malay word Mampus. 

Modol, excrement, faeces. A vulgar word, S 1. 

Modol landak, porcupine excrement- the name of a plant growing on newly felled 
ground. 

M o g o k , to come to a stand , as a wild animal which is hunted. To face about and show fight. 

Mogor, to run about after women, especially those of ill fame. 

Mohal, an insinuating way of making a refusal or denial. A negative expression difficult 
to translate, but which the following examples will elucidate. Perhaps it can most 
frequently be translated- it is not likely. 



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284 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Mohal hade, that can never be good. 
Mohal leumpang , it is not likely that he will set out. 
Mohal achan pa-ih, it is not likly that he is yet dead. 

Mohal ka rnana, where can he get himself to. Daik mere? Mohal! will you give it? 
It is not likely. Mohal ngalakoan, that will never be the case. 

Mohammad, the proper name of the Arabian prophet called by Europeans Mahomet. The 
word is derived from the root Hamada and signifies- „the Praised". Mahomet , the great 
founder of the faith of Islam, was born in Mecca, in April, in the year 569 of the 
Christian era. He was of the valiant and illustratious tribe of Koreish , of which there 
were two branches, descended from two brothers, Haschem and Abd Schema. Haschem, 
the progenitor of Mahomet, was a great benefactor of Mecca. Mahomet was the only 
child of Abdullah and Amina. This Abdullah was the youngest and best beloved son 
of Abd al Muttalib , whose office it was to provide provisions and water to the pilgrims 
who came to visit the Kabah, which was always a place of resort long before Maho- 
met was born. Abd al Muttalib and his eldest son Harith cleared out the old well 
Zamzam to supply water on the spot. But he had many enemies among his countrymen, 
so that he vowed to devote to the deity his 10th son, should God bless him with so 
many. The young Abdallah was doomed to die but was replaced by an ofiering of 
100 camels. Calcutta Review No. 43 March 1854 Pages 79 and 88. Abd al Muttalib 
was the son of Haschem who was born A. D. 464 and fulfilled with princely munifi- 
cence the office of entertaining pilgrims to the Kabah. 

Mohpor, to work into flesch, as maggots. To eat a way into the flesch as a maggot. 

Mohprol, hard working, enduring much fatigue. Not fearing to encounter (as an animal 
in the chase). 

Mojeuh na, just the thing, fitting to a T. Suitable in every respect. Proper time. It 
is high time. MojVuh na\ sia di gebugan. It is high time that you should have a 
thrashing. Art di aduken mojeuh na bai, when put together, they just fitted. 

Mojo, enough! sufficient: let it alone! Mojo! ulah di openan deui y Enough! d^ont have 
anything further to do with it. Omong sia mojo , we have had enough of your jaw. 

Mokaha, no fear, never mind; an act from which no harm can arise. There can be no 
harm in it. Mokaha di potong , is there no harm in cutting it. Kula ilu, sugan mokaha, 
If I go along also perhaps there can be no harm in it. 

M o k o , to probe out , to extract with a probe. To squirt or force some deleterious matter 
into a hole to draw out the inmate, as fish out of a hole, a worm out of the ground, 
or out of a festering wound. 

Molong'o, gaping, standing open, ajar. 

Molor, to sleep- a coarse expression. To sleep as a brute. When this word is used, it 
conveys an idea of indignity put upon the person sleeping. Molor bai sia, owoh gawe 
ttiuyn, you do nothing but sleep and are of no single use. 

Molos, to disappear, to abscond. 



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AND ENGLISCII. 285 

Mo I o sod, slipping out of place; displaced in mass by a slip. Sabeulah gunung molosod, 

one side of the moutain has shot down. 
Molotok, peeling off; when the skin or bark comes easily away. 
Momok, the pudendum of a female child. 
Momonggor, a height, a rising of the ground, an elevation. 
Monchor, to go through, to pass through. To be able to get into. Lauk leutik monchor di 

na ayakan, small fish will pass through the sieve. Bedul monchor di na pager , pigs 

slip through the fence. Batu gede mohal monchor ka na Hang, large stones can never 

get into the hole. To monchor , it cannot pass through. 
Mondok, to take up one's quaters for the night. To put up with, to abide. Moro mon- 

dok ka lumbur , to go to the village for night quarters. Etikeur di Batawi mondok di 

imah panghulu, when I was in Batavia, I put up with the priest See JPondok. 
Monggor, eminence, height, a rise in the land. 
Mongklah, blood. 

Mooting, inclined, sloping; being at an angle. 
Mont ok, fat, in good condition; in good flesh. (Used at Batavia). 

Montong, do not, d'ont, it is not required; it is not necessary. Montong dalang deui ka 
9 diyo, you are not required to come again here. Montong di beri, d'ont give any. 

Montong mtiuli, d'ont buy. 
Monyet, a monkey. The common brown long tailed monkey. Simia fascicularis. 
Monyong, protruding the lips, pouting. 
M o p o , knocked up , unable to continue at work from exhaustion. Kuda na mopo his horse 

is knocked up. JtVima ye* us mopo, the people are unable to continue at work (from 

exhaustion). 
Mori, Portuguese Mouri, moorish, belonging to Mohammedans, and generally understood 

of Hindustan. Crawfurd. It applies only to cotton in Sunda. Kapas mori , moorish 

cotton , the best sort of cotton for weaving. 
Moro, to go towards, to proceed to, to run at; Anjing na edan, moroan, the dog was 

mad and run at people. Moro m&uting ka lumbur , to proceed to the village to pass 

the night. 
Morod, to steal — a vulgar expression. 
Morongkol, sitting or standing with the heel or sole of one foot against the thigh of the 

other leg, and the knee thus bent- a frequent native position of relaxation. 
Morosod, to slip down as a heavy body; to glide down in bulk. Given way, disrupted. 
Mosa, a female slave — known from other women of the country by wearing a short white 

jacket instead of a long baju. (From ^c * Waca , second and fourth form : to delegate 
by testament, testamento mandare, tradere; it means also a male slave. Fr). 

Mota, stout white cloth; canvas, or sack-cloth. Bagging for bales. 

Motah, many, numerous, in abundance. 

Motong, to cut; to deduct, to substract; to go across, to cross over. (Mai. Potong). 



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286 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Hayang motong kayu eta , I want to cut that wood. Motong saparo na lai , deduct one 
half. Motong chai, across the stream. Motong leuwtiung , across or through the forest 
(not round about it). 

Moyan, to sit out in the sun; to put out in the sun or air to dry. Eukeur moyan maneh, 
he was just sunning himself. 

Moyang, occurs only in the expression, Nine moyang, ancestors. Mow , C. 562, a mo- 
ther, a matron; and Hyang, divinity. So that in this way ancestors must have been 
looked upon as having become divinities, as is the case with many rude people, who 
deify their progenitors. 

M'rai, to appear as a vision, to get a glimpse of. 

Muat, to load goods; to stow; to hold, to contain. Prahu na di mmtlcSn, they loaded the 
boat. To muat j it cannot contain it: said when anything will not stow away in any 
place. 

Muatan, a load, a burden, a cargo. "What is loaded. 

Mudik, to ascend a river; to proceed up a river towards the interior. Though mudik is 
used in Sunda, in a verbal form, the simple Malay word Udik does not occur, for 
which they have Girang. 

Mufa-at, Arabic, good, enough. 

Mugia, to long for, hope that — may that. Mugia sia balik salamat, may you return in 
safety. Mugia paih ari to bener , may I die if I do not speak the truth. ( Jav. Moga). 

Muguran, said of the act of some plants which annually lose all appearance above ground , 
the stem and leaves dying away , but they again appear , the following season , the root 
remaining uninjured in the ground. This is the case with the Gadung, and many va- 
rieties of the Koneng. See Pugur. 

Muhammed, Mohamet. Nabi Mohammed , the Profet Mahomet. The word is arabic and 
means - laudable. See Mohammad. 

Muhara, mouth of a river, embouchure, where a river disembogues. Modara, C. 846, 
a place where a river disembogues. (Mai. Muara). 

Muharam, the first month of the Mohammedan year. The first of this month is not observed as 
a festival or holiday , and the Javanese do not thus keep any new year's day. Their 

great yearly festival being the Lobar an at the end of the Bxdan Puasa. (Ar. ,^w 
Muharram). 

Muhung, exterminated, no longer in existence, 

Muhunken, to entreat, to beg a favour, to solicit, to supplicate. (Mai. Mohonkan, idem). 

Muji, to make adoration, to repeat the Mohammedan form of confession of faith. Laiilah 
il lalah, mohammad rami allah, there is no God but God, and Mahomet is the apos- 
tle of God. To fetch a sigh ; to be grieved. See Fuji. 

Mujur, propitious, under favourable circumstances; goodluck. Lengthwise, lying side by 
side , and thus not opposing each other. The reverse of this word is Malang , which see. 

Muka, to open. The face, the countenance, front. In these latter senses it is Sanscrit. 
Mukha , C. 548 , the mouth , face , countenance. Commencement , origin. This word muka , 



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AND ENGLISCH. 287 

in these latter senses, is of rare occurrence, as the Sunda people have Beung'eut , 
for countenance, and Hariwp for front, in advance. Meunang muka, to get counte- 
nance ; to have got a good face ; to be in favour. (Muka , to open', is the same as the 
Malay buka). 

Muka, name of a wild animal, in shape and size like a common brown monkey, with 
white marks on its face and about its eyes, as if it had spectacles on. "When caught 
it sits moping with its head held down on its chest. There are many superstitions 
regarding it, and it is thought unlucky to have it about a house. In Malay it is cal- 
led Kukang, Marsden Page 275. Lemur tardigradus, or Stenops tardigradus. 

Muka or Hoih Muka, name of a small worthless variety of Rattan. 

Muka das, Arabic, holy, sanctified, sacred. Hak mukadas, the holy truth. (Arab. Mo* 

si' » 

kaddaB j*jJLo). 

Mukan, an apposite expression — it cannot be other than; the consequence will be; it 
might have been expected; at the first blush of a matter; my idea was; it appeared 
to me. Mukan piltadean, it can never come to good. Mukan daik hade horenganan 
goring , my idea was that it would have been right , but it now proves wrong. Mukan 
paihy I thought he was dead. 

Mukti, to obtain, to get what we want. See Bukti. 

Muku, as for instance, par example, if after (some fashion). Muku di orang , if as with 
us, if after our fashion. 

Mukung, bulging out, projecting in consequence of something applied at inner side. 
Bulging as a swelling on the body from a blow. 

Mula, beginning, origin, cause. Mula, C. 552, origin, commencement. 

Mulana, arabic, an expounder of the Mohammedan law. The name by which the first 
preachers , or propagators of Mohammedanism on Java are known , of whom was Shekh 
Ibn Mulana , and Mulana Hasan Udin > both of Cheribon ; the latter founded the king- 

dom of Bantam. (Arab. U^ Mauldnd, our teacher). 

Mulap^s, to break half through and hang down along the stem, as the branch of a tree. 
Said of fire which after burning fiercely collapses , or becomes considerably smaller. 

Mulek, to curl and hang round as smoke. Any subtle air or smoke finding its way about 
a person. Ilaseup na muttk bai kang aing, the smoke kept curling around me. 

Mules, cholic, gripes, violent spasms. Beuteung na mules, to have griping in the belly. 

Mulihan, to weed a huraah for the second time. To go over a thing again. 

Mulikat, good, prosperous. 

Mulintang, a cross, athwart; only heard in conjunction with Malang, as Malang mu- 
lintang, athwart and across in all directions, sadly entangled. (Bat. Melintang). 

Mulud, another name for the Mohammedan month Rabiul awal y of which Mulud is pro- 
perly the 12th. day being the anniversary of Mohammed's birth. During this month 
the natives visit their friends. Each village devotes one day of the month to keep 
the festival. Maulud in Arabic means nativity or birth. 

Maluku, to plough, to turn up with the plough. (Jav. Waluku, a plough). 



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288 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Mulungsur, to let oneself glide or roll down from anyplace. Slipped or shoved down. To 
get a discharge, to throw up a situation. Said of fish which escapes from a casting 
net. 

Mum in, Arabic, the faithful, the orthodox true believers. Mumanin, in the plural. (Ar. 

" ' Mu'min; pi. Mifminuna). 

Mumul, unwilling, dissenting from. Mumul ngadengH, unwilling to hear it. Mumul Um6k> 
unwilling to speak , not wishing to interfere. Mumul kabawa-bawa , dissenting from being 
mixed up (in any affair). 

Mumulan, lazy, indolent. 

Mumule, to take care of, to provide for; to feed and bring up. 

M u in u 1 u k , to eat at a time before the regular meal time , from what was left at the last 
regular feed. To take a luncheon. See Madang. 

Mumunchangan. the shin or anklebone which projects like the fruit Munchang. 

Mumunggang, an elevation, a rise in the ground; a height. 

Mun, an abbreviated from of Lamun , if, in case that. (See Meun). 

Munar, to clear away forest &c. in order to make room to set up houses &c. 

Munara, the minaret of a mosque. Manar, arabic, minaret, Crawfurd. 

Munchang, name of a tree, Aleuritcs Moluccana, from the fruit of which an oil is made. 

Munchang China, name of a tree, but not an Aleurites. The fruit when eaten is 
nearly poisonous causing violent vomiting and evacuations. 

Munchereng, staring intently; with the eyes steadily fixed on anything. 

Munchilak, with the eyes wide open; agoggle. Lamun sia di gVbugan, mohal to mun- 
chilak, if you get thrashed, as if your eyes w'ont stare out of your head. 

M u n d i n g , a buffaloe. The more pure Sunda word for what is also very commonly cal- 
led Kebo: Bos Bubalus. 

Mun ding Sari, name of a sovereign of Pajajaran in the 12th century A. D. Here we 
have a pure Sunda word, Munding , a buffaloe, associated with Sari, which is proba- 
bly of Sanscrit origin meaning flower. 

Munding Wang'i, the fragrant Buffaloe, a sovereign of Pajajaran in the middle of 
of the 13th century A. D. 

M u n d u , name of a tree with a fruit somewhat like a Mangostan , it is the Xanthochymua 
Javanensis, of the family of Guttiferae. 

Mundur, to go back, to fall back, to retire, to retreat. See Undur. (Mai. idem). 

Mundut, to gather by way of contribution, to put under contribution, to levy. 

Munggah, to arise, to come up out of, to be elevated. Occurs in the expression Mung- 
gah Uaji, to become Haji, to have made the pilgrimage to Mecca. 

Munggaran, to weed humahs for the first time over; to tear open the encrustation of 
weeds. 

Mungkar, exclusive of, with the exception of. 

Mungkir, to retract (one's word); to recede from, to disavow, to deny; to fail. Mungkir ti 



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AND ENGLISH. 289 

perjanjian , to withdraw from an agreement Mohal daik mungkir ti omong aing , I will 
not disavow what 1 said. 

Mungsret-mangsret, to squitter as an animal , especially a buffaloe , in walking. Drop- 
ping the dung whilst walking. 

Muntir, turning in gyrations and falling, as a bird shot and falling to the ground. Tur- 
ning in gyrations as an animal with any disease; twisting and turning about. (Jav. 
Muntir, to turn round). 

Mupakat, arabic, properly Muwqfakat, also Mufakat , to agree, to be of one mind, to 

unite efforts; to form a joint resolution. (i£jL«, Muwafakat , agreeing). 

Mupu, to gather fruit, to gather in a crop; to collect any objects. (Jav. idem). 

M u p u r i , to glean in the remainder of fruit on trees , after the chief part of the crop has 

been gathered; to gather a few straggling fruits. 
Murag, to drop out as grains little by little; to drop off, as grains from the ear; what 

in English we call shaken. Pare na murag jasah, the grain of the paddy falls off 

very much. 
Murah, cheap, low priced. (Jav. Mai. idem). 
Murah ang'en, litteraly: cheap hearted, means — munificent, liberal; not stingy. (The 

preceding meaning also abundant , liberal and AnfVn, hearty mind, in Kw. andSund.). 
Murian, to put by, to have in keeping. Probably derived from Buri, behind, and thus: 

kept behind, reserved. 
Murian g, having an attack of cold fever. Panyakit muriang, the fever disease. Muriang 

kawayah, the intermittent fever. 

Murid, arabic, disciple, follower, scholar, (jj^i Murid, a scholar). 

* • 

Muring 1 is, tottering and feeble; weak from exhaustion. 

Muringkak, to stand on end, as hair in fright or in great cold. Muring kak bulu na, 
the hair of his body stood on end. 

Murudul, to crumble down in mass; to slip down as dry earth. 

Murukukung, bent in an arch, curved, bent round. Said of any animal, especially 
a horse, which sets up its back. With the back curved upwards. 

Muruluk, to crumble down in small quantities, little by little. 

Murus, to run off; to run away; to make off. (Jav. Diarrhoea). 

Mus, the end of; the upshot. Mus na bai, said when anything is lost in an unaccount- 
able manner, nobody knows what has become of it. 

"° ' 
Mus a, arabic, Moses. Considered a prophet (/*„**> Musd, Moses). 

Musim, season, monsoon. Marsden calls this word Arabic, and has, no doubt, been in- 
troduced into the languages of the Archipelago generally by the early Arab traders , 

who suited their voyages to the monsoons. (+*»*+, Mausim). 

37 



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290 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Mnstail, most likely Arabic — that is out of the question. An asseveration of disbelief. You 
cannot think to make one believe. (Ar. Jjksu***^o , Mustahil , not true ; absurd ; impossible). 

M u s t a j a b , arabic , unerring, infallible. Certain of its effect. A greeable, acceptable. (u^A^iL* » 

Mustajdb, admitted, conceded (by God). 
Mustari, arabic, the planet Jupiter. A book of incantations or of divinations. (JLi^, 

Mushtarin. Frey tag) . 

Mustika, a bezoar, an amulet; any small stone or object of nature used for a charm to 
cure disease or ward off evil. The possession of such Mustika is thought to give the 
owner supernatural power. Such Mustika are often concretionary balls found in the 
stomach of animals. Mustika awi, silicious incrustations sometimes found in the joints 
of bambu, to which supernatural powers are attributed. Mushtika, C. 553, a gold- 
smith. Mushti, C. 553, the fist, the closed hand. Perhaps our Mustika , amulet, has 
gained its name from possesing hidden virtues, as if closed in the hand, but never- 
theless efficacious. (From Mush, to steal: things concealed!). 

Musuh, an enemy, a hostile opponent. (Mai. idem). 

Musung, having only one testicle. A peculiarity of some animals. 

Mute, beads, beads for stringing. (Scr. Mutya, a pearl. Jav. Mote; Mai. Mutiya). 

Mutelak, arabic, absolute, general. Wakil mutMak, plenipotentiary. An agent possessing 

8" O ' 

full powers. Hak mutelak, an undoubted right, an absolute right. Q^lk* , Mutlak , ge- 
neral, absolute). 

Mu tiara, a pearl. Mutu and Muttika, C. 549 and 550, a pearl. (Scr. Mutya+Mra, a 
string of pearls). 

MutuhkSn, to cause to be hard up; to cause to become destitute; to put to very great 
inconvenience. See Butuh. (Jav. Ambutuhliin, idem). 

Mu-uk, said of bees which fly out and attack or sting a person or animal disturbing 
their nest. 

MuyenSng, being quiet, tranquil; to mope. Jelema kasusahan muyeneng bai di imah, 
a man in difficulties, sitting moping in the house. (Cf. Mai. senang , quiet, in peace). 

Muyungkung, all — overish; feeling unwell without exactly knowing what is the matter; 
out of spirits and unwell. 

Na, The possessive pronoun, his, her, its. Uulu na lalaki, a man's head; imah na ewi 
randa, a widow's house; tungtung na kayu, the end of the wood. It not unfrequent- 
ly precedes the substantive to which it alludes, when uch substantive is preceded by 
the preposition di or ka, when it has less of a possessive power. Di na imah, at 
the house; whereas to make it: at his house, would require another na after imah, as 
di na imah na', Ka na hade ma, hanto, as to its being good, no. Na is often used 
in the sense of our the , but as such it always follows the substantive to which it re- 



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AND ENGLISH. 291 

lates; Batu na Haas, the stone was hard; Tangkal na luhur, the tree was high. (1). 
Na-as, the meaning of na-as is that nothing is obtained, as if a man went out shooting, 
and firing at a deer did not hit it, and firing at birds, could not hit them; feeling 
hungry could get nothing to eat; feeling thirsty could find no water, till going home 
in disgust , the party had nothing to bring with him. All this is expressed by the word 

Na-as. (Arab. ^ y NaJis, misfortune; unfortunate. In Jav. also Nahas). 

Na-as, there is a sort of calculation called na-as pita, the seven na-as. In every month 
there are seven days which are called na-as , viz. the 1st — 4th— 11th — 14th — 15th — 21th — 
and 25th. Now on these seven days luck will never, or hardly ever, attend one's 
undertakings, everything will go wrong, and therefore these days are avoided by the 
native when he undertakes any matter of importance. There is a belief that on these 
seven dates of the month , Mahomet got into his greatest difficulties and persecutions. 
(Naturally the same word as the preceding). 

Nabas, to buy up wholesale. See Tabasan. (Jav. Ntibas, to buy the produce standing yet 
in the field. Cf. Tubus, Tumbas). 

Nabi, arabic, a Prophet. Nabi Isa, the Prophet Jesus. Nabi Mohammad, the prophet 

Mahomet. ( jj Nabi). 

Nadin, Ketan nadin, the kctan paddy which is losing its qualities of Ketan and turning 

to Pare bfaier or true paddy, a thing which the natives say sometimes takes place. 
Naga, a fabulous serpent, a dragon. Naga, C. 315, the hooded snake or Cobra Capella; 

a serpent in general; the Hindu Dragon. 
Nagasari, name of a tree, also called Pung, Acacia Pedunculata. 
Nagasari, name of another tree, Mesua ferrea. 
N a gar a, a country; a region; a chief town. The capital of a country where the chiefs 

reside as contradistinguished from the villages or distant provinces. Nagara, C. 306, 

a town; a city. 
Nagara Dangka, a country whose people do not know what is right , who are in ignorance 

(of the Mohammedan religion). See Dangka. 
NagdL, slippery and without hold. Said of any place where no firm footing or hold can 

begot, as upon the face of a ledge of rocks. JSagel di na gawir, in a slippery position 

on the face of a steep bank ; on the face of a steep bank , where no firm hold or 

footing can be got. 



(1) Na before the substantive is, I think, to be considered as demonstrativum ; it is the most 
simple form of the demonstratives showing a greater distance from the speaker ; Kw. na-han (oppo- 
site ni-han); MaL Sd\ ma-na; Mai, ta-na. As a possessive pronoun it corresponds with Kw. nya, 
Jav. ne f Mai. nya. Fr, 



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292 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Nagen, to persevere; to undertake with vigour; to set to work with resolution. Nag en 
di pagawe'an, keeping close at his work. 

Nagi, to demand the payment of a debt; to dun. (Mai. tagi). 

Nagog, sitting or crouching down carelessly. Nagog bai di imah, loitering in the house. 
Nagog bai di human, squatting in the yard before the house. 

Nagrdg, dry poor soil, where little or nothing will grow; hard bad soil, where hardly a 
wild grass or weed will grow, or thrive. 

Nah, an interjection of reproach; an expression in finding fault with any one. Nah! sia 
nundutdn dtiui, there you are napping again. 

Naha, how comes it? for what reason? Wat naha! an expression of remonstrance: How 
can that possibly be! Bij what means is that! Naha sia to daik peupVuli kang aing, 
how comes it that you do not tell me? 

Nah Sun, to set, as a trap or other device for ensnaring. NaMun bachang, to set a springe 
to take an animal. NaKSun gaul, and NaKiun bubu> two methods of taking fish by 
setting those traps in rivers. 

Naheur, to boil,* especially to boil water or juice for sugar. 

Nahi, failing in work which a man cannot get through; beat with a job; not able to get 
through any work given. Labour in vain. 

Naik, to ascend, to go aloft; to increase in number or quantity. To assume a high of- 
fice. Naik pangkat y to ascend in office. Naik raja, to become a king. Naik haji y 
to become a pilgrim at Mecca. Naik kuda y to mount a horse. Naik kapal, to em- 
bark in a ship. (Mai. idem). 

Najis, decidedly not (the word implies a strong and positive denial or. disbelief). Wat 
najis i&uyn, it is a most positive lie. Najis sia bisa bayar, it is quite impossible that 
you should be able to pay. 

Najong, to strike with the fore foot. 

Naker, very, in an extreme degree. Hade nak y er> it is very good. Murah nak$r , it is 
very cheap. Luhur naA*#r, exceedingly high. 

Nakhoda, persian, the master of a vessel; a native captain of a seagoing ship or 
vessel. Nakhoda prahu Bugis , the master of a Bugis prow. (Ia^U Nakhuda , Pers. mas- 
ter }j^-, Muddy of a ship Jj nav). 

Naksi, said of a woman who sues for a divorce. 

Nal, wadding for loading a gun (which in Java, is generally with the natives sabut 

or coir teazed out of the husk of the cocoanut). 
Nalik, as respects, regarding, taking into consideration. Nalik ka na bogah na susah 

nyambutj taking into consideration the difficulty there is in working it. 
Naliktik, to seek, to peep, to look after. 
Nam bag, to accumulate; collected in a heap. Said especially of water which, meeting 

any obstacle in its course , accumulates and rises up so as to overflow that obstacle , or 

finds vent sideways. Said also of matter , as earth , mud , sand , leaves and sticks which 



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AND ENGLISH. 293 

hang in a water course, and do not wash away clean. Pare na nambag di lawang 

gudang , the paddy is heaped up about the door of the store. Chadas na nambag to 

daikken palid , the indurated earth hangs in its course and will not wash away. Chai 

na geus nambag, litnpas kana b%ndungan> the water has collected in front of the dam and 

now flows over it 
Nambang, to be conveyed or transported by water; to work a shore boat. (Jav. Nam- 

bang*n*fi to make a t raj ect, to transport across a river. Mai. Tambang , to transport over a 

river. Jav. Tambang , a cord — such being put across a river for the purpose of traject). 
Nam bat, to reach across; sufficiently long, sufficient for any object. Kayu na mojUuhna, 

nambat ka sabrang , that wood is just the thing, it reaches to the other side of the water. 

Pare na to nambat ka tah'iun deui , the paddy will not last till the next year , that is , there 

is not enough of it 
Nam b leg, thumping down firmly on the ground and remaining fixed. Said also of scales 

which are borne down to the ground with a heavy or full weight. Standing upright 

and immoveable. 
Nambo, the old course of a river now deserted; the former bed of a river. 
Nam nam, name of a fruit tree, Cynometra Cauliflora. The fruit grows out from the stem 

of the tree. 
Nam pah, to receive, to take in one's hands, to get into one's possession. Nampdhsaru- 
piyah, to receive a rupee. (Jav. ^«swi«^i\ Ng. «sw*»J»x Tompa y Tampi). 

Nampanan, to receive, to take in hand. See Tampanan. Kula di sodoran, £&uUu\ nampa- 

nan bai 9 when it was handed me, I at once received it. 
Namprak, spread out, laid out thin; set out or exposed (for sale). 
Nana, a duplication of the possessive pronoun na> which gives it emphasis. Girangan 

nana % still higher up the river. Pasawahan nana Ugah 9 their sawahs are extensive. 

The word nana requires to follow a final an in the previous word. 
Nan ah, matter from a festering wound; pus. (Jav. Mai. idem). 
Nancheb, stuck in the ground or other substance. See lanchebken. (Jav. NancK&b , to stiek 

a thing with the point in the ground or into any week substance). 
NandSs or Tandes, cut through, broken through, clean or short off. 
Nan6m, buried or sunk in the earth; stuck fast in the ground. Iyobatuwatnanem amat, 

how much this stone is stuck fast in the ground. (Jav. Nannem, to plant). 
Nan g 1 en, heard only in To nang^en, to have no strength, to be helpless. 
Nanggeuh, perpendicular, steep; straight upright; standing on end. 
Nanggung, to carry singly, by means of a stick laid across the shoulders, with the 

weight suspended from each end. When two or more persons are employed carrying , 

it would be called Gotong, which see. To be security or bail for another person. (Mai. 

Tang'gung, Menang'gung , to bear; to be security. Jav. Nang'gung , to be security). 
Nanggur, of no use , of no avail , useless , worthless. 
N.angka, the Jack tree, Artocarpus Iutegrifolia , of the family Urticeae. 



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294 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Nangka-beurit, literally the Mouse Nanka, a variety of the Jack fruit, of which the 
fruit is long and round. Called in Malay Champedak, Artocarpus Polydheraa of the 
family of Urticea. The Sunda name means literally the rat or mouse Jack tree, 
which probably betrays the trees as not aboriginally belonging to Java, or else 
there would be some single and purely indigenous name for it. Yet it is found every 
where in abundance among the mountains. The Malay word Champadak ; contains the 
word Champa, which was a country of Bengal, the present Bhagalpore; Dakh, C. 
252, a giver, a donor — may denote that it was given by , or introduced from Champa. 

Nangka Wolanda, The Soursop, Anona Muricata; — originally introduced from the 
West Indies bv the Dutch and hence Wolanda. 

Nangkarak, lying on the back, with the belly upwards. 

Nangkod, adhering to; in close connexion with; embracing. 

Nangkoda, persian , the captain of a seagoing vessel , a native captain ; the same as 
Nakhoda. 

Nangkub, lying on the belly, with the back upwards. 

Nangkuban, inverted over anything; lying with the belly downwards over anything. 

Nangsi, name of a tree, Urtica Eubescens. 

Nangtung, on end , upright , standing up. Maka nantung sia , stand up. Maka nararang- 
tung, get up all of you. Nararangtung , is the plural of nangtung. 

Nanjak, to go up, to ascend a hill, to climb a steep place. 

Nanjeur, upright, erect, on end; rearing up. Kuda na urut nanjeur i&uleui nonjol, af- 
ter the horse had reared up, he bolted off. 

Nanya, to ask; to enquire. Kula to nanya, I did not ask. (Mai. ^|J, Tanya, Kw. «s»m> 

Tannya, Ger.). 
Nanyaken, to enquire after anything; to question. 
Napal, adhering, adhesive, sticking to; clammy; in juxtaposition. (Jaz. NapVl, to have 

a circuit to adhere, stick to). 
Napas, arabic, breath, respiration; the breath of life"; air which is taken into the lungs; 

soul, spirit. (,uJu, Nafs, anima; persona, individuum. />*ju Nafas , spiritus , anhelitus. 

Freytag). 

Napas, a colour of horse's hair, which is light brown or fawn. Kuda napas, a fawn co- 
loured horse. 

Napi, to sift, to put through a sieve or riddle; especially said of rice and grain. (Jav. 
Napenni, idem). 

Kapsu, arabic, the energy of life; the passions; a willingness to exert oneself; sensual 
desires , lust. Owoh napsuan , there is no exertion in him or it , said of man or beast. 

Napm alam dunya, the desires of this world. (From the same root /ujij, in the 3d form 
dcsideravit, 4th cupidum reddidit, desiderio affecit. Freytag). 
Narajang, to come in contact with; to fly at and attack; to fall to the lot of. Maung 



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AND ENGLISH. 295 

narajang ka jeUma , the tiger flew at the man. Lamun narajang ka lobah kula , pat/ah , 
should such fall to my lot, I should be sorely put about. See Tarajang. (Jav. flra- 
jang , from Trajdng, Tcrajang to attack. Mai. idem). 

Naraka, hell, the infernal regions. Naraka, C. 311 — Hell. 

Nararangtung, the plural of Nangtung, standing up. 

Narawas, to hold an inspection before commencing operations. See Tarawas. 

Narawastu, name of a grass with odoriferous roots, which are used as a perfume. This 
is called by the Javanese Lorowastu. Andropogon Muricatus. The roots are of a 
yellow colour and often made into fans. Kara, C. 311, a man individually or gene- 
rally. According to the Brahminical system of theology the anima mundi or the spirit 
pervading the universe. Wastu, C. 632, property, wealth, natural disposition, essen- 
tial property , nature , essence. The essence of the soul of the universe. 

Narik, to drag, to haul along, to pull. To attend a loaded cart. To keep a cart and 
buffaloes for the purpose of carrying loads. (Jav. Mai. idem). 

Naruhkcn, to wager, to risk. 

Nas, arabic, a text or dogma of the koran. (,>ai, ffacc , sanctio. In Malay the same as in 

Sunda). 
Nasir, arabic, a defender, a protector, an assistant. Crawfurd. (^cU y Nacir). 

Nasur, arabic, a vulture, used only in relating fabulous stories. In Hebrew, Syriac, 
Aethiopic and Arabic, the word Nisr means either an eagle or a hawk, and appears 
to be derived from an unused root, meaning „to tear in pieces with the teeth 1 ', „to 

SO" 

rend as a bird of prey". Vaux's Nineveh and Persepolis; page 31. (Arabic rM j J Nasr, 

vulture; from the root ' } ) Nasara, to rend, to tear in peaces with the beak). 

Nat a, a chief, a master, a lord, a prince. Much used in the composition of proper names. 
Natha, C. 317, a master, a chief, a lord. 

Natag, to hack a tree in order to let it bleed a gum. 

Nat rat, following the course of, tracking; not swerving from, h'atrat bai turut jalan ka 
Bogor, without swerving he followed the road to Buitenzorg. Natrat bai di susul, he 
followed after him in his track. 

Nau, to bale out water from a pool till dry, in order to catch the fish. 

N a u n , what , that which. Nairn nu di sada , what is it which gives a cry ? Nairn sebab na , 
what is the reason of it? Ku naun, why? Naun tah? what is it? how do you call it? 

Naur or Nawur, to fling out for a scramble. Naur duit, to fling out doits to be scram- 
bled for. See Axvur and Gaur. To redeem anything by a payment Naur gawe\ to re- 
deem (the service or servitude of feudal) work. Said of such people as compound for 
feudal service. Naur hutang , to redeem a debt, to pay the debt. (Jav. Nawur , to 
spread round. MaL Jj Tdbur y spread). 

N awing, looking high at a distance, as a mountain. Perpendicular and steep, like an 



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296 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

abrupt precipice. (Kw. Ger. Tawing, shut out of view, covered; also name of a mountain). 

Nayaka, a noble man, a man of high birth, a grandee. Nayaka, C. 819, chief, princi- 
pal, head, pre-eminent. 

NaySuh, same as Taytiuh > which see. To nay fan, it does not look like it ; it is not likely. 
(Cf. Kw. Ger. Tayuh, an apparition, a vision in dreaming). 

Neam, it appears to me, it strikes me. Neam mohal hade, it appears to me as if it would 
not be right. Neam na pondok , it strikes me that it is short. 

N^ang, same as Te'ang , to look for, to search, to get hold of, to call. 

Nebal, to begin, to commence. To take any work in hand. 

N e b a r , to sow seeds broad cast. To scatter seed over land prepared for that purpose. To 
sow sawah paddy as seed in the Pabinihan, to be subsequently transplanted. (Jav.Sebar, 
NyVbar NVbar idem). 

N^b^ng, slope, ascent; a flat but upright surface. 

Neda, to eat, a refined expression. Eukeur n&da, he is just eating. (Jav. Bal. £^ Ntda, 

to eat). 
Ned ah,, to ask, to entreat. Nedah kalapa sa hulu, I beg of you one fruit of the cocoanut 

(Jav. Nedah, Kr. NuduA Ng. to assign, to show, to order). 
Ngdas, done up entirely, totally destroyed or allowed to goto ruin. (Jav. ^w,^ Tedas, 

hit, wounded). 

Nedeng, in season; ocurring in quantities, abundant, said of fruit; in the busy act of 
doing something. Said of anything that is plentiful , or of any operation which is in 
the midst of being performed. Kadu VuMur ne'dVng , Durians are plentiful. NUdeng 
di buat, in the midst of cutting paddy. (Jav. Mai. Sealing, sufficient; apt, becoming; 
at the very time. Ne'de'ng , to do at the right time. Kw. Sliding and Sede/c, at the time that). 

Negla, visable from a distance, exposed to view. Di gunung negla amat ka lout, on the 
mountains you have a fine prospect over the sea. Negla ttiuyn kalakuan sia, your 
actions are too clearly seen. The place in Bantam called Pandeglan, seems derived 
from this word negla, with Pan before it, and an after. The N of nigla is trans- 
formed into D, as is the case with some other words, as Pande'ure'usan , from Neu- 
reus. Pandpglan in Bantam is on the eastern slope of the Gunung Karang , and com- 
mands a fine view. (The d in Pandeglan and Pandeureusan seems to be euphonically 
inserted. Fr.) 

Nejum, arabic, the stars; a horoscope, astrology. (^J Najim; plur. *su Nujum, or .^pj 

Nujfim, stars). 
Nek, an idiomatic expression of feeling sorrow, or regret; of feeling hurt. Ari ngadengi 

to meunang , nek bai, when I heard that it could not be got, I was quite hurt. 
Neker, to strike a light with a flint and steel. See Panikir. 
Nektek, perpendicular. Bolt upright: especially said of anything which is very high, as 

a mountain. 



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AND ENGLISH. 297 

Nelah, to bear a name, to be called. NViah Abdullah, to be called Abdullah. See Katelah. 
(Jav, Telah, to be accustomed; custom. Mai. Telah, said of the past time). 

Ne'mbalan, to answer, to respond, to cry out. (Jav. Timbal, Nimbal , to transfer , to throw 
to another; nimballi , to call a person, to order). 

Nembang, to pitch a tune; to tune an instrument. (Jav. Nembang , idem). 

Nempelet, a very trifle, showing small in quantity. Pare na nempelit deui, his paddy 
was reduced to a small compass. 

Nempuh, to put under the obligation of praying, to claim indemnity. Ari rusak baka- 
kas aing, daik nempuh bai ha nu make 1 , if my tools are spoiled, I shall claim indem- 
nity from those who have used them. That is — I shall make them pay for them. (Jav. idem). 

Kempur, to buy paddy. 

Nenaunan, about what ? what are you doing ? A verb derived from Naun , what ? Nenaunan 
sia di dinyo, what are you about there? 

Nene-nioyang, ancestors, grandfather and grandmother. JVVne is not used alone, but 
there is Nini for grandmother. Moyang is also not used separately and occurs only 
in the expression Nene-moyang. Vide Moyang. 

NenggSl, to hit on the right spot, to strike with effect To hit with precision. To n$ng- 
gel, it did not hit. (Jav. Penggtl, Ne'ngge'l, to run against the body of a person. Ger.). 

Ndpa, to infect, as disease conveyed to another. Panyakit eta sok nepa, that disease is 
catching, or is caught by coming in contact with a person already affected. 

Nepi, up to, at, on arriving at; sufficiently long or large. See Tepi. Nepi ka lumbur , 
peupeuli ka mandor , when you get to the village , tell the Mandor. Kayu iyo to nepi , 
this wood is not long enough, it will not reach across. 

Nurapken, to set up or put up in order, to arrange. (Jav. Trap, manner, way, order; 
nerap, to regulate, to put in order). 

Neros and teros, spindle shaped, thick at one end and thin at the other, as a stick 
of bambu. In Malay Tirus. 

Netes, sore-footed, from festering cracks or wounds which naturally break out , and which 
often trouble the native very much; they occur on the sole of the foot. This obliges 
him to wear a Tarumpah or rude sandal, which see. (Jav. Teste's , hurt , cut , wounded). 

Neuleum, to dip, to dye, as cotton cloth or thread. To dive under water. (Jav. Silem , 
to dive under water, to sink into it; Nilem, to dip, to make sink). 

Ncupa, to work iron, to work as a blacksmith. 

Neurak, to take effect, to make an impression, to leave a mark; to hit. Di kad t k ku be- 
dog to daik neurak, when struck with a chopper , it would not be cut. (Jav. Nerak, 
to hurt, to hit). 

Neureus, to lay spawn or deposit eggs as fish do. Coming on in crowds. Said of num- 
bers of people pressing on to obtain some object. 

Nga, a syllable placed before a substantive or adjective, whereby a verbal sense is con- 
veyed, as Dc'ngi, hear, hearing, Ngadengi, to hear. The word so formed is also of- 
ten followed by an, as Hade, good, Ngahadean, to make good, to mend. See 

38 



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298 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

below for numerous examples. By divesting the word of the initial nga , and final an , 

the crude word will be found, which may mostly be further consulted in voce. 
Ngabadeg, many, plenty, superabundance; more than wanted. 
Ngabaiawak, to drop in upon a neighbour who is known to have good cheer, and as 

soon as you have got your belly full to walk off. Done in imitation of the Baiawak, 

which see. 
Ngabakti, to do good actions, to do what a man's faith or religion requires. To make 

reverence or homage. See Bakti. 
Ngabayuan, to feed, to take care of. To cherish. 
Ngabayut, jammed, grazing along. 
Ngabedil, to fire with a gun; to kill by firing at with a fowling piece or Bedil. Ngo- 

beclil unchal to neurak, I fired at a deer, but did not hit it. 
Ngabelelok, to explode, to go off with a loud report. 
Ngabeng'uk, sitting cowered in a heap, with the head hanging down, and troubled 

with some difficulty. 
Ngabesot, slipped or sprung out: disengaged; unconnected by slipping out. 
Ngabetok, to set oneself in opposition; to be hard-headed and obstinate. Unwilling to 

comply with any demand. (Jav. cn^*?)^ JBatuk, the forehead). 

Ngabetrik, to fly back with a spring as a bent stick; to reverberate. 
Ngabeureuman, to make red, that is to make any one ashamed of himself. To worst 

an enemy. 
Ngabilii, a petty title of family rank next below a Rangga, generally heard as Ingabi. 

(Jav. Ngabehi from kaleh, many, much. According to Gericke higher in rank than a 

Rangga). 
Ngabileng, to stare earnestly , to watch attentively ; to watch without turning off the head or 

eyes. 
Ngabiti, to strike sideways with the foot. To give a side blow with the leg. (Jav. Am- 

bitiy vn°t*?i\ to strike with the fist). 

en c 

Ngabokong, to set the rump against anything so as to lift it; to shove up and along 

with the rump, as a boat in shallow water. See Bobokong. (Jav. Bokong 9 the rump). 
N gab rag, to run about at random; to go aroving. To neglect work and go strolling 

about 
Ngabugigig, said of a person, especially a woman who is careless about her toilet, 

who never combs her hair, or puts her clothes properly on. Slovenly. 
Ngabukti, to get possession, to receive as an offering which is due and accepted. To 

obtain. See Bukti. 
Ngabulak, to bubble or well up like water, in large quantity and with force, 
Ngabundel, rolled in a heap; collected in a mass. (Jav. Bundcl, enrfitru^ to make a 

knot, to tie up). 
Ngaburayut, hanging down in a heap, or in a bundle or in a cluster. 



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AND ENGLISCH. 299 

Ngaburial, to bubble up as water in small quantities; said of small articles which keep 
floating upwards in water. 

Ngabuyut, to follow in a row as natives follow after a chief. To go in company with 

Ngachabur, to splash in water ; to swim in the splashing manner of natives. ( Jav. Che- 
bur, Mai. Chabur, to spring into the water). 

Ngachalok, to hop; to settle as a bird; to perch. (Bai MVncheluk, id.). 

Ngachir, to run away in fear; to run off when worsted; defeated and fugitive. 

Ngacho, to talk vauntingly. To hold bragging talk which of itself is evidently untrue. 

Ngadalit, to stare, to look earnestly. 

Ngadapang, down on all fours on the ground. Crouched down on the ground. Snea- 
king along in a cowring position. 

Ngadaweung, to stare at, to look steadily; to gaze. To look as if at a loss what to 
do. Agog and perplexed. 

Ngadeg, to set up for; to establish oneself; to be installed in an office. Geus ngadeg 
sudagar, he has set up for a trader. Ngadeg demang , to be installed as a Demang. 
(Jav. Bal. Kgadeg , to stand; to reign, to have authority). 

Ngade'gdeg, to tremble, to shiver with fear or cold or the like. 

Ngadekcm, crouched down; squatting on the ground. It also means stuffing yourself, 
feeding eagerly, as the natives always cower down when eating. Doing anything 
with great intentness. 

Ngadekuk, squatting down with one knee to the ground and the other to the chin. Said al- 
so of a horse which falls down with one leg bent , and the other stuck out in front. 
(Jav. Bat «£?*7«7>t*T>,jN Dekok, to sleep). 

Ngadempes, crouching down, as if hiding oneself. 

Ngadeng'i, to hear, to listen to. Utah sok ngademfi ka jtlcma burung d'ont be always 

listening to foolish people. (Mai. Dengar, to hear. Jav. jDengVr, Linger , to understand. 

Kw. Denge, «\?*?i\ to hear). 

Ngadepa, lying down as a beast; sleeping on the ground. Unehal kapanggih eukeur nga- 

depa, we came upon the deer whilst lying on the ground. 
Ngadouheusan, to approach, to draw near to; a refined expression. Ngadeuheusafi ka 

nu gede > to approach great men, to seek an interview with men in authority. 
Ngadeuleuh, to see, to view, to behold. Kudu ngade'ulhih ka kulon, you must look 

towards the west. (Cf. Jav. Kw. Didu. Kawi of inscriptions, Dele , £?/?m Bat. Delok). 

Ngadeupa, a superstitious ceremony performed at some Kramnts or old graves. A man 
takes a stick, by preference cut from the Sulangkar, and measures with it his fathom, 
Dcupa, which is then cut oft'. Such sticks are laid upon the Kramat, and if, after 
saying a prayer, they are found to be a little longer, the prayer will be granted. 

Ngadiyoukan, to be seated on; to cause to appear in anything which is growing. Xtja- 
diy-Jukan man'h, to go and sit oneself down* with a request, and refusing to leave 
till granted. Said of persons who thus go and request a daughter in marriage etc. 



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300 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Ngadlyeukan buku , said of young growing paddy when the joints form in the straw. 

Ngadoger, to work with a will, to work vehemently, to use strenuous exertions. Sa 
umur hirup ngadoger to bogah pimahieun, working hard all your life time and not 
having enough to live on. Lumpat ka sawah tVuleui ngadoger, to bisa maju ku tiutak, He 
ran to the sawahs and forthwith struggling vehemently could not advance from the mud. 

Ngadu, to fight, to squabble, to dispute. Joined and filled together. (See Adu). 

Ngadu biru, to intermingle in a discussion, or take part in it, when you have no right 
or claim to do so. To interfere in matters which do not regard you. See Biru. 

Ngaduken, to set to fighting; to egg on; to dispute. To fix or set together, as car- 
pentry &c. 

Ngadu muk, to abide, to live, to put up or hang out Di mana ngadumuk na, where 
•does he put up; where does he hang out. 

Ngadungkuk, to sit quiet cowered in a heap, with the head hanging down as if in 
deep thought or in trouble. To show in a round heap, as a big stone or other object 
at a short distance. 

Ngadurugdug, to run or move forward with violence and causing a loud report. To 
burst out violently. The report of anybody moving with violence, as a stone rolled 
down a hill. 

Ngaduruk, to gather wood together, to pile it up and burn it. This is always done in the 
humahs after they have been burnt off. Gathering the partially consumed branches 
and bits of wood, and burning them off in a heap. 

Ngagadil, to butt as a goat 

Ngagahgar, to cease to bear fruit, as trees or plants. 

Ngagalang, across our road ; athwart ; anything set up in a ridge so as to form a barrier. 

Ngagangsur, to trail along the ground with the belly, as is the case with one of the 
varieties of Rhinoceros, hence called Badak gangsur. Said of the act of any four-foo- 
ted animal's belly trailing along the ground, or over logs of wood as it walks along. 

Ngagantang, to receive anything, especially rice, by the gctntang measure. Paid labou- 
rers generally receive their allowances of rice twice a month, and this is called nga- 
gantang. 

Ngagantung, to be suspended. To cause a suspension of payments or other allowances. 
To be relatively higher than something else. Chai na to daik ngochor , ngagantung ke- 
neh ka na sawah, the water will not flow on, the sawahs are still quite suspended 
over it. 

Ngagauk, to bellow, to roar out. (Cf. Ngagoak). 

Ngagawing, swinging clear of the ground. Elevated above the ground. Pendulous. 

Ngagayem, to chew, to masticate: to chew the cud. 

Ngagapui, dragging along the earth; hanging down on the ground. 

Ngagedeg, rushing with impetuosity, as a stream of water, or a crowd of men or ani- 
mals. (Jav. GMeg, SntS<rr^\ to shake, to move to either side.) 



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AND ENGLISH. 301 

Ngagcdur, to make a loud noise or report in moving round or revolving like a water 
wheel. To make any continuous noise or chatter, as a person who talks much and no 
one else can put in a word. (Jav. Geder, £}& cf. <&£?^ a noise, a loud noise ; gumMer , 

to make a noise). 
NgagSlar, said of things left out exposed in an open room, which does not fasten up. 

Left open and exposed. 
Ngageledeg, rushing with impetuosity, as a stream of water, or a crowd of men or 

animals. (See Ngagedeg). 
Ngagendeng, crying out and remonstrating: querulously complaining. Giving lots of 

talk and complaint. 
Ngageong, to fly round and round, as doves or any flock of birds. 
Ngagetai, said of many people walking together or in a consecutive row; moving in 

larjre and tumultuous numbers. 
Ngageugeuh, to examine, to have an eye to; said of men in power who look after 

matters. 
Ngag^w^r, slipped down, slipped off. Said of a piece of wood laid across a ditch, which 

is not firm but slips round when stepped upon. 
Ngagilek, to turn or slip round, as a round pole of wood, or a round stone set in the 

road, when stepped upon. 
N gag oak, to roar out, to cry aloud, to bellow. (Goah, a crow; cf. Ngagaui). 
Ngago^ng, to turn round, to revolve as a wheel. 
Ngagolak, to boil up as hot water; to be in a state of ebullition. 
Ngaguik, to squeal as a pig. 
Ngagunduk, collected in a heap, piled together. 
Ngaguntang, to lay hold of and swing by, as in climbing a tree, swinging by the 

branches; or passing along the under part of a roof, swinging by the rafters. 
Ngaguriling, tumbling over, rolling about; running away in revolutions, like a stone 

rolling down a hill. (Cf. Oiling). 
Ngahad^an, to make good, to mend, to repair. To make good friends with any one. 

To cultivate a man's good will. 
Ngahaharuan, to speak bad of people behind their backs; to pick a hole in a man's 

character. To scandalize. 
Ngahalingan, to shut out from view. 
Ngahandapan, to come under, to be in a lower position. (From ITandap, Jav. (n nn U ^ 

low, beneath). 
Ngahaung, to roar as a tiger. 

Ngahawok, to scream, to cry out aloud, to holloa out. 
Ngah^ong, to mew as a cat. 

Ngah£urap, to take fish with a casting net. See Hreuap. 
Ngah&ureuyan, to molest, to trouble, to pester. 
Ngahiang, to disappear mysteriously, to vanish- as did the people in the olden time be- 



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302 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

fore the introduction of Mohammedanism and as is supposed was the case with those 
natives , who on the introduction of Mohammedanism were unwilling to renounce their 
old Brahminical faith and consequently vanished and did not die a natural death. The 
origin of this word is no doubt to be found in Hyang which see — to become a di- 
vinity, to be deified. This idea of vanishing from the world, and dying, is not con- 
fined to the Javanese. The early kiflgs of Macassar are reported also no tot have 
died , but that they disappeared. Tijdschrift voor Ned : Indie 1854 September. Page 149. 

N g a h i d i , to spear fish by diving down into the water with a Hidi , which see , and then 
watching an opportunity to strike the fish. 

Ngahuap, to feed by cramming into the mouth of another, as a child is fed by its mo- 
ther. (Bat. Suappin, idem). 

Ngahujen, to strain when wishing to pass a stool. 

Ngahuleng, to beat rest, to stop from work, to pause, to be discomfitted, to be lazily 
disposed. To be outwitted in argument to shillishally. 

Ngahunyud, sticking up in a heap. Projecting upwards like a cone. 

Ngahutang, to borrow; to incur debt by borrowing. 

Ngajamu, to invite people to a feast. To invite strangers to partake of refreshments. (From 

x ' ' So' 

Arab, o^ Jamcfa, to collect, to gather; subst. ^^ JarrCu). 

Ngajebleh, to project the lower lip intentionally, as if in mockery. 

Ngajeblug, to lie, to deceive, to swindle. 

Ngajebol, done up, fatigued very much, knocked up. 

Ngajcdur, to flow with impetuosity as a flood in a river. Making a loud report or great 

explosion. Maryem na ngajedur bai , the cannon went off with a great explosion. 
N g a j e 1 a j c r , said of the grains of growing paddy , when the husks are gaping , which is 

the true moment of impregnation. 
Ngajendil, to have an excrescence on the skin called Chendil. Any small projection. 
Ngajentul, of same meaning as Ngadungkuk, remaining quiet with the head hanging 

down, as if in deep thought or in trouble. 
Ngaji, ta read religious Mohammedan books. To study. To go to the Mohammedan schools. 

To read. See Aji. 
Ngajogo, to squat down on the hips with the knees under the arms. 
N g a j u r u , to be confined , to be brought to bed , to be delivered of young. 
Ngala, to take, to gather, to fetch, to catch. Ngala chai, to fetch water; Ngala tank, 

to catch fish. Kudu ngala sulu/i you must gather fire wood. Ngala buali, to gather 

fruit. Kami ma to daik ngala, as for me I do not wish to take any. Ngala ha bapa, 

to take after his father, to resemble his father. 
Ngaladag, in plenty, lying about in abundance. 
Ngala gen a, to set up for one self; to establish one self. 
Ngalakoan, to venture, to make an attempt. Mohal ngalako&n, that will never be the 

case. (Cf. Lahu). 



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AND ENGLISCII. 303 

Ngalalana, to go strolling about without any good intentions. Strolling about and in- 
tent on mischief. 

Ngalaler, to pass along, to inspect, to visit. Ari ngalaUr ka sawali, when I go to take 
a look at the sawahs. Hanto ngalaler ka dinyo, I did not pass that way. 

Ngalamar, the ceremony of asking a young girl in marriage from her parents. This is 
done by the parents or friends of the man, who carry, according to circumstances, a 
certain number of Lukuns or quids of Siurhih y when the proposals are made, and 
terms of marriage agreed upon. The word has probably its origin in Zambar, a leaf 
(of Seureuh). 

Ngalamar, to eat Seureuh- same as Ngalamar, which see. 

Ngalambak, lying about in numbers and in confusion. Scattered in quantities about, 

Ngalampahan, to take in hand, to receive in charge; to take possession of. Ngalampa- 
han parentah , to receive orders (to do something). Ngalampalian pagawian , to take 
work in hand. 

Ngalanchong, to go out on a journey, to take a stroll out. Ngalanchong ka Bataxci, 
to go on a journey to Batavia. Ngalanchong ka lumbur batur, to take a stroll out to 
a neighbouring village. (Bat. Melanchong , idem). 

Ngalangge, to take fish with a bag net , langgc , dipped in and out of water. 

Ngalangsa, to ask pardon, to entreat forgiveness. 

Ngalanjak, to take deer, kidangs, pigs or other wild animals, by setting nets among 
the bushes in a large semicircular shape and then driving the animals towards them, 
when getting entangled they may be easily shot or speared. 

Ngalantaran, to commence, to have its origin; having a connection with. 

Ngalawa* Saur,to ask for an explanation of some order given and not properly un- 
derstood; to ask in order to get a clear understanding. The expression used by in- 
feriors towards superiors, as we might say — „Pray Sir! how am I to understand what 
was just said". 

Ngalebok, to eat greedily, to guttle, to swallow eagerly. 

Ngalebos, to slip into a hole by accident; to make a false step. 

Ngaled, working lazily, easily tired, giving up a matter easily as impossible; wanting 
energy. 

Ngaledat slipped or rolled down from a height. 

Ngalegor, to lie down in the open air, or in any unfit place. 

Ngalchleh, tired, exhausted. 

Ngale'h-ngaleh, lying down tired or exhausted. 

N g a 1 c k e b , suffocating heat and no motion in the air. Said of a still atmosphere and oppres- 
sive heat. 

Ngalelup, getting entangled in boggy ground, where in the act of pulling out one foot, 
the other gets stuck fast. Set fast in a slough. 

Ngalemar, to eat seureuh; a refined expression used when speaking of a person of rank. 



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304 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

NgalSmbSng, not seeing clearly, not being able to distinguish colour or appearance with 
sufficient clearness. 

Ngalembongan, to clear up and put in order a bit of ground or garden. 

Ngalenjer, laid down at full length; stretched out when sleeping. 

Ngaleu-eut, to drink tea or any warm decoction. A refined expression. 

Ngaleuseuhan, to try on for the first time; to make use of for the first time. To make 
trial with. Ngaleuseuhan samping anyar , Trying on a new cloth for the first time. 
Ngaleuseuhan pare anyar, Taking a trial of the new paddy, eating it for the 
first time. 

NgalSut, to follow each other in a row; to walk in single file. To come in quick suc- 
cession. To proceed in a continuous or unbroken line. 

Ngaleuya, the same as ngaluya, which see. 

Ngaligur, lying about in numbers and in confusion; in abundance. Lauk munding nga- 
ligur, the buftaloe flesh was lying about in all directions. 

Ngalimbung, to gather together, to congregate. 

Ngaliyeuk, to stare about. To gaze around. To look up, or on one side. 

Ngaloher, stretched out at ease. Lying down carelessly any where. Ngaloher bai di 
saung sawah, stretched out in a sawah shed. 

Ngaluat, to make a grave; to prepare for burial. 

Ngaluhuran,tobeina higher position. To be in a position above some one else. (Luhur, high). 

Ngalului, to cook rice in a joint of bambu, which is thrust into a fire. 

Ngalumprah, showing in a heap, collected together, but rather spread out. 

Ngalumpuk, collected together, piled in a heap. Ngalumpuk is more in one heap or pile 
than ngalumprah. 

Ngalungsur, to stop, to be discharged from office or employment. 

Ngaiunjak, impudent, insolent, of offensive manners. 

Ngaluya, in large quantities; more than can be consumed; more than one knows what 
to do with. 

Ngambang, to float or swim in water. Said more especially of anything which lies length- 
ways on water, as a piece of wood, a spar, a bambu or the like. 

Ngambat, to entangle another person in any dispute; to draw into our own difficulties; 
to complicate. To acknowledge having done some evil, or committed some crime, but 
not alone, as it was done in company or with connivance of some one else who is 
named. Ngambat ha batur, to involve our neighbours (in our own difficulties); is of- 
ten to accuse falsely. 

Ngambek, to get in a rage; to get vexed, to kick up a row. Ulah sok beuki ngambek, 
D'ont get so easily vexed. Datang nu bogah, ngambek bai y when the owner came he 
kicked up a row. 

Ngambeuh, to smell, to get the odour of. To scent a coming event. 

Ngambul, to float upwards, to come or spring up in water. Said of anything which 
was kept under the surface, but which now comes up. 



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AND ENGLISH. 305 

Ngam^n, to go about searching for employment; a strolling workman. 

N gam par, laid out in layers; to spread out Chadas ngampar rocks which form a floo- 
ring; evenly disposed rocks in their natural position. Ngampar samak, to spread out 
a mat. 

Ngamprah, to go beyond a usual course; to exceed limits. Cluti ngamprah ka saxoah % 
the water has risen and overflowed the sawahs. Spread out, lying in a sheet as wa- 
ter. Laut ngamprah bai ka barat, the sea was spread out like a sheet towards the 
westward. 

Ngampre't, scattered in all directions; thrown about. To sprinkle. 

Ngamuk, to fight furiously. To attack indiscriminately. What is called in English — "run- 
ning a muck 11 . Any violent effort made is also called ngamuk. 

Ngandar, to drag, to haul along. To pull along the ground. 

Ngandeg, to stop, to cause to stop, to stay. Halted, stopping short in a course. Unchal 
na di bcdil cukcur ngandeg, the deer was shot at when it halted. 

Ngandul, to believe, to place confidence in, to trust. 

N gang" ah, to gape, to yawn, to hold the mouth open: gaping, open-mouthed. 

Ngangkrok, without the means of going further- said of a way, road or passage which 
suddenly ceases in some way, and we can go no further, but must return. 

Nganjang, to pay a visit, to go on a visit. Sok nganjang ka imah batur, he often goes 
on a visit to a neighbour's house. 

Nganjian, to have connexion as beasts. 

Nganjingan, to hunt with dogs — anjing. To set dogs upon anything or person. To 
chase out with dogs. 

Nganteh, to spin, to spin as thread. May be derived from the verb Kalinawa, to spin 
as thread, Clough 99. See kanteh. 

N g a n t e p, in an excessive degree , exceedingly. Ngantcp hade na ka kula , he was exceedingly 
good to me. 

N gap as, to draw breath, to inhale air. 

Ngaput, to sew, to stitch with needle and thread. 

Ngarabut, to pull up, to pluck out; pulled out, extracted. 

Ngarachak, to melt, to dissolve and trickle down. Trickling down as water or any liquid. 

Ngarah, to wish to have, to take a delight in, to desire, to covet. To di arah, I do 
not desire to make use of it. To jujara// , I do not want it. Ngarah sa hulu bai , T 
only wish for one (head or piece). Lun ngarah siji deni, I only wish for one more. 

Ngarajang, to attack, to fight in battle, to tackle on. To fall to the share of, to come 
to the turn of. Ngarajang ka nu diga kula, when it comes to the turn of a man 
like me. 

Ngarak, to carry a person in triumphal procession, as on occasions of marriage, circum- 
cision etc. (Bat. idem). 

N gar a kit, said of growing paddy which is already of some age, when two leaves come 

39 



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306 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

out together as if part of a raft, (see Rakit). The paddy in this state is also called 

Gede Pare, or high Paddy. 
Ngarakit, bound together in a raft. Rafted. Suluh beunang ngarakit, firewood which 

is bound together in a raft. 
Ngaraksa, to watch, to take care of. See Raksa. 
Ngarambat, to creep, especially to creep through amongst bushes or tangled jungle. To 

creep and twine itself up a rod , as a pea or other plant in growing. 
Ngaran, name. Saha ngaran sia, what is your name. (Jav. Kw. idem. Balin. Adan). 
Ngarandang, to creep, to crawl. 
NgarandSg, to stop in the course, to halt, to bring to. Said of more than one. Derived 

from Andeg which see. Bedul ngarandeg di sisi humah, the pigs halted on the verge 

of the paddy plantation. 
Ngarangke, to get up any place, to climb. 
Ngarangsang, climbing up against. Said of the sun as it draws towards noon. Mala 

poi geus ngarangsang , the sun is climbing up on high — say from 11 to 12 o'Clock A.M. 
Ngaranjap, to kill an animal, as a buffaloe, for sale of the flesh. 
Xgarara, to twist and twirl any fibre into a string; said especially of Haramai. 
Ngarasa, to feel, to be conscious of; to have a pleasure in ; to be pleased with. (See Rasa). 
Ngarawidil, with the end sticking up, where it ought not Projecting and out of order. 

Confusedly; not ship -shape. 
Ngarayap, to creep, to crawl on all fours. 
Ngar^ret, to look askance, or from the corner of the eye. 
Ngareumbeui, in seasons of scarcity of food, to mix maize or fruit with a little boiled 

rice, so as to make it go far. 
Ngareuneuhan, to get with child, to cause to be pregnant. 
Ngareunteut, to settle down, to sodden together. To become compressed together, as 

a heap or pile of any light matter, as paddy, grass etc. after it has been heaped up 

for a short time. Collapsed. 
Ngari, to have a surplus, something remaining over; a remainder. To ngari, nothing was 

left. 
Ngari les, the plural of Ngilcs, Jetiima geus ngarffis kabih, all the men have sneaked 

away. 
Ngarinduk, bending over, curving downwards, Ngarinduk daun a term applied to young 

growing paddy, when it is so large as to admit the leaves to bend downwards. 
Ngaringkel, curled up, twisted in a circle, crimpled together, coiled up in aheap as 

a man wrapped up in his Samping and lying down. 
Ngaringkuk, being quiet but troubled in spirit. Sitting moping in troubles. 
Ngaro-61, to play and dance with the small angklungs. 
Ngaroknok, said of the feathers of birds which come out after moulting. The stumpy 

points of feathers just beginning to sprout. 



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AND ENGLISH. 



307 



Ngaronjang, about to ascend, on the point of springing up. 
Ngarosa, to be violent, to use great exertion; to do anything on a large scale. 
Kgaruyuk, to have intercourse with women slily in the jungle. See Ruyuk. 
Ngaseuk, to sow seed,^ especially paddy seed, by dibbling it into the ground. To sow 

paddy seed in the humahs, viz. by making a hole in the hard ground with a bluntly 

pointed stick, and then dropping a few grains into such hole. 
N gas in, said of animals which seek salt licks. Said of animals snuffling after salt. Said 

of men who run after women. 
N g a s i r , to tear or furrow up the earth as a buffaloe does with his horns. To scratch up 

the earth with the horn. 
Ngasuh, to nurse a little child. To hold such a child in the arms and swing it about. 
Ngatiga, to make sawahs in the dry season, in swampy lands, which in the rainy season 

are to deep in water. See Katijcu 
Ngaur, to make aloud report. To go with a great bang. Mary^m na ngaur bai di mda, 

the cannon went off with a loud explosion. 
Ngawadang, to eat cold rice, the leavings of a regular meal. 
Ngawakwak, to keep chattering, to keep talking, to keep quacking. 
Ngawalajar, to plough sawahs for the first time when preparing for planting. When 

ploughed a second time, which is always the case, the operation is called Ngeweled. 
Ngawali, said of paddy which when planted does not yield a new grain, bearing exact- 
ly the same peculiarities as that planted. Said of forest which, when cut down, does not, 

on growing again , produce the same trees as the primeval forest so destroyed. Change 

in vegetation. 
Ngawulit, to make atap thatch, by tying the leaves on the Jejalon stick. Kirai loba 

kudu ngawtlit , there is lots of Kirai , so make atap thatch. 
Kgaweregan, to drive fish or game into nets or enclosures in order to catch them. 
Ngawih, to sing. See Kawih. 

Ngawin, to marry. To carry spears in procession. See Kawin. 
Ngawujuk, to coax, to flatter, to chouse. 
Ngawuruk, to instruct, to teach in any department of knowledge, as well regarding 

religion, as any other matter. 
Ngayar, said of a sound which is heard at a great distance. 
Ngayuh, to use Jampe or incantations to obtain other people's luck. The expression and 

the incantation are often used as applied to growing crops of paddy, when a man 

uses incantations, so that the grain of a neighbour is mysteriously transferred to his 

own paddy. A very pretty little bit of hocus-pocus. 
NgSbedah, to open new sawahs. To convert land into sawahs by bringing a stream of 

water upon it, and then laying out the terraces. 
Ngeble'h, giving up in dispair, giving up as a bad job. Said of anything which has been 

attempted but dropped again unfinished. 



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308 A DICTIONARY SUNDANES E 

NgeblSk, accumulating in quantity. Heaped up against anything. 

NgSbred, lively and active — said of an old venerable man. 

Ngebul, rising as smoke or dust, curling upwards. Nyieup seuneuh teulcui hase'up na 
ngebul , blowing at the fire , the smoke immediately curled upwards. Ngebul also means 
having great pretentions but ending in smoke or doing nothing. Making great fuss 
and preparations, but having no desirable result. 

Ngecheches, small and bad; dwarf and puny. 

Ngechurek, said of light but constantly dripping rain. 

Ngedeng, lying down reclining, reposing, lying at ease. Streched out on a sofa, bed 
or any other convenience. 

Ngegrit, to go out a shooting in a Pedaty or cart — especially done when in quest of 
deer, which will often stand gazing at a Pedaty and buffaloes coming among them, 
till the person in the cart can get a shot at them. 

Ngehkeh, a frequent and i troublesome cough; to keep constantly coughing huskily. 

Ngejat, to spring on one side, to jump aside, as a man or animal, to get out of the 
way, or from fear. 

Ngejebol, knocked up, broken down with fatigue. Kuda na ngejebol , the horse is knock- 
ed up. 

Ngekchelekan, to fall down drop by drop, as water or other liquids. 

Ngckes, to gather up fruit which has fallen from the tree, especially coffee under the 
bushes. The idea is taken from the jungle squirrel Kekes y which feeds upon fruits. 

Ngelak, to keep singing without intermission; to be continually singing. To yelp. When 
this word is used, it indicates somewhat of displeasure towards the person singing, as 
if we did not admire his singing but were bored by it. Salak> Marsden Page 158 to 
bark, to yelp, has no doubt the same origin. Budak tea ngelak bai sapcupeuting , 
the young man did nothing but yelp the whole night through. 

Ngclar, to go abroad and show yourself, as a great man or a Sovereign. 

Ngeleguk, to take a draught of any liquid. To drink in gulps. 

jtfgClSkem, to lay hold of, to put your hands upon. 

Ngeleketek, to tickle, to have the sensation of being tickled. 

Ngulewong, said of a hole which gapes down into the earth. To yawn as a chasm. 
Liang ngelewong bai ka handaj? , a hole which yawns downwards. 

Ngelik, is in a smaller degree what ngeluk is in a larger one. Churuh ngeluk cldnggir 
ngelik, the forefinger doubled up, and the little finger twirled upwards — an expression 
applied to the bending of the points of the fingers towards the palm of the hand. Or 
perhaps ngeluk is said of something which is stout and strong, whereas ngelik applied 
to something small or weak. 

Ngelis, to put on the headhandkerchief neatly, by arranging the borders elegantly and 
smoothly, as young men do when they wish to make themselves agreeable to their 
chiefs or sweethearts. 



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AND ENGLISH. 309 

Ngeluk, bending or curving, especially downwards. Tunduh bai ngeluk, he was fast a- 

sleep with his head hanging downwards. See mjclik, above. 
Ngembieng, said of water which rises to a level even surface behind a dam, without 

current or fall. 
Ngdncher£ng, the sound or jingle of money. Tculiui ngenclCering bai, he immediate- 
ly rattled out the money. 
Ngendong, to visit, to go to a neighbours house. 

Ng^ngo, a dwarf palm wild in forest, Pinanga costata. It resembles the Singling. 
Ngcngkui, to walk in succession; to follow one by one, as natives do. 
Ngengkulan, to overlook, to overhang; to have in one's power. 
Kgenteng, in a straight direction. In an uninterrupted straight line. 
"Ngepak, to flap or clap the wings, as a cock does when he crows. 
NgC*per, to shake, to quiver, to be agitated. 
Ngcrcb, to take shelter, to go to shade. 
Ngcrubut, constant dripping of rain. Ilujan sa peuptSutiny ngerebet bai, the rain has kept 

dripping all night long. 
Ngeres, feeling hurt in spirit, troubles in mind. Vexed, distressed, afflicted. 
Ngcrcs, having sand or anything gritty on it; said of clothes or a mat which have sand 

or dust on them. 
Ngcrcwidil, projecting, sticking out in rough unworkmanlike way. Said of split bam- 
bu work, or any work made of sticks or other light materials which project, and 
have a jagged rough edge. (See Ngaraicidil). 
Nge'ser, to shift gently, to move by degrees; to shove along. 
Ngeuhngeuh, soft, easily cut. 

Ngcumbing, to creep along under anything which overhangs and by which we hold, 
as along the side of a roof, by holding on to, or hanging from the rafters. Figura- 
tively — to put oneself under the protection of another person in authority. 
Ngeunah, comfortable, pleading to the sensations, delightful, easy. Pleasant tasted. Nfju- 
nah chicltii/ij di lumbar Ha, it is delightful residing in that village. Duah eta to wjlu- 
nah, tliat fruit is not pleasant to eat. Pagaiccan ngcunuh, easy work. 
ICgeurad, to drag water with a large net in order to catch fish. 
Nsre'we, mulierem subire. 

Kgewek-ngiwuk, whining, crying effeminately. 
Kgciwel, to lay hold of. To lay hands or paws on. 
Ngew{?lcd, to plough sawahs for the second time — the first time ploughing being called 

Ngawalajar. 
?J gibing, to dance to Ronggengs or public dancing girls. To make postures in accom- 
paniment with Ronggcngs. 
Ngichap, to wink with the eye, to make signs to any one by winking. 
Ngichilik, to walk away without diverging to the right or left. jVgichiliL bai turut ja- 



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310 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Ian g%de 7 and straightways he followed the main road. 
N g i g e 1 , to strut and show oneself with pride. To make postures as in native dancing To fliri" 

the arms about and turn a pirouette. The strutting of a peacock. 
Ngiji, to become one, from the word Siji, one. This word is applied to the constant rain 

which falls during the northwest monsoon , when it keeps dripping day and njVlit. 

Musin ngiji, the rainy season, from December to March. 
Ngiklak, cut and hanging open like a wound. A piece of flesh hanging down from the 

result of a wound from some cutting instrument. 
Ngiles, to slip out of the way, to disappear, to sneak away. Ulah sok beulci ngiles , d'ont 

be always trying to sneak off. 
Ngili, to hide oneself, to skulk, to be concealed. Ka mana ngili na, where has he hid 

himself. 
Ngilu, to follow, to go after. See Ilu. 
Ngimpi, to dream. 

Ngingonan, to feed a man. to supply with provisions; to provide with food and the re- 
quisites for daily life including Seureuh and its accompaniments. • 
Nginjeum, to borrow. (Cf. Mai. Pinjam). 
Ngirik, to rub paddy grains from the straw by trampling on it with the feet, for the 

purpose of planting in the humahs. 
Ngirim, a modification of Kirim to send — to entrust to the care of another person, to 

entrust, to recommend to another's care. To send; sent. 
Ngiring'ih, laughing and at the same time showing the teeth. Grinning. Pakarang 

na ngiringih bai di taneu/i , his weapon laid grinning (out of the sheath) on the o- round. 
Ngiser, to move, to cause to change place. Ngisert move up, shove up. 
Ngiwat, to run away with a woman. To elope. 
Ngiwi, mulierem subire. The same as Ngewe. 
Ngochor, to run as water, to flow. Chai ngoehor ka susukan, the water runs into the 

canal. See Bochor. 
Ngoda, useless, of no use; labour in vain. Uninhabited- said of a tract of country without 

inhabitants. 
Ngohkok, a frequent and troublesome cough; constantly coughing aloud. In a larger 

degree what tigihkih is in a smaller one. 
N g o j a i , to swim , to float in water. 
Ngoko, the rough or vulgar dialect of the Javanese language, as contradistinguished 

from the Krama or refined. The Ngoko is used by a man of higher rank towards an 

inferior, who must use the Krama or refined language in return. 
Ngokoh, to have plenty without trouble, particularly in eating; to glut yourself. 
Ngoletrak, to become exposed, uncovered by water; said of the bed of a river or its 

stones so exposed , when the water is dammed off into a canal. 
Ngolong, to make love, as the young native men do to their sweethearts, by going to 



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AND ENGLISH, 311 

their houses, generally at night. Probably derived from Kolong, the space under a 

native house where they may conveniently secrete themselves and hold conversation 

with the young maid occupying a snug corner in her father's house. 
Ngombongan, to take fish in an enclosure built up in the water with wicker work and 

stones. A man perched in a tree above, holds a string whereby he can raise a bit 

of netting across the hole by which the fish have entered , when they can be secured. 
Ngomong, to talk over, to converse, to hold conversation. 
Ngompos, to put unripe plantains , wrapped up in leaves , into a hole in the eartli , 

where it is dry, as under a house, in order to ripen them quickly. Plantains buried 

also in bran in the same way soon ripen. 
Ngongkong, to put out work to be done by others. 
Ngop^pang, throwing the arms abbut as in oratory; to gesticulate. Flinging the arms 

about when hard at work. Sometimes heard as Nyopepang. 
N g o p i , to drink coffee , to take coffee- from kopi , coffee. 
Ngora, young, juvenile. Fresh, weak in substance; diluted. 
Ngoraken, to begin again, to renew; to dilute; to render weak by mixture. 
Ngorok, to snore from the bottom of the throat, especially when the throat is encum- 
bered with phlegm. 
Ngoroyo, said of a person who unasked comes and joins at a meal; intruding yourself 

at meal- times. 
Ngos£r, to move one's place while sitting or crouched on the ground, as natives do. 

To wriggle along. 
Ngowod, to eat ravenously. To do anything with eagerness and energy. 
Ngoyos, to weed a sawah. To pull out the weeds in a sawah. To clean a sawah by 

pulling out the weeds, and scratching the mud between the young growing paddy, 

with the fingers. 
Xgubok-ubck, to trample about , to wander backwards and forwards on the same place; 

to tread down anything, as paddy or grass by so wandering about. 
Ngudupruk, falling or tripping against. Tripped up by stumbling against. 
Ngukui, to scoop out, to scratch out a hole in the ground, as many wild animals do. 

To burrow. 
Ngukupan, to prepare scented ointments or essences by a process of distillation. 
Ngukut, to bring up an orphan. To bring up another person's child. 
Ngulah, to wallow, as buffaloes, in a muddy hole. • 

Nguliwa, warped, as a beam or plank. 
Nguluwung, deep as the bed of a river. Said of a ravine which has cut deep into the 

surface of the land. 
Ngumbara, to remove to another part of the country; to roam. See Umbara. 
Ngumun, to pay respect to; to hold in awe, to venerate. 
Ngunduh, to gather the fruit from a tree , by taking off the whole crop. Daii ngunduh 



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312 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

jambu, I am going to gather in all the fruit from the Jambu tree. 
Ngunglon, to do as a Bnncfloti or Chameleon. To deceive by changing appearance. To 

trim conduct according to circumstances. 
Ngunjung, to pay a visit; to make a visit of ceremony. 
Ngunjungan, to make obeisance to a great man, by creeping towards his feet and 

touching them with the folded hands, as natives do towards their chiefs. 
N g u p a t , to speak bad of people behind their backs ; to scandalize. To defame. 
Ngurus and ngurusan, to have care of. To look after. To put in order. To arrange. 
Ngusur, to bribe, to give a douceur. 

Ngutil, to pluck fruit which first comes ripe. The first of a crop of fruit. 
Nguyang, to go in search of food among the neighbours, especially in the season of scar- 
city, by carrying some trifles, as fruit, firewood or the like, to exchange for paddy 

or rice. This nguyang system is also half begging. 
N g u y u n g , ill and weakly ; labouring under protracted sickness ; lingering with any disease , 

neither dying outright nor getting better. 
Ni, an epithet for a native woman already of some age, and may somewhat correspond 

with our Mrs., madam; it is the short for Nyai which see. Ni mandor, the wife of the 

mandor , or Mrs. Mandor. The term is not so respectful as when spoken more at length 

and pronounced clearly Nyai. 
Nigang, said of a woman's head which has been nicely dressed, well combed and stuck 

full of flowers or other ornaments. 
Ni-is, to cool oneself. To sit in a cool place. (From Ti-is, Bal. Tis, cold). 
Nikah, arabic, nuptials, the rites or ceremonies of marriage. Geus nikah, they have gone 

through the marriage ceremony (before the priest). ( _l£>> Nikdh, congressus venerens ; 

matrimonium). 
Nikes, to snap, to break short. To break the stem of a tender plant so that it hangs 

towards the ground without being actually separated. 
Nil, the river Nile. The Sunda people hear of the Nile and Mesir or Egypt and Grand 

Cairo, from the pilgrims to Mecca. 
Nila, the Indigo dye, the prepared Indigo dye. The plant is called Tarum. Nila, C. 330, 

the colours blue, black and green. 
Nilum, name of a white coloured fish in stagnant waters. Rohita Hasseltii. 
Nilem, ffalinga. The Sapphire stone. (Nila, Skr. Sapjihire). 
Nimbal, to present itself, to come forward. May often be translated by —and then. 

Lamun kaberieran nimbal ka nu hade , if it so happens that a good one presents itself! 

Nimbal deui to peupeuli m&un daik eurem di tjawe, and then he did not say that he 

wished to stop from working. 
Ninchak, to tread upon, to set foot on. Ulah ninchak ka dinyo , do not tread upon that 

spot. Ninchak ka nu gorfag , coming amongst what is bad. (Mai. Inchak id). 



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AND ENGLISH. 313 

N in dak, to set out on a journey , to start. Tachan daik nindak, he has not yet 
started. (Tindak, Jav. Kr. hinggil: to go; to set out on a journey, to start). 

Nindih, to lie upon, to be superincumbent. Pari any at nindih hap are kolot, the new 
paddy lies upon the old paddy. See Tindih and Tindihktin. (Mai. sjjj tindih , to lay 
upon each other, to press upon a thing. Jav. &mn^ tindih , to be superior. Cf. tindis , 
Mai., Batav., the same as tindih). 

N i n g , a constructive and possessive particle used in the formation of sentences ; it has of- 
ten the power of- of, with, for, by. It is the same as ing, and king, and after a 
consonant at the end of the preceding word becomes ing which see. Hade nitig jilema, 
by the goodness of man. Sa rata ning tanVuh, off even with the ground. Rua ning 
goring. It has a bad appearance. (Compare also ring, Kawi, Jav., of same meaning). 

N i n g g a 1 , deceased , dead ; a respectful expression. ( Tinggal , Mtininggal , Mai. Jav. Bal. idem). 

Ninggang, to come in contact with, to attain to. To fall to each man's share. Cltai 
na mohal ninggang ha sampalan eta , the water will not flow out upon that plain. Padati 
na di batoalxmpat kalando, ninggang kakayu, the cart being run away with downhill, 
came in contact with a tree. Ninggang di dalam sa orang sa tengah rupiya , every 
man had got to pay half a rupee ; or , what fell to each man's share , was half a rupee. 

N i n g g u r , to beot and tep round the fruit stem of a kawung palm in order to prepare it 
for yielding toddy. 

N i n g ' o , to know , a careless and indifferent manner of expressing yourself. To ningo , do'nt 
know. 

N i n g R a t , of the world or country. A term frequently occurring in the names of 
Javanese princes and nobles. 

Nini, grandmother; a term of respect for any old woman. (C-&ui, Nene 1 , Mai., grandfa- 
ther ; neri&k parampuwan , grandmother. Nini , Jav. , an old woman ; grandmother. At 
Bali also title of female deities. Reduplication of Ni, which see.) 

N i p a h , name of a palm tree growing in swampy places , generally near the sea shore. 
Nipa fruticans , the leaves of which are used much for ataps or thatch. (Mai. tfaj , Nipah). 

N i r a , you , thou ; a term of disparagement. (Stands to ira in Kawi as ning to ing ; sira , 
Kawi, is the unconnected pronoun, ira, and nira connected with the preceding 
noun). 

N i r a j i m , Ar. punishment ; see Rajim and Irajim , of which Nirajim appears to be some 

corruption. La. . , rajama, lapidibus obruit et occidit; *ju>-. , rajim, lapidibu* obrut us, 

Sa tanas). 
N i s a b , Ar. sufficiently large or plentiful to pay Tikat or the priest's dues. (uUj m'fri- 

bon, radix, principium; property, from which a tribute is to be paid.) 
N i 8 1 a , a word used to denote sufficient warning , in following form of words. Ni&ta , 

40 



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314 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

maja, utama, the natives having the idea that three warnings ought to be given before 
punishment is due , and the three warnings are denominated as above. Nishta , CI. 333 
end , conclusion , completion , as if at the first warning punishment was due , but out 
of consideration or compassion of great men , warning was still given. 
See maja and utama. (Nishta , Set. means the lowest degree, maja, Set. madhya, the 
middle one , utama , Set. uttama , the highest degree. These words are at Bali applied to 
the casts , a Sudra being nishta , a "Waigya madhya , the Kshattriye uttama , the Brah- 
man at last ning uttama, higher than the highest. Fr.). 

N i t a h , to order , to give command. Nitah ngala chai , order to fetch water. (Mai. Utah , id.) 

N i t i h , to mount , to get upon , as a horse , carriage , or any conveyance. Said only of 
men of high rank. (Balin. idem. From Set. ni to lead, niti, leading). 

N i t i r , to strike the village drum in a peculiar way so as to sound an alarm when some 
accident has taken place. To sound an alarm. (Jav. titir, to strike the rice-blocks, 
as a signal.) 

N i t i s , to boil sugar , to evaporate the water till the sugar forms ; to granulate. (Jav. 
titis, to drop, to fall in drops.) 

N i y a t , Ar. intention , design f purpose , premeditation , vow. To niyat , I have no in- 
tention. Niyat ka Batawi , I purpose going to Batavia. ( Ar. ££ niyyat , intentio , 

animi propositum). 
Niyata, ascertained, certain, evident, true. Niyata, C. 325 , ascertained , certain, true, 

fixed , appointed. (Set. Niyata , checked , restrained. But Malay cul> nydta , evident , 

clear , visible ; Set. jnydta.) 
Niyeun, to do, to make, to construct. Niyeun imah, to construct a house. Niyeun kueh, 

to make a cake , or any pastry. 2siyeun pigalieun , to make difficulties , to cause trouble. 
Niyeung, to see , to behold ; To niyeung , I cannot see. Sia niyeung manuk Ha , do you 

see that bird ? 
Nobos, slipped through , forced a way through , broken through. Bedul nobos pagVr 

humah, the pig has forced away through the fence of the humah. Nobos pagtir also 

means in general by way of simile — exceeding what you ought to do, — going beyond 

your authority, — presuming where you have no right. (Batav. Mai. Noblos and Lolos.) 
Nod, the feel of a weight in the hand when wishing to ascertain an idea of such weight. 

Nod na lain deui, its weight felt otherwise. 
No-el, to touch anything slightly ; to poke at witji the end of the finger , or a bit of 

•stick or the like. 
N o h , Ar. the Patriarch Noah. 

Nok, name for a child. An affectionate term for an infant. (Nok applied to female chil- 
dren , tong to male ones , but only by the next relations. Fr.) 
Nona, Portuguese , a miss , a young lady , an unmarried young woman either European 



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AND ENGLISH. 315 

or Chinese. Nona ttutik, the small miss. Nona gem gedc, the young lady is grown up. 
Nona, as buah nona , annona reticulata , name of a fruit , called in vulgar English 

„ a bullock's heart." Anona , C. 32 , the custard apple, — which in Java is called the 

Siri kaya , and is the annona squamosa , so that the name on Java of Nona has been 

wrongly applied , and both have very likely been introduced from India. 
Nonggar, said of a tree of which the roots grow along the surface of the ground ; 

evident , not concealed. Nonggar teuyn kalahuan sia , your conduct is too evident — 

it is too clearly seen what you are about. 
Nongg£ng, cowering down , squatting down with the back curved ; squatting down 

with the back turned towards any one ; sometimes a mark of respect to a great man 

implying that the party is not worthy to even look upon him. (Jav. Bat. Jungking , 

Jengking , Menjenking idem. But not with respect to a high person). 
Nonggerak, exposed to view, not covered up. Patent. 
Nonggong, with the back set against anything. Nonggong ha na kayu eta , with your 

back to that tree. See Tonggong. 
Nongkob, to cover in the ridges of a roof, with thatch &c. 
Nonjol, to be startled, to make a bolt, as a horse or other animal; to start from its 

place , as a beam of wood or bar of iron in any structure. 
N o n t o n , to go and see , especially to see a sight To see a festival going on , Rong- 

gengs dancing or the like. (Batav. idem. According to Crawfurd Jav.) 
Nontot, to stick out, to project, to extend beyond. (Batav. idem.) 
N o - o n g , to peep , to look at slyly. To look at but avoid being seen. 
N o r o n , without intermission , constantly , Sawah eta noron bai onggel tahun di sambut ku 

kula> that sawah I make every year without intermission. 
N o t o g , struck with the end of any thing , as a bit of wood. Pushed endways on. 

Impinged. 
N o y o d , without intermission , unceasingly. 
Nu, who, which, that which. Jelema nu jangkung , a man who is tall. Tangkal nu luhur , 

a tree which is high. 
N u a , the same as Nuba, vide voce. 
Nuar, to dye thread. Sambara nuar , dying ingredients, especially when preparing to dve 

read with changkudu. 
Nuaran, to cut down trees , to fell trees , see Tuar. 
Nuba, to take fish by stupifying them with the juice of the root of a plant called Tuba, 

which see. 
Nubruk, to throw oneself upon amany ilan in order to catch it ; to make a rush at and 

snatch. To seize unawares. 
Nuhun, submissive , grateful ; a very lowly and humble term of admittance or acknow- 
ledgment , made by an inferior to a superior. To entreat, to beg. Kula nuhun dahar , 

I entreat something to eat. (Jav. Suhun or Suwun— Kuwun). 



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316 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Nujum, Ar. necromancy, astrology. L»J, plur. ^», stars; ^pj is also ortus stellae, 

and conspicuitas). 
Numbuk, to butt with the head, to thump, to beat hard. (Mai. ^jjuJ, tumbuk, id. Jav. 

tumbuk, to beat against a thing, to run against it; to concur, said of two facts occu- 
ring at the same time. Fr.) 

Numpang, to be accommodated (as with a passage in a vessel , with lodging on a journey 
or with the transport of goods.) To go along with , or under the protection of some 
one else. (Malay, Batav. idem. Also to be lodged in anothers house) 

Nun, yes , a very respectful expression of assent It may be a contraction of nuhun , 
which see, or of nuna , C. 338, certainly, truly, veritably, indubitably. Kula «un, 
I with respect ; your humble servant ; kula nun inggiA , I with respect say yes. (Nuna 
in Clough is Set. n4nam; the corruption of the word on Java not being likely, I de- 
rive nun from nuhun, having also the same meaning. Fr.) 

Nuncheb, said of any thing, as a stake of wood , -which is stuck fast and upright in any 
substance , as in water , or in mud. Fallen headformost. Kai/u glide nuncheb di raneha , 
a large piece of wood stuck fast in a swamp. Also said of anything falling direct 
down upon the ground ; JRagrag nuncheb ka taneuh , he fell headforemost on the ground. 
(Batav. nanehtib, which is not found in the Malay and Ja van. dictionaries.) 

Nundutan, being sleepy , inclined to go to sleep. Dozing , half asleep ; napping. 

Nunggak, to stick up or out like the stump of a tree. To remain over. To be in 
surplus. (Tunggak, Jav. Bat. the stem or stump of a tree below the branches). 

Nunggal, alone, separate, distinct, independent. (Tunggal, Jav. Mai. idem.) 

Nunggul, left like the stump of a tree, from which the shade of the branches has been 
ruthlessly removed. See Tunggul. Desolate and alone , destitute. 

Nunggul-pinang, left like the stump of the pinang tree. Said of a person who has 
no relations left , an entire orphan. 

Nungguluk, showing in a large mass ; looming large in the distance. 

Nungtek, perpendicular , bolt upright. 

N u n i a , Mrs. , a title given to European and Chinese married women. (Bat. ; pronounced 
nyo-nya; of Portuguese origin.) 

Nunjang, course, direction, current , said of waters or rivers — flow towards. Chai kabeh 
nunjang ngulon , all the rivers flow towards the west. Chai eta ka mana nunjang na , 
whither does that river flow. (Jav. To run against any thing.) 

Nunjukul, high and round, bluff- as ground elevated and round at the top. 

Jfurgaha, prosperity, affluence. (Set. Anugraha, commonly corrupted to nugraha, fa- 
vour, furthering; in the Archipel it means commonly favour of the deity, whereof pro- 
sperity is the result. Fr.) 

Jfurjaya, name of a hill on Jasinga Estate, which forms one of the boundary marks 
with Bantam , called Gunung Nurjaya. Mr. Friederich thinks the word is derived from 
firi-jaya > which being a sound difficult for Polynesians to pronounce , they have 



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AND ENGLISH. 317 

transformed it into Nurjaya. Nri'is the most simple form of Kara, man, in Sanscrit, 
as there is Nripati for Narapati , lord of men. 

Narapati, Clough 311 , from Nara , a man, and Pati, a lord , a king, a sovereign. 
Nra> Clough 844, a man, individually or collectively, mankind. Narapati, Clough 
344, one of the names of Kuvera, the Indian god of riches; a king, a sovereign. 
On the Gunung Nurjaya exists, cut upon a rock in situ, the mark of a man's foot, 
which may perhaps help to show that the Nur applies to Nara> a man. Nurjaya will 
then mean „ the triumphant man." (This might be also a sign of Buddhism formerly 
prevailing. Fr.) 

N u s a , an island. This appellation is given to many small islands throughout the Eastern 
Archipelago and may probably be of Sanscrit origin , as it is similar to the Greek 
Nesos , an island. The word rarely occurs in the Sunda , but is still heard in old 
accounts of the first arrival of Europeans , who are said to have come to Nusa Kalapa, 
or the islands at the mouth of the Tangerang River, or the Chisidani. See Sunda 
Kalapa, also Kambavgan for Nusakambangan. 

Nusa An tar a, the ancient name of the island of Madura. See Raffles vol. 2. page 92. 
Aniara , C. 33 , within , between , amongst , also without , outside — and may have been 
called so from either dividing the Java sea , at the east end of Java , or from lying 
outside of the main land of Java. Antaraya, C. 33, an obstacle, an impediment, An- 
laripa, C. 33, an island. 

Nutu, to beat or pound out rice from the straw in the village rice blocks. 

Nuturken, to follow , to track , to chase. 

N u w a , see Nua. 

N y a , yts , indeed , verily , it is true. Is it true ? Nya tah sia maling kotok ? Is it true 
you stole the fowls? Nya bai gtus undur , indeed he has gone away. 

Nya- ah feeling affection for, having compassion for. Regret to make use of— or destroy. 
Compunction. Budak sok nya — ah ka indung na y a child has affection for its mother. 
Nya-ah amat ka nu di gibugan^ to feel great compassion for those who are flogged. 
Naun, to nya-ah ka banda batur , what have no regret , (or compunction) in des- 
troying another , man's property. To nja-ah ka kuda , he has no compassion for his 
horse. 

Nyabrang, to go across a river or any piece of water. Hayang nyabrang , I want to go 
across the river. Nyabrang lautan , to cross the seas. 

N y a b u r , to splash or swim in water. 

Nyachag, to chop or cut up f to hack , to cut with a weapon. 

N y a c h a s , clear, defined , distinctly related , intelligible. Jelhna eta nyachas amat , that 
man tells an intelligible story. 

N y a d a p , to tap palm trees , especially the kawung palm in order to extract the toddy , 
and from it to boil down the sugar ; to make jagory sugar from palm wine. 

Nyadak, It can't be true! you joke! impossible! you d'ont say so! to talk at random; 
to talk vauntingly. 



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318 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Nyah-nyah-nyoh-nyoh, pouting the mouth out like a monkey. 

Nyaho, to know. To nyaho > I do not know. Saha nu nyaho, who knows. Nyaho bat 
art daik p&up&uli , he knows well enough if he will tell. Ny a, C. 215 wisdom, 
knowledge. (Nya in Clough is from Set. jnyd 9 to know , which is known in Kawi. Fr.) 

Nyai, an epithet for a married native woman corresponding with our Mrs. Nyai DVmang, 
the Demang's wife , Mrs. Demang. This designation of Nyai is always given to 
native (Javanese not Chinese) women who cohabit with Europeans. A mistress. 

Nyai S t o m i , one of the Pusaha or heirloomguns of Java, still preserved in a Pase'ban 
on the alun-alun of the Kraton of Solo , and honoured with much respect. Stomi is 
probably Sthama, C. 775, strength, power, become Sthami, or feminine, to corres- 
pond with Nyai y mistress. Sthami is made Sthomi according to the peculiarity of the 
Javanese language which changes the a into o. Nyai Sthomi , is thus the „ powerful 
mistress. " The other two heirloomguns of Java were Si amuk and Guntur geni , be- 
longing to Cheribon and Bantam, but whether they still exist, enquiry has failed to 
show. (Stomi seems to be no native or Hindu word.) 

N y a i e r , to take fish with a basket ; especially when the rivers are flooded , when the 
fish can be caught in a basket by dipping it in turbid spots near the edge, where the 
current is slack. This is much done by women. 

N y a i e r , a shrill , loud voice or sound heard at a distance. Said of the neighing of 
a horse. 

Nyalahan, mistaken, something done by mistake or error. Derived from salah, wrong. 

NyaHdat, sloped off. Cut slopingly. To fall or slip down an inclined plain. 

Nyaliksik, to scratch oneself among the hair for lice ; to scratch the head for what- 
ever of filth may be found there. This is done by oneself; when done by another 
it is - di saliksikan. 

Nyaliktik, to seek , to peep or look after. 

Nyalindung, to conceal, to hide oneself, Lina. C. 608 , hidden , concealed. Nyalindung 
di pipir imak, to conceal oneself at the side of the house. Nyalindung di jero rujuk , 
hidden among the bushes. (Lina in Set. has a very different meaning , from that given 
by CI. , and lindung can not be derived from Una. But we have lindung , shelter , shade , 
hiding-place; Mai. Batav. Fr.) 

N y a 1 i s i b , to hit on the edge and glance off ; to graze. Pe'lor na nyalisib ka na katju r 
the ball hit and glanced of the tree. 

Nyambut, to take in hand. To perform any work. Nyambut sawah, to work a sawah, 
Nyambut pagawean nyusuk , to take in hand the work of canal cutting. (Jav. idem). 

Nyampak, to meet , to encounter , to find on arriving. Nyampak di leuweung , to 
meet in the forest. Kula datang geus to nyampakan , when I came I saw or found no- 
thing of it. 

N y a m p a 1 , to graze as cattle. To crop grass as a ruminant animal. 

Nyampal Badak, literally the rhinoceros grazing — the evening star. 



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AND ENGLISH. 319 

Nyamplung, name of a tree which gives a ropy clammy sap or gum ," and has a white 
flower. Calophyllum inophyllum of the family of Guttiferae. Gives also an oil. 

Nyamur, to become invisible , to disappear , to vanish. ( Jav. Samur , Nyamur , to take a 
disguise, for the purpose of being not known.) 

Nyana, knowledge, perception, feeling or idea. This word does not perhaps occur alone, 
but is used in To nyana , I should not have thought it , I should not have had an 
idea of it In Malay they say Tra? nyana , with the same meaning. See Panyana. 
Nyana, C. 215, wisdom, understanding, intelligence, knowledge, religious knowledge, 
such as is acquired by the reading and study of the sacred books. It resembles / the 
Gnothi , know thou , of the Greek , and is not far from the English know. (Set. Jnydnd , 
knowledge; from jnyd, to know, which is really the same root as gno in gi-gno-sco 
in Greek, gno in co-gno-sco, a-gno-sco etc. and know in English. Fr.) 

Nyander, to spring at and bite as a snake does. (At Batavia said of a growling dog , 
wanting to bite). 

N y a n d i n g , reclining against , in close' contact with. Kapanggih eukeur nyanding ka 
tangkal kalapa, I met him whilst reclining against a cocoa nut tree. Nyanding imah, 
it is close to the house (even without actually touching it). See Tanding. (Jav. Bat. 
M<rm\ tanding, next to, to the side of). 

Nyandung, to marry a second wife whilst still married to a first one. To take a second 

wife. 
Nyang'erok, unable to go further , shoved hard up , as a boat against the shore or 

the like. 
Nyanggatul, confused or foiled in speech or argument. Not able to proceed with 

the thread of a story. 
Nyanggigirken, to set on its edge. (Jav. g$g y er or gigir , edge , side.) 
Nyang' krok, something wanting , some deficiency , which is not properly accounted for. 

A debt which is not all properly cleared off; unsettled. Caught, entangled. Oivoh 

nu purah njang'krok sakali, there was none which remained unpaid or unsettled. 
Nyangsang, caught, stuck fast, detained, got entangled. Duit eta owoh nu purah 

nyangsang aycunah, none of the money is now detained. Kayu di palidken di chat, 

nyangsang di bojong , the wood which was floated down the river , has stuck fast on a 

small island. 
Nyangsaya, sloping , with a gentle slope or inclination. 

Nyantok, to bite as a snake or fish. To snap at as either a snake or fish does. 
Nyarahken, to surrender , to deliver up. Nyarahken maneh , to surrender himself. 
Nyarande, leaning back, reclining. Nyarandi di tihang imah, he was reclining (or 

leaning back) against a pillar of the house. 
Nyarang, to implore or pray to God for a change in the weather, either for rain or 

dryness, when the reverse is prevailing to the prejudice of cultivation. 
Nyar i, to have a remainder, to remain over, a remnant. To nyari, there was nothing left 



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320 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Nyaring, awake, not asleep; with the eyes open. On the watch. 
Nyaru, disguised, clothed otherwise than usual in order not to be recognized. 
Nyata or niyata, manifest, clear, evident, conspicuous. Nyata, C. 215, known, appre- 
hended , understood. (Set. jnydta , known. See nyana). 
Nyatu, to eat. To eat into or wear away. Nyatu kejo, to eat boiled rice. Nyatu gula 
titipan , to eat sugar which has been entrusted to one's care ; to break one's engagements ; 
to violate trust reposed in one. To violate a woman who has been entrusted to our care. 
Huntu panggilingan nyatuan , the teeth of the mill are wearing away. (The vulgar word 
for to eat.) 

N y a w a , life , soul , the breath of life. This word occurs in Jampes , and is most probably 
the same as Nya , C. 215, with the constructive wa added to it; wisdom, knowledge; 
one of the appellations of Buddha. Sengyang wisesa huriping nyawa, Sengyang wisesa 
the cherisher of wisdom, or the one who causes the soul to live. (Wa is no con- 
structive particle , but belongs to the root , which there seems to be little doubt to be 
Set. jiwa, life. From jnydna, jnydta , corrupted we saw nyana and nydta; somewhat 
similarly, but not quite analogous, nyawa might be from jiwa. Compare nydla, Mai. 
to jwdla , Set. flame. Fr.) 

N y a w a h , to work a sawah ; to plant rice on irrigated land. 

N y e b i t , to encroach upon the property or territory of another ; to go beyond our own 
proper limits. To appropriate slyly what does not rightly belong to us. 

N y e y a g , to snap as a dog. (Bat. idem.) 

N y e k e 1 , to hold , to have charge of. See Chekel. 

Nyela-bumi, a direction differing from the cardinal points. Not pointing due East , 
West , North or South , but to some intermediate direction , as S. W., N. E. &c. Imah 
na nyila-bumi , his house is not in a cardinal direction , — which is thought improper 
and unlucky. The ridge poles of all native houses are or ought to run East and 
West, (fild Set., the timber of a door frame; a transverse beam, or a beam or stone 
placed across the top of a post or pillar. From fild might come nyela!? Fr.) 

N y e 1 a p , inserted , stuck in between something else. Lost by being mixed with other 
matters. 

N y e 1 e k e , to shove oneself into some opening where the body can hardly pass. To 
creep or crawl into a small opening. 

Nyeiesep, to creep quietly and slyly into any place. To introduce oneself slyly. 

Nyembah, to go down upon the knees, to salute a superior ; to cower down and salute. 
To make obeisance. (Jav. Mai. sVmbah, idem. Sembah hyang > to adore the deity. A 
faultive reading or pronouncing is sumhah , the same u is improperly found in the name 
of the island Sumbawa, in Dutch even written Soembawa, which is Simbawa from Set. 
Sambhawa , origin ; the a is shortened to e by the influence of the nasal sound , and 
by the accent being on the following syllalbe. Fr.) 

N y e m p i t , to embezzle ; to steal what is entrusted to one. 



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AND ENGLISH. 321 

N y 6 n a n g , sharp sighted ; having a quick clear eye. 

N y 6 o t , rapid in stream ; said of water which runs freely down a slokan ; said of water 
running down an inclined plain. 

N y 6 p a k , to kick as a horse , to strike out with the leg. 

N y e p e t , always having an arm or weapon about the person. Kris njepet bai tilok ka- 
tinggalan , his kris is always stuck about him , he never leaves it behind. ( Jav. Tjapit . 
Nyapit. Batav. Nyi>pit y to comprime, to stick fast to). 

N y e r a t , scribbling. Nyerat bai lulis surat , scribbling , he wrote a letter. (Jav. serrat , 
to write). 

N y e r 6 , the mid rib of a cocoa nutleaf. The mid-rib on each side of which the leaflets 
of a palm frond grow. When the leafy part is stripped off, these ribs are tied together , 
and they then make very good brooms and are called sapu nyere, nyere brushes, and 
are in use in every house. 

N y £ r & , a count kept of cotton thread in weaving. Five threads tied together. 

N y 6 r k , scattered about , loose. Superfluous. Not being made use of. Owoh lahalcas 
nyVre di dinyo y are there no spare tools there; or — are there no tools there which are 
not being used. 

Nyereke, to tiller out as corn, or other plants which grow from a bunch root, as Ser^h. 
To set out side shoots from the roots as paddy. See Nyoreie. 

Nyereiek, to trickle as water; in a small stream. 

N y e r £ p , to sink into the ground , as water running over gravelly or sandy soil ; to be 
absorbed ; to disappear mysteriously , to be kept profoundly secret. Chai na to ngochor 
ka hilir nyere'p bai , the water does not flow down along its course , but sinks into 
the ground. Kebo bVunang maling di bawa ka Meester nytlrep bai , when stolen buffa- 
loes are taken to Meester Cornells (near Batavia) they disappear mysteriously (as if they 
sank into the ground). (Cf. Jav. Surup, SSrap, to get into, to go under). 

Ryer^t, to smoke opium. 

NySri, in pain, painful, sore, aching, ill of. Nyeri benleung , stomachache; NyVri hulu , 
head ache. Di gtibugan nyeri naker , when thrashed he was very sore, or felt much pain 

N y 6 s a n g , enraged , in a passion , furious. Said also when straining every effort to do 
something. 

NySsep, to smoke — said of the act of a great man. (Gf Aseup, Mai. asep, smoke). 

Nyet^, to copulate. 

Nyeukseukan, to jeer at , to ridicule. To say something by which another person 
is made vexed , but not with ourselves who speak. To irritate , to cause inward 
vexation. 

Nyeungeut, to put fire to , to set alight. Nye'unge'ut IMil , to fire a gun. 

NySupah, to partake of a chew of seureuh ; to chew seureuh , to chew betle. 

N y e u r e u d , to sting as a wasp. 

Ny^wot, in a passion , furiou* , in a violent anger. 

41 



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322 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

N y i a r , to seek , to look for , to go in quest of. 

JN y i e u p , to blow , as nyieup seimeuh , to blow a fire — means to light it. (Mai. Tiup). 

Nyihaneut, literally — to take warm water , means — to drink tea , or warm water with a 

decoction of any leaves. 
Nyilunglum, to sit on eggs , as a bird or a hen ; to incubate. 
Nyimpang, to step aside. To go off the main road by aside one. To deviate , 

to diverge from any route. To diverge from any line, as a tool which cuts or slips 

from the right course. 
N y i n g k a b , blown up or over ; shoved on one side. Hateup na nyinglcdb hi angin , the 

ataps were blown up by the wind. 
Nyingkir, to move out of the way. Step aside. Kudu nyingkir, you must move out 

of the way. Nyingkir sakeudang , move away for a while. 
Nyinyu, to mix anything in water, as salt, bran or the like. To commingle. 
Nyiram, to have a longing desire for anything, especially as of pregnant women for 

acids; to conceive, to become pregnant. (Another word is Ngidam, Batav. mengidam). 
Nyirande, to lean back against anything: To recline. 
N y i r i k , to tread out with the foot. To tread out paddy from the straw for seed , the 

grains still retaining the shell. 
N y i r u , the flat open basket implement on which the rice is thrown about and shook up 

to clean it of chaff and dust , after pounding. 
Nyiruan, a variety of bee , which makes its nest and has its honey and young in 

the hollows of old trees, or in the clefts of rocks. Called about Batavia Tawon. 
Nyisang, to use water to clean yourself , after having obeyed a daily call of nature. 
N y i s i g , to chew tobacco along with scureuh. 
Nyisil, to eat grains of paddy, by biting off and spitting out the husk. To take stray 

grains of paddy in the mouth and nip them between the teeth. To gnaw as a rat or 

mouse. 
Nyising, to ease yourself. To void excrement. 
N y i y e u k , to ladle out. See SiySuk. 
N y o d a i , inclined , sloping , set at an angle. 
Nyodor, projecting, sticking out. 

Nyodoran, to hand over. To give by handing. To present. 
Nyogleng-nyoglong, said of a weapon as a kris or badi , which is worn in the belt , 

but only the very tip stuck into the belt , and the greater part or length of the 

weapon left jauntily dangling out in front. 
Nyokchokan, to bung up. To fasten or close an aperture , as of a bottle by putting 

in a cork or other similar matter. See Chocliolc. 
N y o k o t , to take , taken. See ChoJcot. 
Nyome, a joint of bambu, set in a stream of rapid water, into which small fish get 

drifted , and cannot again stem the current to get out, 



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AND ENGLISH. 323 

Nyomplong, solitary , lonely. Left alone to oneself. Exposed on a hill "without the 

shelter of any trees. 
N y o n t r o 1 , to fight at , to spring towards , to bustle up to. Lank nyontrol ha sa- 
apan , the fish darts upon the sa-apan. Mating na nyontrol bai ti leuwewig , the tiger 
came flying out of the forest. Jc'lema na nyontrol bai ha imah , the men came hus- 
tling into the house. 
Nyopepang, flinging the arms about when hard at work. See Ngopepang. 
Nyorang, to take place, to happen, to occur. Tachan nyorang ngala, it has not yet 

happened that I have taken any. Iloh nyorang meidi , it sometimes happens that I buy. 
Nyorang, to visit, to walk, to pass along. Tilok nyorang ha dinyo, I never go to 

that place. See Sorang. 
Ny or dang, to cast a look at, to look towards. Unchal na ny or tang kadiyo> the deer 

is looking this way. 
Nyorekc, said of plants which spread and branch out immediately after leaving the 

ground. See Nycrehe. 
Nyoren, to carry or wear a wesfpon. Nyoren hris , to wear a kris. Nyoren pedang , 

to carry a sword. 
Nyorog, to join a festival without bringing a present. To go to a feast empty handed. 
.Nyorompod, a tangled bushy path. Said of a way which is almost impassable for 

bushes and vegetation. 
Nyoroy o, said of a person who, though unasked, comes and joins at a meal. 
Nyoso, to clean rice by putting it again in the rice block and pounding off any rem- 
nant of husk and there fanning it clean , preparatory to cooking. 
Nyosol; projecting, sticking out forwards. Forming a promontory. 
Nyowod, to cat greedily. To guzzle with impatience. To do any thing with eagerness. 

and force. 
Xyukang, to cross over (a river or ravine) as along a bridge. See Chukang. Nya- 
brang chai nyuhang ha na chatang , to cross the river by walking along a log (which 
served for a chukang or bridge.) 
Nyukchcruk, to walk in the course of a river (not along the bank.) Nynhclieruh chai, 
to follow the course of a river by wading in the water. Nyukcheruk , is also said of 
a roof which has a good slope and from which the rain water runs rapidly away. 
Nyuku, to go on foot. See Suku. 

N yum put, lying hid, to conceal oneself. Kyumput di naguha, he hid himself in a cave. 
Nyumpleng, solitary. Retired and apart from other people. 

Nyungkadang, bending in the middle, curved like a scimitar, bulging out round. 
Nyuprak, to eat with champing. To munch with alacrity. 
Nyurat and nyuratan, to write. Eukl'ur nyurat, in the act of writing. Nyuratan 

ha Bogor ugabejahen , writing to Buitenzorg and giving notice. 
K y u r c n g , gazing , staring , looking , earnestly. 



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324 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Ny urup, to set as the sun. Disappeared under water, under the ground &c. Mata poi 
gHus nyurup y the sun has set. Nu alus iyo bisa nyurup ka ftro burnt , impalpable beings 
can disappear into the ground. (Cf. Nyerep.) 

Nyuruwuk, to fall as water in a large body with a dull heavy sound, as is the case 
at some large waterfalls. 

N y u s u k , to cut a canal , to cut a trench in the earth. See Susuhan , a water course , 
a canaL 

Nyusup, to creep into a hob or covered spot. To hide oneself; to stow oneself away. 

N y u s u t , to wipe away any wet or moisture , as the sweat from the face or body. To 
. rub the nose against another person's face , as the sexes in amourous dalliance. To track 
' as a dog by rubbing its nose on the ground or grass. 

X y u - u k , said of wood which is of coarse grain and will not allow the plane to pass 
smoothly over it. Rising in roughness when planed. Sticking unintentionally into 
the surface , as a stick pushed along the ground , or a cutting instrument going too 
deep into wood. 
Oah, the icauwau monkey; Hylobates leuciscus. Of a large size, greyish colour and very 
shy. Found only among the mountains and in retired places. Called also Kuweng. 

Oar, name of a vigourously growing succulent reed. Flagellaria Indica. 

O b a h , and O b a h k e n , moved , changed in place ; to alter ; to change , to vary. Ulah 
di obahkeiij do not move it. Lamunobah sia tiwas , if you move, you will be done for. 

Obat, gunpowder. Obat bedil, gunpowder, sporting powder. Obat maryem, cannon pow- 
der. The word is Malay and also more usually means in Malay-medicine , drugs , 
which in Sunda are called Ubar. In Sunda, Obat is restricted to gunpowder. 

O b r o g , a rude way of preparing tobacco leaves by the mountain humah makers, viz. by 
wrapping it up in some other leaves, and scorching it between two firy logs. The 
tobacco so prepared. 

O b o s , a corruption of the Dutch word Ofjicier , officer. A military officer. (Rather from 
Overste , lieutenant-kolonel, unduly applied). 

Ochon, a method of speaking, by which familiarity or affection is evinced. This is done 
by a slight modification of the word, as for inchu, they say oncku ; for mama, they 
say ama ; for aprok , they say apoi\ and so forth. 

O d e n g , a bee ; the bee which makes the honeycomb hanging from trees in the forests. 
Sayang odeng , a bee's nest. 

Odoh, dirty, impure, nasty. Means the same also in a figurative sense unclean, defiled. 

Ogah, to be unwilling, to have an aversion. Ogah tcuyn ka7iuja?ian, I feel very unwil- 
ling to be rained upon. Ogah bai ha jeTema eta , I have an aversion to that man. 

O g e , also , although , notwithstanding , nevertheless. Kula oge daih teumpang> I also wish 
to go. Di bere oge y mohal daih, although you gave it me, I should not be willing. 
Hade oge, it is nevertheless good. 

O g e 1 , another name for the bambu music called also Angklung. Ogel is used about 
Buitenzorg. 



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AND ENGLISH. 525 

O g o a n , proud , vain , boasting. 

^g on g> a largish shell fish resembling the Tulut, found in the rivers of the South coast 
of Bantam. Ogong beureum beungeut , Ogong with red face , is another variety. 

O h o 1 , one of the numerous names for a wild pig. 

Ojoi, feeling inclined for, disposed to grant or concede. Having an inward disposition 
towards. 

Ojol, to change, to give or take any one thing for auother ; to swap, to exchange. Ojol 
hula , to swap horses. Wang perak di ojolken , to exchange, or get change for , silver 
money. 

O k o 1 , energetic, doing work by oneself. Persevering without assistance. 

O 1 a h , to cook meat or vegetables — not rice. 

Old-ole'an, a child's trumpet made of paddy straw , something after the fashion of a 
clarionette, and blown by sticking one end into the mouth. Called also EmpSt-empclan. 

Oliah, Arabic, the most High; Saints. See Aulia. 

O 1 o k , using profusely, using without thrift or economy. Squandering away especially 
either money or household stuff. Said also of other matters. 

Olongan, to make love to — as chowiaS eta di olongan ku aing , that young maid is cour- 
ted by me. See Kgolong. 

Omar, the second Caliph in Arabia — same as Umar> a common name for a native. (^) 

Omas, a small variety of rattan , of no particular use. 

O m b a k , a wave , surf , surge , swell on water. 

Ombol, said of planting out paddy on sawahs, where the binih is stuck in by handfulls 
at a time, and thus carelessly, whereas only four or six stumps ought to be put in 
at one place. 

O m 6 , to repair , to put in order , to take of; to interfere with , to molest. Ulah di ome\ 
d'ont molest it. 

Omean, to repair, to put in order. Molesting. Imah kudu di omean , the house must 
be repaired. Omean chukang , to repair a bridge. Omeanan teuyn , d'ont meddle with 
it, literally , meddling too much. 

Ome*aneun, something which has to be repaired. 

Omong, to talk, to converse. Conversation. Omong kosottg , empty talk, said of conver- 
sation which is only fishing for information; Gcde omong, a great talker, a chatter box. 
(Jav. Batav. idem). 

Omongan, to talk over , to persuade by talk. 

O m p o n g , toothless , said when the whole or a great part of the teeth arc wanting. 

O n d a n g and Ondangan, to invite to a feast , or any other occasion of ceremony. 
When a native wants to hold a feast, he either goes himself, or sends a friend to 
the neighbours or such persons as he wishes to see, and over a quid of scureub 
makes his communication. (Batav. Kondangan, a person called to a feast. Jav. Undarnj 
to call, to invite). 



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326 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Ondorosol, impatient, hasty and violent in temper. 

Ong'ap, out of breath , blown , stifling , for want of fresh air. (Cf. Batav. Mang'ap opening 
the mouth). 

Onggel, every, each. Onggel imah , on each house. Onggel jelcma, every man. 

Ongge'ng, to walk hobblingly, to hobble like an old man. The hobbling inclination of 
the body when women are sifting rice. 

On or ^ ret, the grub of the Lege, a cockchafer called Melolontha vulgaris. The onggre't 
lives in the ground and is a soft white grub , with sharp red jaws. It is one to two 
inches long and is very destructive to young plants, the bark of the roots of which it 
feeds upon , and in the humahs, or upland rice plantations, it sometimes nearly destroys 
the whole crop by eating ofT the young and tender roots of the paddy. 

On^kel, to parbuckle; to move by putting a lever underneath and then lifting up and 
forward. 

Ongkoh, separately, distinctly, individually. Ongkoh bai meunang , he also separately 
got some. Jtiuneh na ongkoh ngala, he also individually took some. 

O n g k o 1 , the fruit stem of the plantain , when it first begins to peep out. 

Onom, as for, kula onom, as for me. Sla onom mohal di here , as for you, it is not 
likely that they will give you any. (Perhaps Set. ndma, adverb, namely; certainly). 

O n t a , a camel. Mausden gives this word as Hindu. The animal is not known in the ar- 
chipelago except by report of those who have made the pilgrimage to Mecca. The 
government of Java imported some about 1840 — 1844 but they soon die out. Otuwa C. 
90, a camel. (Set. is Ushtra, camel. In provincial dialects occurs Unth). 

O n v a ni , name of a small shrubby tree , mostly growing in open grass lands. 

O p a k , a very thin cake made of rice flour, and baked crisp. 

O p a n , a bait, especially to take fish. 

Op an an, to bait, to set a bait. To lure, to tempt. 

O p a s , a native police man , at least such as are always in attendance upon police autho- 
rities , the Residents &c. and have a peculiar dress. Any attendant about an office. 
A man to run errands and execute petty commissions. Most likely derived from the 
Dutch word „oppasser," an attendant, a person in waiting. 

Opat, four. Pat indicates evenness, and is a stage in the native scale of counting, suc- 
ceeding to Sua, parity, and Tolu disparity, which see. The word pat for four, is 
found , very extensively in the Polynesian languages. Papat is Javanese , the word 
pat with the inseparable prefix pa. Ampat,\n Malay. Pat, alone in Achinese and Sirang. 
Ha is Eottinese. Fa is found at several islands of the Pacific. Afa , on Pulo Nias. 
Ilatara , four, in Singhalese C. 785. 

Opat-blas, fourteen. 

O p a t - p u 1 u h , forty. 

Open and Oponan, to meddle with , to molest , to trouble yourself about , to care for. 
Kula tiloh ngopenan , I never meddle with it. Utah di openan, d*ont molest it. Opinan 
tcuyn, why should you trouble yourself about it. 



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AND ENGLISH. 327 

Orai, a snake , a serpent. The following names of snakes are known to the Sunda people. 

Ban en, the pig snake, large and black, often seen swimmiDg across water, but is not 
poisonous. 

Uodul, the swine snake, large and black, not poisonous. 

Bungkalaut, found on trees, red and yellow — very poisonous. 

Chabe, a small thin snake, often on bushes, not generally poisonous , but at certain 
seasons is very bad. The natives tell you that on fridstys the bite is poisonous. 

Dulek, small black sort, gets into the ani of fowls and kills them. 

K a d u t , rather thick, fond of being about water, and catches fish ; not poisonous. 

Keupuul, found upon trees , but gets out of the way and does not bite. 

Laki, the male snake. Reported to be immensely large, and many incredible stories 
are told of it, so that it may be safely considered as a fabulous snake. Thought 
to be a great enemy of man , but there are none in Java. 

Lembu, the bullock snake. There are many fabulous stories about this snake, which 
6how it to be only imaginary. It is said to have horns and is seen only in 
great floods. 

Maung, the tiger snake , in red and brown rings ; very venomous. 

P i c h u n g , small kind, brown and black in stripes lengthwise of body. 

Puchuk, a large snake of green colour, treliced with black , blue and yellow stripes. 
Found upon bushes and trees and seldom on the ground. Lives on birds and in- 
sects. 

S a n c h a , a Boa constrictor. Kills animals by winding itself round them and so crushing 
them, preparatory to swallowing them. These snakes are often 15 or 16 feet long. 

Sancha Manuk, greenish and white. Often found on trees or in large buildings se- 
creted among the rafters, where it lives on mice. Catches and kills fowls. 

Sancha Saroni, another variety. 

Se-ong, quite black ; runs and springs at men, but reports do not say that it is poisonous. 

Sinduk, about three feet long and very dark colour; often attacks and kills fowls or 
their chickens. Its spittle, which it is fond of ejecting is reported to be bad and 
causes bad ulcers. 

Sulangkar, partly coloured and found on the ground ; not thought poisonous. 

Tambang or Banchat, the rope snake or the frog snake ; not venomous , catches 
frogs in swampy places and swallows them whole, hence the second of its names. 

Tan cuh, the ground snake, mottled and very venomous. This is the most dangerous 
sort there is, lurks in grassy places and frequently bites men or cattle, which die 
in agony, or lose a limb in consequence. 

Wulang, the piebald snake; in black and white rings. Very venomous. 

W e I i n g , quite black. 
Orang, a person in general, a human being, an inhabitant of, a person belonging to 

any partkular place or occupation. Oravy gummy , a mountaineer, a name by which 



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328 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESR 

the Sunda people generally call themselves. Orang hilir , a person living on- the sea 
board, or farther down the river than the speaker. Ora?ig dagang, a trader. Orang 
kumpani, a person who has to work company or do feudal service. Orang Batawi , 
a man of Batavia. Jcitma na orang Bogor , the man is a person of Bogor or Buitenzorg. 

Orang Utan, words which in Malay imply , „wild man of the woods" — Simia Satyrus, 
is the name of a large monkey found on Borneo, and only seen in Java as a curiosity. 
On the north coast of Borneo they are called Mias, and distinguished into two varie- 
ties, Papan and Rembi, the former being the larger of the two and distinguished by 
Papans ~ planks or calosities on the face. Eajah Brooks Journal, vol. 1 page 224/8. 

Ordg, a mixture of eatables as Bonteng or Iwung &c. with the pulp of cocoa nut. But 
the Bontengs or Iwung must have been boiled and softened , otherwise it is called urab. 

Or ok, a young born child, an infant. Orak beureum, a freshly born child, still red. 
See Beureum. 

Orokan, to have a young born child. To have been confined , as a mother. 

Or okay a, whereas, now seeing that, but, however this may be. A word expressive 
of doubt. — Hayang nyambut sawah, orokaya to bogah kebo na, I wish to work the sawah. 
but however this may be, I have no buffaloes for the work. Sia hayang meuli , 
orokaya to bogah duit na , you want to buy some, but have not got money. 

Orong-Orong, name of a land Saurian, a variety of lizard, with short body, say of 
two or three inches , and a very long switch tail of nearly a dozen inches. 

O r o t , to have gone down , to have subsided , as a flood , the tide or the like. Diminished 
in quantity, less in number. Cha-ah na orot, the flood has gone down. Beunang na 
orot , what we got (as a crop of any thing) has diminished in quantity, a short crop. 

Orotan, to let water flow away , to cause to subside. 

O t e t , the ants, which inhabit a nest made of earth and fixed amongst the "branches of 
a tree. This sort of nest is called Pica. 

O th m a n , the third caliph. rji&A 

O t o h , a triangular piece of cloth or clothing worn mostly by children. One corner ties 
round the neck , and from each of the other two corners , strings proceed which tie 
round the lower part of the stomach , so that the breast and belly are covered. Small 
children are often clothed in this way and are otherwise naked. (Batav. idem). 

O w o h , none , not one. Absent from home, gone away. Not existing. Owoh nu hade , 
there are none which are good. Batur owoh, ngalanchong , our companions are not at 
home, they are out on a journey. Jdlema na geus owoh , the man no longer exists. 

ijyag, to shake, to tremble, to quiver. Huntu oyag kabeh , all my teeth are shake. 
Shaking, trembling. 

Oyagken, to shake by moving backwards and forwards. 

Pa, is a particle of very extensive use , and is always placed before a word , often a mono- 
syllable, to which it gives a substantive form. As Chul the idomatic expression of 
throwing away ~ Pachul , a hoe > an implement for diggiog away earth and flinging it out. 



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AND ENGLISH. 



329 



Pajeg, a fixed tax, anything set firm, from/2;, which see. It is of still more extensive 
use in the formation of derivative words , when put as the beginning of a word, which is 
followed by an, as Gawe , to work, Pa-gawd-an, work, occupation. Gunung , a moun- 
tain , Pa-gunung-an , mountain districts or tracts. Pa in composition is often pro- 
nounced very short, and as such is frequently expressed below by Pe. Amongst the 
words below, which are monosyllables, with Pa before them, the meaning of the crude 
monosyllable has often been lost or become absolete, as in Patuk , the bill of a bird, 
which is, however, sometimes heard as Patok , and means thus an instrument for knock- 
ing or tapping with. But the Chok of Pachok is never heard singly. Pago , Pahul &c. 
admit of no solution to their meaning from the monosyllables go and hul y which are, 
now at least, not in use , whatever may have formerly been the case. 

P a , father. Probably an abbreviation of Bapa, father. In Clough occurs at page 37 , Appa, 
father, as well as at page 459, Bapa, father. 

Pabegal, a highway robber; a robber who attacks travellers. 

Pabeyan, a toll-house, a customhouse, any place where toll is paid. See Bda or Beya. 

Pabinihan, a small compartment fenced round in every sawah, in which the seed paddy 
is sown and where it is allowed to grow from 40 to 60 days, and is then planted out 
into the sa waits where it has to bring its grain to perfection. See Binih. 

Paburantak, scattered about , lying in confusion. Dispersed. 

Paburial, dispersed , scattered about. Said especially of any thing scattered about in water. 

Pabuwatan, deed , act , performance. The simple word Buwat , to do , to act — is Malay 
and not used in Sunda. 

P ab u y a r , dispersed , gone from one another, scattered about. 

Pa char, also Pachar kuku, name of a plant or tree, used to dye the nails red. 
Kuku means the nail of the hand. Lausonia iners. 

Pachar luuweung, the forest balsam. Balsamina latifolia. Found growing among 
the mountains in cool, moist situations. It bears pretty pink flowers the whole year through. 

Pachemut, coming often and in numbers. Confusedly coming in numbers so that no 
distinction can be made between one another. Eagerly trying who shall be first. 

Pachet, a leech which lives on trees, in moist mountainous jungle, and not in water. 
It is very troublesome by getting inside the clothes and drawing blood. These land 
leeches are still more abundant and troublesome among the mountains of Cevlon where 
they arc called Kudaella, Clough 135. They are. called in Malay Achih, Mabsdkx 
page 3. 

Pachi-pachi, name of a common weed growing every where about gardens or culti- 
vated land ; seldom more than a foot high with narrow leaves and labiate white flo- 
wer, growing on axillae. Phlomis linifolia, also Leucas linifolia of the family ofLa- 
biatac. The leaves are used for doctoring horses. Blume gives the native name as 
Daun Sdtan or Devil's leaf, which name is unknown among the mountains. 

Pachiker, awkward walking in fits and starts, limping. 



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330 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Pachikrak, name of a small pert bird, which wags its tail up and down at every hop. 

Pachinan, the quarter of the Chinese in any town. Where Chinese live. 

Paching, a scitameneous plant, Costus speciosus. 

Pacbok, to peck at as a bird does. To pull down or away anything with a hooked stick, 
a pachul or the like. Di pachoi manuh, it has been pecked by the birds. Taneuh 
di na gawir kudu di pachok iu pachul , that earth on the bank must be pulled down 
with te hoe. (Batav. id. Jav. Petjok, to peck through. Cf. Malay Pdtjak, a spit.) 

Pachorok, taken by mistake. Confounded. Got the wrong one. 

Pachuan, D'ont by any means. Pachuan di berd , D'ont give it by any means. Paehuan 
peupeuli, D'ont tell on any account. See Chuan. 

Pachul, a hoe , a very common agricultural implement. The etymon of this word is 
CAul, the idiomatic expression of flinging away. (Jav. Mai. Batav. idem). 

Pada, respectively, all; a word implying distribution; rather than, now that, seeing 
that, since. Pada itumpang , they respectively (or all) went. Pada bogah, each one 
has some. Pada tnandi, they respectively (or all) bathed. Pada di here milih, seeing 
that we may pick. Pada daik mayar , kajeun di daxoa, rather than pay let him sue me. 
(Batav. idem. Jav. Para en Pada aao^A 

Padagang, a trader, a merchant. See Dagang. 

Padalaman, orPadaleman, the abode or residence of a Dalem a native of high rank , 

such as a Regent. The enclosure , house and grounds where a high native chief lives. 
Padalang, the man who performs at a native wayang. The man who sings and recites 

the story, a sort of native Bard. (Mai. id. Javan. <u»»l»\ Dalang id). 

Padoman, a mariner's compass. This word might easily be derived from Du-um, to di- 
vide, and Pa-du-wn-an, would elide into Padoman, anything which is portioned out* 
in divisions , to which the card of the mariners compass not only anwers , but without 
it , a native , who had never seen such an instrument would naturally form the idea 
of division, by having to turn himself to nearly the four cardinal points, which they 
well know , and which are called by them Papadon opat , which see. This word is 
also good Malay; see Maksden, page 216, though no word like Du-um exists in Ma- 
lay for to divide. Padoman , may also be derived from Dhom in Javanese , a needle f 
but Dhom is neither Sunda nor Malay. With Dhom meaning needle, the compass 
would then be — an instrument with a needle — which is also a very apposite etymology. 
The Sunda people never having been apparently much of mariners, perhaps the Ja- 
vanese Etymology from dhom a needle, must be allowed to preponderate. (Jav # 
«n«^\ Dum, according to Gericke E., Division, corresponds with Sd. Du-um, Jav. Dom, 

Padomman, the compass; also a needle.) 

Padri, Portuguese, a Priest; a European clergyman; a Christian priest. 

Padu, to oppose, to resist, to have a dispute, to resist each other. Altercation , dispute. To 
compare by placing together, so that each may, as it were, assent its claims. (From 
Adu, Jav. Mai. Fighting, quarrelling. Padu in Javan. the same as in Sunda). 



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AND ENGLISH. 331 

Padudan, an opium pipe. 

Paduka, an honorarj title given to a great man, or a Sovereign. Pdduka, Clough 385, a 
shoe , a slipper , a sandal. It has usually Sri before it , which means illustrious : thus 
Sri Paduka , the illustrious slipper, as if the person using the expression, dared not 
to look higher than the slipper of the great man. (In Set. are similar expressions.) 

Paduli, see Perduli. 

Padung, a plank, a thick dubbed plank not sawn. The planks used for setting round 
the dead in their graves. 

Pagah, and Pagahan, to teach, to instruct, to give lessons. To accuse, to point out 
as. Di pagah mating , he is accused of stealing. Di pagah goreng , I am pointed out 
as a bad man ; it is made out to be bad. Pagahan ka nu hade, teach him how to be 
good. Budak kudu di pagahan, children must be taught. 

Pagalangan, chocks to set a boat or ship upon when building or repairing. Any fra- 
me work to support some other object. (Galengan, Jav. Galangan, Batav. the frame 
work for rice-fields. The dams of the sawahs. Galanggang, Galdgang , Mai., Mars- 
den, the (square) room pepared for cockfight ing). 

Pagale*ntor, to dispute with noise, many people talking to gether, an affray. 

Pa gas, to cut away the seed strings from the end of the fruit stem of the Kawung Palm , 
preparatory to obtaining Toddy, (Javan. Pagas, cut.) 

Pagawdan, work, occupation. Yearly plantation of paddy. To hogah pagawSan , I have 
no yearly cultivation — also I have no work, or am without work. Pagawian-ulin, pla- 
ying work, child's play. (Javan. idem, in the first meaning. In Malay exists Pagdwei 
ic«l£», contracted Pdwei, instrument, utensil, from the same root gawe.) 

Pagelaran, a place in front of a Kraton or native palace, where the Sovereign shows 
himself to the people. See Ngelar. (Javan. idem.) 

Pager, a fence, a hedge; a paling, a palisade, a wall. Ngabcuntas pagtir to break down 
the fence. Per simile — to exceed your rights , to go beyond your power. (Jav. Mai. id.) 

Pager hirup, a live or quick set hedge. 

Pager ruyung,a fence made of some Palm wood split in slips. 

Pager sari, literally a fence of flowers, implies the collection of handsome young wo- 
men who surround the person of the Sovereign. 

Pager te'mbok, a walled fence. 

Page* to, the day after tomorrow. 

Pageuh, firm, fixed, set fast, secure. Strong and tenacious. Tali pageuh, a strong (or 
tenacions) bit of rope. Said of a person who is not to be talked over. Eesolute, 
determined. Pageuh to meunang di chabut, it is set firm and cannot be pulled out. 
(Kawi idem.) 

Pago, a reading stool, when the natives read a book, the koran for example, they place 
it upon a low stool, 6 or 8 inches high, before which they squat. They write also 
on such a stool. (Cf. Mai. Pagu, floor.) 



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332 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Pag on an, to keep or hold firm or fixed. To make steady. To keep at any particular 

rate. To make permanent. (Jav. Gem, Enggon, place. Panggonan, place, where a 
person, or thing stands.) 

Pagulingan, a great man's bedstead or sleeping place. (From Guling , Jav. to lay stret- 
ched oat, to sleep. Also a cushion. Mai. Guling, to turn round, to wallow, to roll.) 

Pagunungan, mountain districts. Places where mountains exist. 

Pah am, ar. Fehem, skilled, well- versed, intelligent, (**i, Fahim, intelligent.) 

Pahang, having an obnoxious smell. Frouzy. Smelling of urine, when soaked into cloth. 

Pahar£, emulating each other — same as Papahare, which see. 

Paheut, a chisel. The same as Tatah. In Malay it is called Pahat, but Paheut is 

good Sunda; and occurs as the name of a mountain rivulet, Chi-paheut. 
Pah in g, the second day in the old Javanese week of five days. Vide Manis. 
Pahit, bitter. It may be derived from Titta, C. 231, bitter; pungent, with the Polyne- 
sian Pa before it, dropping the initial T. Hoih pahit, the bitter rattan, resembles 

hoih Msur, and is used for like purposes. 
Pahugiken, to offer in a present to a sweetheart. Pyamangeun di pahugiken ha bebene 

he presented his sweetheart with cloth to make adress. 
Pahul, a short bit of stick round which to twist string which is being used for binding 

anything , so as to have a better purchase for drawing it tight. Much used in binding 

up the bundles of Paddy. 
Pahumahan, the place where the humahs or upland rice fields are made. The people 

who make humahs. 
Paido, disbelieving, wanting confidence. An expression of wonder and disbelief. Paido 

teuyn 8ia to daik peupeuli, there is no wonder you will not tell. Kula di paido, lam 

not believed. (Jav. idem). 
Paih, dead, defunct. Jelema paih, a dead man. Kayu paih , dead wood. 
Paila, dearth of food, famine. See Pecheklik. 
Pais, to cook anything wrapped up in leaves and stuck into the fire. Pais Bakatul, fine 

bran wrapped up in leaves and stuck into the fire to cook. 
P a i s a n , as Batu paisan , a tomb stone. A head stone to a grave ; such as used by nati- 
ves. When made flat, they stand over a woman, and when round, over a man. 
Pajabungan, coming from all quarters; made up of several different lots. Sedikah pa- 

jabungan , a festival made by different persons contributing something. 
Pajabur, overflown with water.* Musim pajabur, the rainy season, the same as Pajibur. 
Pajaga-an, a watch-house, a guard -house. A place to keep watch. 
Pajagalan, a butcher's shop, a slaughter house, a place where cattle are slaughtered 

for sale of the meat. 
Pajajaran, the name of an ancient kingdom in Java, situated in the Sunda districts and 

of which the capital is related to have been situated near the present Bogor or Bui- 



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AND ENGLISH. 333 

tenzorg. For its foundation bij Chiung Wanara see Raffles, Java, vol.2 pages 100 — 
104. The name is said to have been derived from a row of fern trees near wich the bro- 
thers Ariya Bang'a and Chiung Wanara had been fighting , but were reposing from their 
struggle. Paku in Sunda is a fern; the fern in this case was probably the mountain 
tree fern Paku-tihang. Pakuan, abounding in such ferns. Pajajaran, set in a row, 
from J ajar, a row; the whole place being called Pakuan Pajajaran, the place aboun- 
ding with tree ferns growing in a row. Pajajaran was probably founded at the close 
of the 13 th century of the Christian era. Raffles, vol 2. page 98 gives the date of 
the foundation of Majapahit as anno Java 1221, to which must be added 78 years to 
give the Christian era A. D. 1299, and Pajajaran was founded at about the same pe- 
riod. Pajajaran was destroyed on the introduction of Mohammedanism about the close 
of the 15 tu century, and this empire thus lasted for a couple of centuries, and had 
ceased to exist before A. D. 1500. In Pantuns is often heard the expression — Ratu 
Pakuan, Mchiak Pajajaran, the Sovereign of Pakuan, and the nobles of Pajajaran. 

Pajang, a petty principality near the old Mataram. An appanage of one of the princes 
of Demak, soon after the introduction of Mohammedanism, and from whom were des- 
cended the royal family of the princes of Mataram. 

Pajar, to accuse, to charge with. 

Pajeg, a fi xe( l tax « An amount of tax on land, not dependent on the actual crop, but 
on the land itself, and thus known before the cultivation of it is commenced. Firm 
unmoving, steady, fixed. Tihang na geus pajeg , the post is firmly set (Jav. Ajeg , 
to remain unmoved, steady, immutable. Jejeg, idem). 

Pa j em on, an assembly, a collection of guests; raanv people. (Perhaps from ar. cj^ 

\ CT^ 9 

JanCu, collection, multitude, from the verb qa^, jama'a, to collect, to congregate, 

wherefrom is derived hi*** , juma't , the day of congregation , i. e. Friday. Fr.) 

Pajibur, overflown with water. Musim pajibur , the rainy season. 

Pajirih, sneaking out of the way to avoid work. Unwilling to put out a hand to do 
any work. (Jav. Jirih, afraid, cowardly. Jirih, fearing, fearful?). 

Paju, going forward, advancing. Guzzling, eating greedily. Di pajuan de'ui, he went 
at it again. Sia di paju maung mengke, you will be guzzled up bij a tiger. (Jav. 
idem, in the first signification). 

Pak, the idiomatic expression of patting or striking gently; also of lying flat as if patted 
down, as Che pak, a level bit of land. Papak, level and even at the top. Tepak, 
to clap with the hands, to pat. Pak-prak, to clap or smak with the lips. 

Pak, Dutch, a package, a bale of goods. 

Pak, the Dutch word Pacht, a farm, a government farm. A department of government 
revenue farmed out to private individuals. Pak kulit, the farm of hides, the right 
to claim the hide or a duty on animals killed, especially of the buffaloes. Pak ma- 
dat, the opium farm. Pak Patar, the market farm; the right of taking a toll from all 



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334 a DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

who attend a public market. Tukang Pak, the farmer, the man who has bought the 
right to any government farm. Di pak t to farm out Tari&uh na gVus di pak> the 
estate is farmed out. 

Pakal, to caulk, as a ship or boat. To close a seam between two planks by forcing in 
oakum &c. (Malay idem). 

Fakalongan, name of a residency in Middle Java. The place abounding in Kalongs or 
flying foxes. 

Fakan, the woof or threads in a web which are crosswise in it, from T&pak> to strike 
or knock together. The Pakan is shot into the web bij means of the Tropong or shuttle. 
Pakan are also the cross pieces of split bambu wove into a Bilik. (Javan. idem). 

Pakapuran, a lime kiln. This word has evidently been borrowed from the Malay, where 
Kapur is lime, whereas in Sunda it is called Apu, and according to the spirit of de- 
rivation would form Pangapuan, which is seldom heard for lime kiln. 

Pakarang, implement, instrument, utensil. A weapon in general, as a gobang, kris 
or spear. Pakarang tinun, weaving implements; the native loom. Sia to mawa paka- 
rang , have you got no weapon with you? (Kdrang in Malay, to arrange, to combine 
or compose artfully). 

Pakarangan, garden or grounds about a house, see Karang. The environs of a great 
man's dwelling. ' 

Pakauman, a place where priests meet or assemble to pray. A mosque and its appurte- 

nances. (From ar. ,y ? Kaum, people). 

Fakaya, subsistance, livelyhood; property. Any work or occupation by which a livelyhood 
is gained, as a garden, an orchard, a trade or profession. 

Pak^, to use, to wear, to put on. To make use of. To wear or put on clothes. Kampak 
iukeur di pake, the axe is just being made use of. Jamang anyar geus di paki , the 
new jacket has been worn. 

Pake*an, clothes, dress. Anything which a person makes use of ; implements , accoutrements. 
Pakean sutra, silk clothes. Parabot pakean tukang kayu, tools made use of by a car- 
penter. 

Pakon, orders of great personages, mandates. 

Fak-prak, to make a smacking sound with the lips, by opening and shutting the mouth 
in rapid succession. By the sound so made cartmen stop their buffaloes, or induce 
them to be easy and quiet 

Paksa, to force; to compel, to constrain. Sia daik di paksa ku aing , you shall be forced 
by me. Paksa is probaly the same as Pakslia, C. 345 party influence or power, a 
side , a flank. As if such were brought to bear upon any one — which Pakaha in its 
compounds countenances as — P aksa-gr a hanay a from a Paksha, side, grahana y seizing — 
Partiality, taking to one side of a cause or contest; confederating, using party influence. 
(Jav. £?*7i^*x Pc!csa 9 idem. Gekicke R. give another form tVksa, of the same mea- 
ning. This shows, that neither pz, j>2, nor te (tcr) belong to the root of the word, 



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AND ENGLISH. 335 

and the comparison with Scr.* PaksTia, side, flank etc. can not be admitted. P2 or 
Te being Praefixa, remains ksha, from a root kshi or kshdi , meaning destruction , 
which word is found in Wilson. Perksa, or Terksa, originally, put to destruction. 
, Compare kshan, to kill. Fr.) 

Paksi, the iron part of the handle of any weapon, as of a BMog or Kris. The iron rod 
which goes within the handle — on which the handle is fixed. Pakshi, plural of Pak- 
sha, C. 345 and 346, a bird in general, a wing, a feather. Paksi is never used in 
Sunda to express a Bird. (Set. Pakshin, Nominat. Pakshi, is derived from paksha, 
paksha meaning also a wing , so pakshin having wings i. e. a bird, Paksht, means 
besides an arrow, and the Sundas seem to have called the iron part going into the 
handle, the arrow of the kris, of the pedang etc. Fr.) 

Paku, a nail, a spike. Pakubeusi, an iron nail. Paku tambaga , a copper neil. Paku lentah, 
a leech nail, a clamp with both ends bent and driven into wood. 

Paku, a fern. Filix. The Sunda mountains abound in a great variety of ferns. 

Paku Alam, title of the independent Prince at Jugjokarta. — The spike nail of the world. 

Paku Buwana, a royal title. The spike nail of the Universe. 

Paku haji, though bearing much the appearance of a fern, is nevertheless a Palm, and 
is the Cycas Circinalis. Another variety only found in gardens is the Cycas revoluta. 

Paku handam, a fern growing with very thick entangled bushes. 

Paku munding, the bufialoe fern, a large coarse kind. 

Paku tihang, the tree fern; grows up with a stem like an areca Palm and has a very 
graceful top. Grows only on the mountains. 

Pakuan, abounding in ferns. Part of the name of Pajajaran-which see. 

Pakuchgrut, without order', at random. Said where every one wants to do as he likes 
and the work gets into confusion. 

Pakulahan, a muddy hole in which buffaloes wallow during the heat of the day. 

Pakung, to tie an animal by a rope to the head, either to graze, or to have handy to 
steal. To tie up an animal to a tree, post or other object. 

Paknw-on, the enclosure round a house; gardens and approaches from which animals are 
excluded. Same as Pakarangan. (Knwu, or Kubu , Jav. Kawi , a temporary residence , 
where to remain a night etc. Pakuwon, the place of such a temporary residence). 

Pal, the Dutch Paal, a post, a stick of wood. A Pal is, on Java, a mile so called from 
the distances being marked bij Paals or posts viz. mile posts. A Paal or Paul in Java 
is 400 Rhineland roods, or Tumbaksof each 12 Rhineland feet, which at each 12.357 
English inches will give 4942.800, which taken from 5280 feet in an Englisch mile, 
gives the Java Paul short of an English mile 337 English feet. Pal is also anv boun- 
dary mark, which is mostly a post of wood, but the people would say Pal batu, a 
stone post, if such boundany mark was a stone pillar. 

Pal a, Nutmeg. Tangkal Pala, nutmeg tree. Myristica Moschata. The word Pala appears 
to be of Sanscrit origin , and means simply Fruity applied par excellence to the nutmeg. 
Pala, C. 372, and Phala, C. 452 , fruit, fruit in general. 



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336 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Palabuan, an anchoring place; a bay. See Labulu Palabuan Rata or Wynkoops Bay , 

on the south coast of Java, at westend of Preanger Regencies. 
Palagi, customary, usual, in ordinary routine. Palagi na di ala, it is the usual custom 

to take it. Lain palagi , unusual, unheard of; litterally — otherwise than usual. 
Palahlar, name of a tree, Dipterocarpus trinervis. Has much ropy gum. 
Palai, desiring, longing for. 

Palajang, a plant growing wild, and sometimes planted in gardens. It resembles a va- 
riety of Plantain, and has red flowers. Seldom grows above 8 or 10 feet high. Musa 

Coccinea. 
Palal, of unpleasant taste; harsh to the palate. 
Palamporan, an enclosure into which Paddy is collected to dry after cutting, viz. that 

part which has been levied as the tax of the landlord. The word is derived from 

Lampor, which in the Malay of Bencoolen, see Crawford's Dictionary, means a stack 

or rick of corn. Lampor alone is not used in Sunda. 
Palanchasan, conclusion, end, having come to a termination of work, or anything in 

hand. 
Palanchu, a long stake driven into the ground for any purpose, as a support to a fence 

or the like. 
Pa Ian g, a cross beam, a horizontal bar of wood. Anything laid athwart. In Malay 

occurs — Alang, cross beams in building; and in Javanese it means across — athwart. The 

Malay name for the long tall grass of the plains alang-alang is probably derived from 

its barring the way, being entangled and bad to get through. This grass is called in 

Sunda Eiirih. 
Palangan, indisposed, unwel. Anything which interferes with what we propose doing. 

MeurVun datang Iamun to aya palangan , I shall undoubtedly come if there is not 

something to prevent me. 
Palangke, a litter, a sedan, a Palanquin. (Scr. Palyangka and Paryangka, originally 

a bed, bedstead.) 
Palapah, the fronds or leaT stems of Palm trees. Palapah kalapa, cocoanut branches. 

Palapah Kawung, branches of the aren tree. 
Palasta, done, accomplished, fulfilled. Geus palasta, it is all done, or accomplished. 

(Kawi, according to Gericke R. Palaslra, dead, died. Set. root Las, to be an 

artificer , to exercise an art. ! ? Pa , Polynesian Praefix). 
Palatuk, a short stake or peg of wood driven into the ground, either as a mark or to 

tie an animal to. 
Palawan, an opposer in any contest, as at games or in active exercises, such as in 

Ujungan or fighting with rattans. A champion. (Persian Pahlawan, a champion). 
Pale, pomatum, or any unguent used for stiffening the mustachios. A little is carried 

by young dandies about the golok or gobang handles. Kumis di palean , his musta- 
chios were pointed with pomatum. 



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AND ENGLISH. 337 

Pa.l^dang, a maker of copper rice pots or Se-engs. 

PaUl£, in proper order; having made proper arrangements. Systematically. Not in con- 
fusion or unadvisedly. 

Pal^mbang, name of an old native government on Sumatra opposite the island of Bangka, 
established by a Javanese colony in the 12th century. The name is derived from Lent- 
bang j to wash ore or metals, such as gold dust. 

Palend^ng, set on one side, disregraded, to walk on one side of. To follow the course 
of. Amusing oneself; unwilling to conform to. La ilah palendeng , God being disre- 
garded. The expression occurs in a Badui Jampe. Palendeng chai, to follow the 
course of the river. 

Palengkung, twisted in a circle, curved, bent over. 

Pale'r, not longing or wishing for women; an aversion to sexual intercourse. 

Pa lias, may it be for from us. God forbid; ward off. Palias teuyn chelaka kitu, may 
such misfortunes be far from us. Hayang n&da palias , y would entreat that God should 
forbid. This word may be a derivative of Paliha, C. 374, a shield, a buckler, or 
from • Palisa which is of the same meaning G. 374. 

Palias, name of a grass, with long narrow leaves; grows in moist cool situations. 

Palid, carried away by water; swept away in a stream. A drift. 

Palipisan, the temples of the head. 

Palis, said of a light or candle which has been blown out by the wind. Driven or drif- 
ted away, as heavy black clouds which threatened to send down rain, but have now 
been drifted away by the wind. 

P a 1 i s i r , cloth or hangings about the upper part of a bed , often ornamented with Eanjere 
and tinsel. 

Palita, a lamp, an oil lamp, a candle, alight. Quere? Palita, C. 374, heat, burning. 

Palo bah, about, near to; Palobah tangkal kadu, near the Durian tree. Palobah imah 
batur, somewhere about my neighbour's house. 

Palu, a hammer. PalugMe, a big hammer, a sledge hammer. Palu, C. 374 a knot, a 
joint, the joint in a bambu &c. (Malay, Javan. idem). 

Paluan, to strike ^yith a hammer. 

Palungpung, the Orchis parasite plant, with pretty white flowers, frequently found gro- 
wing on cocoa nut trees. 

P a 1 u p u h , bambu flooring , viz large kinds of bambus split open lengthways , till the whole 
piece can lie flat like a board. (Jav. plupuh. Mai. Palupuh idem). 

Pamabokan, a Drunkard. 

Pamainan 1 , a toy, a plaything. Amusements, entertainments. 

Pamaja, the chisel used for turnery work done at the lathe called Pamindo, in making 
spools. 

Pamajikan, a husband or wife; literally the „ good one" — or as we should say „ the good 
man" „the good wife". Probably derived from the Javanese BVchik, honourable, 

43 



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338 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

trusty. The word is applied by labourers towards their employer, and frequently 
occurs in the sense of „ Master. " 

P,amakasan, name of a district in the middle of the island of Madura. 

Pamake, custom, habit, what is made use of. Pamake orang kulon goring > the habit 
of the people from the westward is bad. 

P am ales, retaliation, retribution, requital. (Mai. Bdlas, to retribute, to requite, pem- 
bdlasan, retaliation, requital, Jav. Wal&8 en pamales, idem.) 

Pamali, forbidden by some moral feeling of wrong. Prohibited as unlucky. An interdict, 
often superstitious , but respected for fear of incurring the displeasure of God or of 
some overruling power. The Chipamali, or river of Prohibition, in the district of 
Brebes, in the residency of Tagal, was of old, the boundary between the Sundaese 
and Javanese people, and their respective governments. 

Pamalingan, a thief, a robber. 

Pa man, an uncle or aunt when younger than the parents of the person using the expres- 
sion. A friendly term of respect addressed to any person even though no relation. 
See Uah, and Mama. Evidently compounded of ama father in some Polynesian langua- 
ges. In Engano ama-ama is father. (Jav. id. An uncle, a younger brother of the 
father or mother. Mai. An uncle from the fathers side). 

Pamanching, a fisherman; a man who takes fish with a hook. 

Pamangs^n, an inkstand. 

Pa mar at, what comes from the westward. Musim pamarat y the westmonsoon, the rainy 
season, from November till April. (Mai. Bcirat, West. Jav. id. Wind, storm; the 
storms in this country coming usually from the westward). 

Pamaratherang, a fair west monsoon. When the wind blows steadily from the west- 
ward but is not accompanied by the usual rain it is called Pamarat Mrang , which is 
very injurions to young planted crops, especially paddy, which require plenty of rain 
and usually get it at the season , but now and then a year occurs when the rain fails 
and the stiff westerly wind does much harm. 

Pamasangan, an assortment of sweetmeats set ont on a tray for a stranger or visiter. 
(From Pdsang, Jav. Mai. made ready, put in order. MasangH , Jav. to make ready, 
to prepare). 

Pamatang, a person who hunts deer on open plains by mounting on a horse and gal- 
loping up alongside of them , cuts them down with a sword or gobang. This is much 
practised in some parts of the Preanger Regencies bij order of the chiefs. The horse 
so ridden is also called kuda pamatang. 

Pa-ma til, the rays or sharp bones in the fins of some fish, viz in the fins near the head. 
These serve as weapons of defence te some fish and sometimes inflict painful wounds, 
as is the case with the Le'ld. 

Pamatuk, the bill of a bird. (Jav. Patuk, idem. Matuk, to peck with the bill). 

Pamautan, the last leaf which sets itself upon the Paddy straw before the grain makes 



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AND ENGLISH. 339 

its appearance. When being cut, the straw is snapped just below the insertion of this 
leaf, which is immediately stripped off the straw, and this is called di pautan, to strip 
off, to pull away. 

Pam^an, a place to keep rice in. A vessel in. a native's house for holding rice. 

Pam^ntahan, demand, request, what is asked for. 

Pamguntasan, a ferry, a place at which to cross a river, or any water. 

Pameup&uh, a stick to beat anything with. A bludgeon, a mallet. 

Pamicheun, an outlet, an escape, an opening or place at which to throw something 
away, or be able to dispose of anything. The word most frequently means an outlet 
or escape for a canal, where surplus water can be discharged. 

Pamidangan, the place where birds are in the habit of flying to. The place where wild 
animals stroll out to , to feed. A lounging place for human beings , a place to stroll 
about in. (Jav. Midang, to go to a place for pleasure, to amuse himself.) 

Pamikat, something set by way of bait or allurement. (Jav. Pikat, a trap set to catch 
birds. Mikaty to catch birds). 

Pamilih, choice, alternative. Po-ek pamilih, a choice in the dark, not knowing what 
to do; at your wit's end. (Jav. Pilih, choice, chusing. Milih, Mai. Pilih, Memi- 
lih f to chuse). 

Pamindo, a small turning lathe for petty purposes, such as making the kisi, spindles 
or spools on which thread is wound. 

Pamipitan, the first few heads of paddy which are cut. See Pipit. 

Pamondokan, a house of reception for travellers , or temporary sojourners. A place where 
a traveller spends the night. (From Pondok). 

Pamor, the damasking on iron; the wavy lines which are brought out of iron by lying 
it to soak in a solution of Arsenic and which natives consider as so great an or- 
nament. Any inherent good quality which is not every day evinced. Zamun raja 
di rurngan, mohal di bijil pamor na, if you attack the king, he is sure to show his 
pamor (or inherent power). (Jav. Pamor, mixed metal. Mai. Pamur, the veins, or 
damasking of the blades of weapons). 

Pamoras, a musketoon, a blunderbuss. A short thick gun, generally with a wide mouth. 

Pamp^ngken, to fling from one; to fling away. To throw down with force. To fling 
away in a rage. 

Pamujahan, a place of offering, or of adoration. The word is derived from Puja, 
with the usual pre- and suffix Pa and an. Puja C. 414, offering, sacrifice, worship, 
homage, adoration. These Pamujahans are very frequent amongst the mountains, 
being often found at their top, where some one of yore is supposed to be buried. 

Pamuk, a great fighter, a valliant man. A man who in battle makes amuk. 

Pamukti, a fall of good luck. Exceedingly lucky. Prosperity. See Bukti, which word 
it is, with the Polynesian preposition Pa. 

Paraukulan, a place where some beating is going on. Indigo works. 



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340 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Pamulu, shape, appearance , form , description. ( Jav. or Kawi according to G. R. face ; 

shape, form. From Mulu, to see). 
Pamuna, see Raja pamuna y in which ossociation ouly it has been heard. 
Pan, a prefix in compounding words, of much the same force and use as Pa and Pang. 
Panagan, a building raised on posts, a little off the ground, usually made of bambu, 
and provided with a moveable atap roof, so as to expose the contents, at pleasure, 
to the sun and in case of rain, to be able to speedily cover it up. A small Pana- 
gan is found in every paddy field when cutting, in which the short heads and refuse 
of grain are collected and dried. Such Panagans, only on a large scale, are used 
for drying Coffee in the pulp. The word appears to be derived from Naga a snake 
or serpent, thus Pa-naga-an, the place of the serpent, and a serpent or dragon cal- 
led Ania Boga is mentioned in the Man^k Maya, where it is connected with the 
account of early paddy-growing on Java, as a kind of presiding genius. See Kaffles 
Java 2 vol, appendix Page CCXIX. 
Pan ah, a bow (for shooting). Bana, C. 467, an arrpw. The bow here appears to have 
been coufounded with the arrow. In Sunda an arrow is called Anak panah , the child 
of the bow. (Mai. id. Jav, an arrow.) 
Panaitan, orPulo Panaitan, an island lying close to Java Head , called" Prince's Island" 
by Europeans. It is probably derived from the Sunda word Jait or Jayit, to take up 
or out of the water anything which has been put therein to soak. This probably was 
a rendez vous place for the old Hindu traders, who came from India and proceeded 
along the South Coast of Java to reach Bali and the Eastern islands , without venturing 
among the pirates of the inner seas of Java. Pa-nyait-an ^ Panaitan , the place of 
coming up, or taking up (out of the Ocean). 
Panakawan, a domestic, a retainer, a follower. 
Panambah, augmentation, what is added. (From Tambah). 
Panamping, on the borders of, adjoining. Panamping Chidurian> along the course of 

the Chidurian. (Batav. Samping, side, border). 
Panang'an, a respectful modification of Tang^an, the hand. A refined expression. Ku 

panangan Puachi, with the hand of Puachi. 
Pananggalan, the first day of a moon. The first day of a new month. Bulan g$u$ 

pananggalan, the moon has begun afresh. See Tanggal. 
Pananggung, a carrying stick. A stick laid across the shoulder, to which objects are 

attached to be carried. See Tanggung. 
Panangguran, heedlessly, without having an earnest intention. Casually. (Jav. Tanggor, 

to run against a thing, to hurt. Nanggor, to knock). 
Panapak, the foot — a refined expression. (Tdpak, Teldpak Mai. the palm, the sole of 

the foot. Jav. Trace. TVlapakkan, the sole of the foot.) 
Panarima, thanks, acknowledgment, obligation. 

Panarukan, name of a district in the residency of Bazukie, the seat of an ancient trade 
in Java, before the arrival of Europeans. 



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AND ENGLISH. 341 

Pan as, hot. Vehement, passionate. EiikVur panas poi, during the heat of the day. Pa- 
tios IVungan, hot-handed, or a person in whose hands nothing prospers. The reverse 
of this is Ti-is leungan, cold handed, which see. 

Panasaran, a feeling of uneasiness or distrust that matters are not all in order An anx- 
iety to know something. Panasaran nu leutik, the diffidence of the lower orders- 
the anxiety of a man of small degree to know or get something. (Jav. Sasar, mista- 
king; Nasar, to mistake the road, to get out of the right way. Kasasar, confused.) 

Panataran, the name on Bali for inferior village temples, derived from Natar, a court. 
In these Fanatarans, offerings are made to Durga, Kala and and the Butas or goblins, 
by placing the objects offered on the ground. Friederich Bat. Trans. Vol 22 pages 
32/33. Natar on Bali is the innermost part of a house where offerings are made. 
Ditto Page 56. Natar is probably only a modification of the word Latar, which in 
Javanese is the court before a house. There still exists on Java, in the Eesidency 
of Kediri, near Blitar, an old stone temple called Panataran, which evidently has 
had a parity of origin with such places on Bali. 

Panawar, a remedy, an antidote, a charm. See Tawar. 

Panawar Jambi, a celebrated remedy, especially for staunching blood; brought from 
Jambi on Sumatra. It is the leaf-bud of a fern tree, aud the mossy matter adhering 
thereto is the Panawar. It is the Cybotium Glaucescens of Botany. This plant is also 
called the Scythian Lamb, and was formerly considered to be some animal. 

Pancha-bagah, having difference of opinion. Differing in wish or in will. Pancha, 
C. 347 is the numeral five, but is prefixed to a great many words, and seems to be 
at the bottom of a system of reducing every thing to fives* as the five senses, the 
five tastes, the five royal insignia &c. &c. Bhaga, C. 490, part, portion, a share. 
Thus the five divisions -or perhaps points of dispute. 

Pancha-baya, a critical period; a period when any harm may come over us. Geus 
liwat pancha-baya , he has got over the critical period , when fear might be entertained. 
[Bhaya, Scr, fear, alarm. The word pancha, five, added to this and the preceding 
word means many or universal, as it is a holy number; there are five elements, 
five superior deities (on Bali); five Bhfltas or demons etc.) 

Panchalang, an emissary of the police. A person sent out as a spy. Prahu pancha* 
lang 9 a man of war vessel or ship sent out to keep the police at sea. A cruizer. Pan- 
chalang Bogor a police spy from Buitenzorg. (Jav. Ohalang, watching, observing, 
spying.) 

Pancha-lima, a book or written paper for ascertaining lucky or unlucky days, and 
what must be done at any particular period of any day. Astrology. A sort of Psycho- 
graphy. A kind of divination book arranged under five heads, somewhat after the fas- 
hion of the old Javanese week of five days. Over these five days Hindu deities pre- 
side, viz Mahiswara or Siva — Bisnu or Vishnu — Barahama or Brahma — Asri or Sri 
who is the goddess Lakshmi — and Kala who is also Yama , the Kegent of death. All 



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342 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

sorts of rebels to constituted authority generally have , or pretend to be provided with 
a Pancha-lima , with which they dupe their followers. Pancha is Sanscrit for five , 
C, 347 and Lima is also five in Malay, Sunda, and many other Polynesian tongues 
and the compound word seems therefore to be tautology, of which the uninitiated are 
not conscious. As Panchi, however, is indisputably Sanscrit for Five, we might 
fairly expect that the other part of the expression would have its origin in the same 
language and as Lima does not occur in Clough in any admissable shape, it may per- 
haps be a contraction of some more extended word. The nearest approach which pre- 
sents itself is Gaelima C, 186, sinking,- in the composition contracted to simply Lima 
and the „five sinkings" may have indicated some method of drawing or selecting lots. 

Panchar, a bundle of reeds or split bambus used for a flambeau. 

Pancha-teng'ah , in the midst, middle, mid. 

Pancha-Warna, party-coloured. Pancha, C 347 five, Warna, C 625 colour, to paint. 
Pancha-Warna, C, 349, the five colours which are reflected by the body of Bud- 
dha, viz blue, gold-colour, red, white and black. 

Pancha-Wati, the place for keeping a concubine; a concubine's dwelling, apart from 
the husband's abode with his legal wife. Wati, C, 618 a woman of property, a fe- 
male possessing great wealth. 

Pane her, the tap root of a tree. Applied to a man who is the lineal descendant of so- 
me family , or chief person as if lie was the tap root of his stock. (Jav. The princi- 
pal root of a tree, the ancestor; descent in a straight line.) 

Pancheran, having a tap root Firmly rooted. 

Panchi, taken out. Picked out and removed. Driven out, as a bolt by driving another 
bolt against its smaller end. To separate from something else. (Jav. Panchi means 
measured, determined). «, 

Panching, name of a kind of wild Plantain, Heliconia Buccinata, Heliconia Indica. 

Panchir a wedge. A wedge or peg driven into wood work. 

Pane ho, a method of taking fish, by setting a circle of stones, which have an opening 
to be closed by a bit of net when the fish enter. Similar to Kombongan, only done 
more easily and in a hurry. 

Panchuran, a spout, a channel, a gutter, a bit of bambu, set for the purpose of lea- 
ding water, when fixed aud immoveable. A spout to bathe at,- set in the ground so 
as to lead water from any reservoir or spring. The etymology of Panchuran, is the 
strictly Sunda word Chur indicative of pouring out, with Pan and an, the usual pre- 
and suffixes. See Talang. {Panchuran Jav. the falling stream ; Batav. Talang, or Mai. 
Abangan, is the spout, commonly made of Bambu, wherethrough the falling water 
flows). 

Pandahan, name of a place and sugar — mill in Pasuruan, at the base of the Gunung Ar- 
juno. Dalian and Dahana C. 263 fire, a name of Agni, the god of fire; burning, 
combustion. Pandahan, the place of combustion. Can this place in old Hindu times 
have been a place where the dead were burnt? 



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AND ENGLISH- 343 

Pan dak, short, lowly. A modification, or sort of diminutive of Pondok, short. (Mai. 
Pendek, idem. Jav. Pendek i|u^^ low, under, beneath). 

Pandakawan, and Panakawan, an attendant, a follower; as with natives, generally 
a young man as an attendant on a chief. Compounded of Pandak, short, lowly, and 
Kawan y an attendant. 

Pan dan, the screwpine, name of a genus of plants. Pandanus odoratissimus. The young 
leaves, especially those about the flower, being shred fine and mixed with flowers, are 
worn in the hair by young natives when they are busy courting. 

Pandan Pudak, Pandanus Moschatus, a sweet scented variety. 

Pandan Ramp£, Pandanus latifolius, flower shred fine and mixed with the hair. A 
Sancrit Etymology may be giveu for the word Pandan. Pan, C, 359, a leaf, leaves. 
Daha> C. 2G3, a bud, a young sprout. Pan-ddha-an, Pandan, the tree or object 
which bears the „ leafy sprouts'' or ^ranches 1 ', in allusion to the way in which the 
Pandanus grows, being one main upright stem, surrounded by long broad leaves with- 
out any tree branches. See Dalian. 

Pandapa, an open hall in front of a house. An audience hall. (By mistake made from 
Scr. Mandapa, a temporary building, an open shed or hall, erected on festival occasi- 
ons as at a marriage. The Javanese mistook mandapa for a verbal form, and made 
accordingly the substantive Pandapa. But there is yet in the district of Jasinga a 
mountain called Mandapa according to his form.) 

Pandawa, the sons of Pandu in the Mahabarat. 

Pandd, learned, erudite. Skilled. A blacksmith. From this we see that , at early periods 
of Javanese history, blacksmiths were considered learned men , and the traditions of the 
country countenance this idea, the art of the blacksmith being held in great repute, and 
designated by a Sanscrit word. Before their intercourse with the Hindus, the Javane- 
se used stone hatchets which are still occasionally found , aud when the use of iron 
became known, its workers were looked upon as " learned men*. Pandi, C. 353, 
learned, erudite, well-informed in theological study, the same as Pandita. In the Sin- 
ghalese, or at least in their literature, a blacksmith and teacher or preceptor are 
designated by words nearly alike, aud evidently of a common origin. Clough Page 
61 gives — SchSriya, a blacksmith; achayarya, a teacher, a preceptor. So that 
even on Ceylon and consequently also in India proper , the profession of blacksmith and 
preceptor were looked upon as one. The Javanese and Balians confound Uimpu in the 
same way, which designates both a blacksmith and a learned man. (Cf. Scr. Panda 
knowledge, wisdom. A form Pandin or Pandya, which might have been altered into 
Pandd, does not exist. Pandita is known enough. Eimpu read HVmpu or Mpu. Fr.) 

Pand^glan, name of a place in Bantam on the Gunung Karang with a fine view-see 
Negla. 

PandSureusan, a place where fish spawn, from neureus- which see. 

Pandeuri, behindhand. Later in time or place. 

Pandita, a Pundit; a man learned in Buddhistical or Brahminical lore. The word is; 



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344 AND ENGILSH. 

nowadays, on Java, applied to Christian Clergymen. Pandita, C. 353, learned, eru- 
dite, well-informed in scholastic and theological study. 

Pandita, viz Pulo Pandita, the island of the Panditas. An island situated in the straits 
of Lombok, and generally called vulgarly "Banditti Island 11 . The island, however, 
has its name from Holy men and not from ragamuffins. (The island has no particular 
name given to it by the native Balinese; it is called only Nusa, the island, in opposi- 
tion to the continent of the Balinese, i. e. Bali or Bali-angka, the womb of heroes 
or of perpetual offerings. The name Pandita , given to this island, originates in the 
ingenuity of some European officers, who thought to correct the Portuguese „ Ban- 
ditti 11 into a native word! Fr.) 

Pandu, The father of Arjuna and husband of Kunti. The father of the Panda wa. Pandit, 
C. 382, the name of a sovereign of ancient Delhi, and nominal father of Yudhisthira, 
and the other four Pandawa Princes. 

Pan^-er, otherwise called Sunduk; a crossbeam in carpentry. 

P a n 4 k e r , flint and steel to strike a light. 

Pandl, a balustrade; the horizontal piece of wood along the top of wooden tails. (Seems 
to be the Dutch Paneel). 

Panembahan, a title of high rank, as the Panembahan of Sumenap, on the island 
of Madura, who after a long and reputable life died on the 31 march 1854. Derived 
from Sembah, to make reverence or obeisance, with the usual prefix Pa und suffix 
an , the object before wich we must make obeisance. A. title in general below Susu- 
hunan and Sultan. This same Panembahan of SumSnap had for upwards of 20 years 
borne the title of Sultan under the style of Pahu Nata ning Eat, conferred on him 
by the Dutch , for services rendered them in the war of Java in 1825/30. He was of 
much service to Raffles in the compilation of the literary parts of his History of Java. 

PanSng'ah, the middle one. Intermediate. 

Pane leg, any instrument by which something else is held firm or fixed. 

Pang, a preposition; a modification of Pa, when occurring before a word beginning with 
a vowel. Pang also forms the superlative degree, Pang hade na, the best; Pang jo- 
ring na ? the worst. The comparative degree is formed by manan , as hade manan 
nu lian, better than the other. Goreng manan nu sejen, worse than the other. Pang 
has also the power of indicating something to be done for another, or for oneself. Pang- 
omongktin, talk or bespeak it for me. Pang-hadeanken, make it in order for me, 
or for some one else than yourself. Pdng-giringken , chase them awy for me, or for 
your neighbour. 

Pangabakti, an act of adoration, an act of worship; any good deed done under a feeling 
of its being acceptable to God. See Bakti. 

Pangabetah, pleasure, delight. What we take delight in. See ptitah. 

Pangaji, to the value of. Amounting in value to - Parang pangaji sa ratus rupiyah, 
goods to the value of/ 100. (Jav. idem. Jav. Bal Aji, idem ^ arga.) 



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AND ENGLISH. 345 

Pang'alapan, the spot where water is admitted upon a lot of sawahs, to be distributed 
thereon. The place where water is tapped out of a canal. The terrace of sawahs 
which receives the water coming immediately from the canal or the river and which is 
usually the finest of the whole lot, getting the most and the best of the sediment. 

Pang'ali, an instrument for digging earth; usually a stake of wood sharpened at one end. 

Pang'alitan, shamming, pretending to be ill when much work is on hand, and much 
ordering about may be expected. 

Pang'ang'onan, the place where cattle, especially buffaloes graze. 

Pang'anten, a bridegroom or bride. Probably from anti, to wait, to long for. Pang' an- 
ten lalaki, the bridegroom. Pang'anten awewe, the bride. 

Pangapuan, a lime kiln, more usually called Palcapuran, a case or place to hold lime in. 

Pang'arah, the object of our desires. That which we long for. 

Pang'arakan, a place or establishment where arack is made. 

Pang'arakan, the apparatus for carrying a person in procession. A processional chair. 

Pang'ari, a wooden spade, an instrument used to turn over rice in the pan whilst cooking. 

Pang'aruh, propitious, efficacious in obtaining: lucky. Used when any prayer to God, 
or petition to man is granted. Pang'aruh ing jampe, obtained by the efficacious power 
of incantation. 

Pang'asaman, the idea prevails that poisonous snakes whet their fangs on certain vege- 
tables in the jungle , thereby imparting their venom to them. Now if a man gets 
scratched or wounded by such a piece of vegetable, and the wound festers and be- 
comes an ulcer, the people say it comes from the snakes poison, and such a disease 
is called Pang'asaman. 

Pang'asih, commisseration, pity; anything which we do or concede out of consideration 
to another. See Kasih. 

Pang'asuh, a nurse, a woman to take care of infants. 

Pang'awinan, the spear bearers in a procession. Halberdiers, a name given to the in- 
habitants of certain villages, who formerly held the office of halberdiers. See Kawin. 

Pang'ayogya-an, indication, something to serve as a guide; a word compounded in 
the Polynesian fashion from Yogya, C. 577, suitable, fit, proper, becoming. A cal- 
culator of expedients. 

Pang 1 yogya-an patahunan, the indicators of yearly work. Such are the trees Randu, 
Kenye're and Jengkol coming into flower, which is generally about July, which is a 
warning to begin to cut down fresh forest for next years humah. 

Pang'ayunan, a royal bed chamber. 

Pangbabuk, a short thick stick sometimes carried as a weapon of defence. 

Pangbedilan, as Sa pangbedilan, the distance which a gun will carry. 

Pangbedol Sambung, a payment made for deserting the cockpit. Name of a tax levied 
in Bantam by the native chiefs on those who remove from their jurisdiction. 

Pangchalikan, a seat. A refined expression. 

44 



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346 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Pang* £bus, a ransom. The price paid to redeem any object. 

Pang 1 ejoan, the period at which the rice is cooked. The period occupied in boiling a 
pot of rice. A vague way of indicating time. 

Pang'^ran, the highest title for a native on Java below the actual sovereignty of Su- 
suhunan, Sultan or Panembahan, and given to princes of the blood. It is most likely 
derived from Era, bashfullness, shamefacedness, with the prefix Pang, and suffix an. 
The object before whom we ought to deport ourselves with bashfulness or shamefaced- 
ness. The word ira does not appear in Javanese dictionaries, and may in that language 
have become obsolete. It has, nevertheless, the above import in the Sunda language 
(vide voce) and is a very common word. Pang'dran is also not unfrequently used to 
designate God, and as such is used as a vocative in addressing the Deity. 

Pang'eran Adipati, the title of the heir apparent in Java. 

Pang 1 er ok, the strike of a corn measure. A curry comb. Something to perform the 
act of KZrok, which see. 

Pang'drong, the prods or bambu skewers used in fastening on the covering along the 
ridge poles of a thatched house. Derived from Kerong , to wind round, as a rope 
twisted round two sticks, and in this case the Pang'e'rong holds the ropes which secure 
the thatch. 

Pang 1 Surgut, a cross beam or rafter in house building. The beam running at right an- 
gles to the Lambaran, and binding together the two sides of a building. 

Pang gal, a top, a childs plaything. 

Panggalak, the priming of a gun; the powder which rests in the pan. Liang Pangga- 
lak, the touch hole of a gun. 

Panggang, to roast before or on the fire; to roast, to grill. Panggang hotoh, roast fowl. 

Panggangsoran, a bambu cut so as to present a sharp edge against which yams or 
other soft vegetables are cut up, or reduced to shreds. 

Panggawa or Punggawa, high officers of state before the introduction of Mahomedanism. 
Prime ministers or deputies of the Sovereign. The word is given in Marsden's Dic- 
tionary as of Javanese derivation and meaning „an officer, 11 „a warriour," „a hero."" 
In the Tijdschrift voor Ned. Indie, 9do jaargang, 9do aflevering, yearl84>7, page 290, 
the following passage occurs, when giving a description of the „Usana Bali, 11 which 
is a popular description of the institutes of the Hindu religion on Bali. „ There are 
in attendance upon the Prince, all his Punggaicas (chiefs, who are also the stadhol- 
dcrs in the Provinces; thus on Bali, the seven other princes are the Punggawas of 
the Dcwa Agung of Klonkong. Punggawa is correctly speaking a Bull ; it is Sanscrit, 
and thence derived to imply a Brave and Conspicuous man". — The derivation of this 
word is Sanscrit. — Pun, Clough page 405, means, male, masculine; Gawa, Clough 
page 170, an ox, a bullock, and thus a masculine animal of the cow kind = a Bull, 
in reference to the superstitious regard which Hindus entertain for the bull. There 
are more examples of great men's names being derived from animals. See Maisa, Kebo, 



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AND ENGLISH. 347 

Lombu , Itangga. Panggawa is a title among the Dayaks of Sarawak and among 
the Bugis. (Brooke's Journal, vol. 1, page 22, page 46). Panggaxca is also a title 
of rank oa the East Coast of Borneo in the Tanah Bumbu. (Tijds. voor Indischo Taal-, Land- 
en Volkenkunde, 1853, page 343). Panggawa is also derived by some from the Javanese 
word Gawa, to bear, to carry, hence Panggawa is a bearer or a carrier of the orders 
of the sovereign , whence it also means a principal minister of state. 

Panggawe, a workman, a labourer, a man to do work for another. 

Panggebug, a bludgeon, a stick to thrash with. 

Panggiling, a roller. Any contrivance to turn round-as a windlass; name of the long 
bambu, with a short spoke through the lower end, by which, in native sea-going boats 
the mat sail is rolled up perpendicularly, aud which can thus be partly or wholly 
furled or reefed , according to the wind. 

Panggilingan, any machine with which grinding can be done, a mill; from Giling, to 
grind. Patiggilingan Beas, a rice mill. Panggilingan Tiwu, a sugar mill. 

Panggitik, a switch, a stick to strike with. Award, adjustment. Any contribution 
levied, literally, what is got by striking. 

Panggul, to carry on the shoulder, as a heavy weight. 

Panggulingan, the bed place of a great man. 

Panggung, an elevated stage; a platform; a look-out house. 

Panggung, high, tall. A word used towards nobles. 

Panghadean, goodness, kind endeavours, kindness. 

Pangharangan, a place where charcoal is made. 

Pangharti, meaning, signification. 

Panghulu, a mahomedan priest. Panghidu properly means Headman, from hulu, the 
head, but is restricted in Sundanese to a Headman of the mahomedan religion, a priest. 
On Sumatra a Panghulu means the head of a Suku or tribe; and is thus there a 
civil designation. On the island of Nias, on the Westcoast of Sumatra, the chief of 
one or more villages is called Si-Ulu; his power is despotic aud hereditary. (Tijds. 
voor Ned. Indie, January 1854, page 2). 

Panghulu tan dang, a great man whom it is difficult to approach. A ringleader. 

Pangidcran, a revolution, a turn, the act of revolving. 

Pangimpian, a dream, the act of dreaming. 

Pangiring, a follower; suite, train. Vide iring. 

Pangiwa, an assistant, a petty official. A subordinate officer. It may perhaps be derived 
from Iwa, Clough page 71. Scent, the power of smelling at a distance after the 
manner of hounds. With the usual Pang prefixed, would thus imply a very useful 
officer in scenting out information for a Sovereign. 

Pangjadian, the time required for seed to come up out of the ground after planting. 

Pan gj Spit, nippers, pincers, blacksmith's tongs. Any contrivance for nipping or jam- 
ming together. A \*ice. 



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348 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Pangkalan, a place where boats stop or congregate, and consequently where a kind of 
market takes place. A quay, a wharf. Pangkalan China , a place where Chinese 
reside or stop with their trading boats and hold trade. See Mangkalan. 

Pangkat, rank, office, gradation. Tier, row, stage. 

Pangkeng, a room, an apartment shut up from public view. 

Pangku, to take on the lap, to cause to sit on the lap. The lap itself. See Mangku. 

Panglai, a plant, the root of which is much used in native doctoring. It is the Zingi- 
ber gramineum. It is found growing in every village, and no native Dukun can exer- 
cise her calling without it. * 

Panglaku, a messenger. A man sent to communicate the orders of the authorities. A 
petty village police man. 

Pan glim a, a title not used by the Sunda people among themselves, but used as applied 
to some other foreign native chief. In Sumatra Panglima is a Governor or Chief, 
a commander of forces. The word Lima means Hand in the language of the Sand- 
wich Islands, and in most other dialects of the Pacific, but with this acceptation has 
become obsolete in most of the more civilized languages of the Archipelago, particu- 
larly in those of Sumatra and Java, though it is retained as such, viz the hand, by 
the Bugis and Balinese. Lima in Malay and Sunda, as well as in most Polynesian 
languages means also the number Five, no doubt originally derived from the Jive 
fingers of the hand or the five toes of the foot The gradation of rank as called 
after parts of the human body, may be traced also in the words Panghulu, headman, 
and on Bali they also use Chukurda, as a designation of rank, derived from Chukur, 
foot. 

Pang ling, growing up speedily; shorting up. Said of plants or men who grow up quick. 

Pang'onan, a troop of deer, a herd of deer. 

Pang'ot, a variety of Peso-raut, or curved knife for paring anything. 

Pangpang, a dead branch still attached to the tree. 

Pangparang, a piece of wood or bambu tied against a bambu pager so as to be able 
to set it up firmly. A bambu cross stick, the same as Tigir. 

PangpSureuman, to let fall any juice or liquid into the eye by way of medicament 
to cure its weakness. See P$ur%unu 

Pan gran g' o, name of the conical top of the Gunung G£d£ near Buitenzorg, which con- 
tains the crater of that volcanic mountain. No satisfactory explanation can be given 
of its meaning , but seems to imply — uppermost pinnacle. 

Pangrasa, taste, feeling, opinion. 

Pangriyeusan, a flat stone for rubbing or grinding down any vegetable matter or curry 
stuff, or any medical preparation. Called also Batu giling. See Riyeus. 

Pangset, of a salt taste, saltish. 

Pangsar, name of a tree with a gum. 

Pang'ukuyan, what is scratched or scooped out of a hole in the ground. See NgukuL 



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AND ENGLISH. 349 

Pangwidangan, a frame or loom for stretching anything, especially cloth which has 
to be embroidered, 

Paniti, a pin, the Portuguese word Al/inite. 

Panitik, a bit of steel for striking a light with a flint 

Panjak, a mountebank. A man who makes grimaces. A man who goes about with 
every troop of Rongg&igs, and dances with them for the public amusement. A buffoon. 

Panjang, long, lengthy. L&ungan panjang, long-handed, means a thief. Sa panjcuig 
jalan , the whole length of the road ; all along the road. 

Panjang, name of a kind of dish. A large dish of earthenware for setting out food 
for guests. 

Panjer, earnest money. An advance paid on some agreement. 

Panji, a title for a young nobleman, for sons of chiefs of rank. His not in use among 
the Sunda districts, but is heard as applied to the Javanese. Panji is a celebrated 
hero in Javanese romance, called also Ina-Karta~pati, and husband of Chandra Kir ana. 
Pana, C. 385, a lamp, a light of any kind; life, animation; Jiwa, C. 212, life, exis- 
tence, beautiful, pleasing. Pana-jiva, dropping the final wa, which is the constructive 
particle — Panji , the Lamp of the Soul. Panji was the son of Ami Luhur, Sovereign 
of Janggala, and is said to have been killed in a war with Nusa Antara or Madura 
in A. Javae 927, plus 78 = A.D. 1005. (Rafft.es, vol. 28, p. 94). 

Pan on, eye, eyes. A refined expression. Panon kiai Pangeran, the eyes of the revered 
Pangtfran. Panon poi> the eye of the day; the sun. 

Pansmat, a Spanish dollar; a dollar. A corruption of the Dutch expression Spaansehe 
mat = Spanish dollar. 

Pan tang, forbidden, unlucky; interdicted by some superstitious custom. 

Pantaran, somewhat resembling, such as, the like of. Pantaran bVunang di gunung , such 
as you get from the mountains. This word is evidently derived from the Malay word 
Tara> Marsden 63, equal, fellow, counterpart, but Tara simply does not occur in 
Sunda, in this sense. 

Panttfg, driven home; driven in as far as it can go. Fully arrived and present. Panteg 
kapoi, the day is upon us, the day has come. 

Pantdg, in an exceeding degree, excessively. Pantig ku hayang papanggi, I very much 
long to meet him, or her. 

Pantes, fit, proper, becoming, graceful, neat. Hanto pantcs sia bogah kalakuan kitu, 
it is not proper that you shauld conduct yourself in that way. Make jamang pas* 
mint paniis nakHr , he was very gracefully wearing a jacket with gold galoon. 

Panto, a small door made of split bambu; a wicket. 

Pan ton g, to drive in with a mallet; to thump in with a block of wood. 

Pan tun, a legendary tale; a tale or narrative told by a professional story-teller, and 
relating to ancient times, mostly to the times when Pajajaran flourished, and of which 
a love story forms the stock in trade. The man tells his story in a singing and ar- 



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350 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

gumentative manner, accompanying himself on an instrument called a Kachapl Tu- 
kang pantun, the man who tells the story of the Pantun , and is the actor on the 
occasion , though that consists in sitting still , playing on his Kachapi , and reciting 
his story. 

Panuduh, ^n accuser. A person who discloses a crime. 

Panuduh, the fore finger, the index finger. Explanation, instruction. 

Panuhun, entreaty, solicitation. What is humbly requested. 

Panuilan, anything used to assist in driving any object into a hole, as a piece of wood 
or iron, which being struck drives pegs of wood or nails deep into theiir places. A 
toothpick (from being used to drive meat from between the teeth). See 2 nil. 

Panuju, a dagger, usually called peso panuju, a stabbing knife. See luju. 

Panulung, aid, assistance, help. 

Panunggu, a guard, a watchman, a porter. A sentinel, awarder, a keeper. See Tunggu. 

Pan u tup, termination, the last of anything; any piece laid on the top of a lot. The 
crowning piece. A bribe given to keep a bad matter secret. Derived from Tutup % 
which see. 

Panyabrangan, a ferry, a place to cross a river at. 

Panyabungan, a cock-pit, a place to fight cocks. The word occurs as the name of a 
village on the Jambu Estate, reported in old times to have been a great place for 
cock-fighting. 

Pan yak it, sickness, malady, disease. Salcit in Malay is ill, sick, diseased; — not used 
in Sunda. 

Panyana, as I should have thought; as I should have imagined. Panyana mohal meu- 
nang , as I should have thought he would never have got it. This word is the Sans- 
crit Nyana, C. 216, or Gnyana, C. 215, wisdom, understanding, intelligence, know- 
ledge; religious knowledge, such as is acquired by the reading and study of the 
sacred books. The Sanscrit word has thus the Polynesian Pa before it , and Pa-nyana 
is — " the act of understanding." Panyana kula, the act of my understanding; as I 
understand it. So also may be explained the Malay word Tranyana, I should never 
have thought it; compounded of Nyana> and 2ra y the short for Trada in Malay, 
no, not. To nyana, I should not have thought it. 

Panyapu, a brush to lay on paint or whitewash. 

Panyeupahan, the time taken to chew a quid of sfaireuh. 

Panyeuseup, name of a handsome but small bird of a bright crimson colour, called 
also Kalaches.. 

Panyiraman, a watering pot. 

Panyisi, on the outside, from Sisi, side; people living on the borders, and who have 
no influence and are looked down upon or oppressed with impunity. 

Papadon, a cardinal point — either due N. S. E. or West. Papadon opat> the four 
cardinal points. Apparently derived from Padu, to oppose, to be in opposition to. 
Pa-padu-an = Papadon. 



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AND ENGLISH. 331 

Papag, to go out to meet and to receive. To go to meet on the road a person who is 
coming, and then escort him to your house. This is a compliment paid to all per- 
sons of consequence. 

Papag or pa pagan, the bark of trees when pulled off in strips. 

Papahartf, side by side, emulating each other; trying who shall be first; striving with 
others to attain some object. 

Papai, to fellow the course of; to track, to trace. CJtainadi papai, he followed the course 
of the river. Papai urut , to track a mark. 

Papak, level and even on the top; flat. Gcdong papak, a stone building with a flat 
roof. Saxcah pinuh ku chai sa papak ing galangan, the sawah was full of water, till 
it laid level with the ridges. 

Papalayeun, a kind of remonstrative expression against any one who wishes to excuse 
himself from doing anything. Di titah naik kalapa, papalayeun sasari bisa, you are 
ordered to go up the cocoa-nut- tree, for the simple reason that you are daily in the 
habit of doing so. 

Papalayon, a pleasant and harmonious sound of the gamelan, or of people singing to 
musical instruments. 

PapaliaskSn, and Pangpaliasken, to entreat God to ward off evil; I beseach that 
disaster may be far from us. See Palias. 

Papan, a plank, a board, flooring. 

Papandayan, name of a mountain in the Preanger Regencies. South South East from 
Bandung, generally called Papan Dayang , though the correct word is Papandayan , 
the place of the blacksmiths, from Pandai or Pande, a blacksmith. Mr. Friederich 
has heard the mountain very distinctly called Papandayan, by the natives in its im- 
mediate neighbourhood. In Kawi the word is written Pandai or Panday , of which 
there are more similar examples. It has been changed, in the colloquial language, into 
Pandi. Panda, Clough 353, is wisdom, understanding, science, learning. Pandila, 
Clough 353, learned, erudite, well informed in scholastic and theological study. Black- 
smiths or workmen in iron have, in early ages, been looked upon as learned men, 
and hence in Java, till this day, a blacksmith is called a Pandt. These men well 
deserved the title amongst a people who, till the arrival of Hindus amongst them, 
knew not the use of iron , but made use of stone wedges for the purpose of cutting. 
A similarity of thought must have prevailed with the native when he named a vol- 
canic mountain a Papandayan, or blacksmith's shop, as with the ancients of Europe 
when they applied the name Volcano to a mountain in a state of eruption ; which word 
is generally supposed to be derived from Vulcan, the god of subterraneous fire, who 
was also reputed for his skill in blacksmith's work, in fabricating armour. 

Papanggungan, an elevated shed from which a prospect may be enjoyed; a look-out 
house. See Alangguvg. 

Paparah, to adjust, to arrange according to will or testament, and not according to the 
law of Mahomet. 



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352 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Pa par on, to divide, to each take a share. From Paro, which see. Paparon leutak y to divide 
the mud, an expression used in sawah making, where one man owns the sawah, but 
having no buffaloes to plough it, gives the sawah to plough to some one who has 
buffaloes. When the ground has been all ploughed and rendered fit for planting, the 
parties divide the ground; the owner of the sawah plants his own share, and the man 
with the buffaloes retains the other half in payment for ploughing, and then further 
takes care of his own share alone. 

Papas, to dubb off wood with an adze. To cut and square wood with a baliyung. 

Pa pas ah, separated, divided; what was lately united now put asunder. Separating on 
a journey, each going a different way. 

Papasan, to square wood , to dubb off wood with an axe or adze. 

Papasan, name of a running plant, which is often boiled as a greens and given to a 
woman after her confinement 

Papatah, orders, instructions, directions, precepts. Lain papatah, that's not the way 
you were taught; that will never do. Papatahna hade> his precepts were good. 

Papatahan, to instruct, to give precepts, to teach, to show how to act. To warn. 
Kudu di papatahan eta jcl&ma , you must show that person what to do. 

Papatong, a neuropterous insect called a Horse stinger, or a Dragon fly; Libellala. 
A common variety is Ashna Viatica. 

Papatungan, see Patung, having a share with, associated, connected in business. Tra- 
ding together. 

Papayon, a roof or covering. A temporary covering. Anything set up by way of shelter. 

Pape'gon, the Chinese plough drawn by a single buffaloe. 

Papula lean, whatever is planted; plantations. 

Papisah, separated, put apart. See Pisah and Misah. 

Papolah, to cook victuals, to make cooking preparations. 

Papotongan, anything which has been separated from something else. A piece broken 
off. A piece cut off. A man's wife whom he has repudiated or divorced. 

Paprangan, warefare, fighting, battle. Wartime. 

Para, of the order of, of the rank or number of. Bang 8 ana para Raden, his race (or 
descent) is of the order of Radens. — Para puachi, of the rank (or number) of Puachi. 
Para putri, princesses collectively. Vide also Parahiang below. Para becomes Poro 
in Javanese and is usually translated by : all , every. 

Parab, food, sustenance. Naun parabna, what does it feed on?, or what is its food? 
Parab kotok, food for fowls. Parab kuda, food for horses. 

Par aba h, goods, chattels, property. In a collective sense: gear, tackle. A compound 
of Para, of the number of, and Abah> effects. Parabah dapur , kitchen traps, cook- 
ing pots, etc. etc. Parabah tinun, weaving gear; all the implements necessary for weaving. 

Par aba n, to feed, to give food to, to provide with food. Jelema na kudu di paraban, 
the men must be fed. 



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AND ENGLISH. 353 

Para bo t, tools, implements. Parabot tukang kayu, carpenter's tools. Apparently derived 
from Para, of the number of, and Habot, heavy, = things which are heavy, implements- 
Ilabot is rarely used in Sunda, for heavy, though sometimes occuring. 

Parabu, and Prabu, a title given to ancient chiefs in Java, in pre-mahomedan times. 
Derived from Pra, Clough 430, a particle and prefix implying excess, much, very 
exceeding, excellence. Phu % to be, see Clough 443. Thus Pra> pre-eminent and 
Phu t to be, A master, a chief, a lord. As an adjective, strong, able. 

Par ad a, to help in difficulties. 

Parada, (Portuguese), tinsel. Leaf or thin plate of any metal. Parada mas, gold tinsel. 

Paragan, suddenly attacked with violent stomach ache which terminates in death. The 
Cholera Morbus when taking off many people suddenly is called Paragan. Kebo pa- 
ragan, a buffaloe suddenly taken ill, which if not killed would soon die of itself. 
Such animals are immediately slaughtered , and the flesh is still good. 

Paragat, accomplished, perfected; got through. Gcus paragat, we have got through 
the work. 

Parah, a ledge or kind of shelf in native houses, close np under the roof, mostly at 
one end. This place being out of the way of children and people in general, is used 
for kind of store room. 

Parahiang, a proper name frequently occuring in the districts of Sunda. The natives 
tell you that in such places , their heathen forefathers vanished from the earth on the 
introduction of Mahomedanism , and they derive it from Para, of the rank or number 
of, and hiang, to vanish. See Priangcn and Ilyang. Such places may have possibly 
had, in former times, a Buddhist or Brahminical temple or offering place at them. 
The word Parahyangan is still current on Bali, and means a collection of temples 
for all the gods and for the Pitaras or ghosts of deceased mortals. See Mr. Friede- 
rich's account of Bali in 22 J vol of the Bat. Trans. Para in this sense is the Javanese 
Poro, all, every one. 

Parail, and Parailken, to divide the jSkat or priest's dues among those who attend upon 
the services of the mosque, as the panghulu, katib, and merobot. 

Parakan, a place in a river which has a gentle slope, and where the stones are numerous 
and mostly bare except in times of floods. See Marah 

Parakasa, troubled, in difficulties; overworked, etc. etc.; having unnecessary annoyance. 
Parakasa tenyn di bawa ha sabrang , why make so much trouble by taking it across 
the river. 

Parakken, to set to work, to superintend work. Jelema lamun di parakken ku aing , 
mohal to anggeus, if I superintend those people at work, you may be sure that it 
will be done. 

Parako, the fire place in a native house. It consists of four bambus, or pieces of wood 
tied in a square, which is filled with earth, well rammed down, on which to light 
the fire. 

45 



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354 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Parampang, gaping in holes, standing open. Pierced with numerous holes. 

Pa ram an, to seek out, to go for an explanation, to challenge. To dare any one. 

Parang, a small agricultural instrument for cutting grass, weeds or small bushes. Cal- 
led more commonly Arit. Parang is the usual Malay word for the implement, but 
still it is sometimes used in Sunda, and in confirmation of this idea we may instance 
the name of a district in South Bantam called Parang kujang, which means a parti- 
cular kind of Parang. See Hang. 

Paranggi, a man who carves kris heads. A man who carves wood or bone, especially 
for kris heads. 

Paranjd, a place to keep fowls in, — generally a compartment fitted up under the native's 
house. A sheep pen raised on posts from the ground* 

Parantdan, a person condemned to work in chains. A prisoner in chains. 

Paranti, usual, customary; for the purpose of, in order to. Paranti sasari, what is 
every day usual, Paranti mandi, for the purpose of bathing. Paranti narik, for the 
purpose of dragging. Aya paranti na, there is the necessary apparatus, or means. 

Par a pa g, drift wood in a river jammed fast. What is called a snag in the Missisippi. 

Para pat, cut or made into regular uniform shape; made ship shape. Regular and even. 
To shave the hair of the head in shape of a cross by way of punishment. 

ParasabSn, forgiveness. 

Paras i, name of a jungle plant, Curculigo minor, or recurvata. Kaxcung parasi , a small 
badly grown Kawung palm, which will not give much toddy for sugar, which soon 
dies out If after eating the fruit of the Parasi, a person drinks water, it has a plea- 
sant, sweet taste, thereby often leading people astray as to its real flavour. From 
this circumstance the plant may have got its name, which sounds like Sanscrit, and 
may be a contraction or corruption of Parastri, from Para, other, Stri, woman, and 
in Singhalese occurs the expression Parastri Sewana , C. 364, adulteration, fornication. 
Sewana is serving. Parastri or Parasi , may therefore have the meaning of „ adulteress," 
from enticing the people to eat it, or to work the palm for sugar, and finding it 
deception. 

Pa rat, cut through; having a passage through. Liang par at , a hole with a clear pas- 
sage through ; a hole gaping open from end to end. 

Parawantan, a kind of superstitious offering of cocoa nuts, sugar cane, plantains etc. 
hung up to the ridge pole of a new house whilst building, under the idea of driving 
away evil spirits. Probably derived from Wanta, C. 621, destroyed or subjugated 
(viz the evil spirits). The natives of Ceylon have a similar custom when putting up 
any building. 

Parayoga, great and strong; substantial, well made, perfect in all its parts. Parayoga 
is compounded of Para, of the number or rank of, and Yoga, C. 576, religious 
and abstract meditation, refraining the mind from external objects, and fixing it in 
profound absorption. Fitness, propriety. Magic, or the acquisition of supernatural 



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AND ENGLISH. 355 

powers by the mystical or magical worship of Siwa, Durga and Kartikeya etc. Pa- 
rayoga thus probably originally meant those who had attained celebrity by religious 
meditation or tapa, in Buddhist or Hindu times, and hence became used to mean 
anything which had attained perfection. 
Par£, paddy, Oriza sativa. Rice in the ear or husk. When ground it is called Bcas , 
and when cooked Kejo. The Sunda people have an idea that paddy was called Pare 
originally from growing up regularly to same height, and bearing fruit evenly, and 
thus Papahare, side by side, emulating each other; the word was shortened into Pare. 
The Sunda people have a well known tradition that a time existed when their ances- 
tors were not acquainted with paddy, but lived on Jegeng. Paddy is either grown 
on irrigated lands and hence called Pare sawah, or on uplands dependent upon rain 
and called Pare humah or Pare pasir. It may be useful to subjoin a list of the 
varieties known at Jasinga, distinguishing the sawah from the humah, giving the co- 
lour of the rice and noting whether the ears bear awns or beards or not. The fol- 
lowing is a list of Pare sawah. 

1 Angsana BahSula, white, bearded. 

2 Angsana lSutik, white, bearded. 

3 Banting, white, bearded. 

4 B^nt^ng, „ „ 

5 BSurSum gSd6, or Rabik, red, bearded. 

6 „ Huis, red. 

7 „ Loyor, red, bearded. 

8 „ Seks^k, „ „ 

9 ChSr6 Bogor, white, beardless. 

10 „ Changkaruk, red, beardless. 

11 „ Gadog, red, beardless. 

12 „ Kadut, white, beardless. 

13 „ Malati, „ „ 

14 „ Pichung, ,. „ 

15 „ Taropong, „ „ 

16 „ Tigaron, „ 

17 „ Tongsan, red, beardless, a variety introduced from China; ripens in 
80 or 90 days. 

18 Chindd, white, bearded. 

19 Chokrom, white, beardless. 

20 Gajah menur, white, bearded. 

21 GSbang, „ „ 

22 Genja, „ „ grows quick. 

23 Giliran, „ „ 

24 Gimbal, „ „ 



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356 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

25 Grogol, white, beardless. 

26 GucUlan, white, bearded. 

27 Kadut, white, beardless. 

28 Kamuning, white, bearded. 

29 Katunchar, white, beardless. 

30 Ketan Bebek, white, bearded. 

31 „ Beledug, white, bearded. 

32 „ Beureura, red. 

33 „ Hidgung, black, bearded. 

34 „ Huis, white, bearded. 

35 „ JayantiorBogor, white, bearded. 

36 „ Minjangan, white, bearded. 

37 „ Sdnggolan, „ „ 

38 Lampuyang, white, bearded. 

39 Madura, „ „ 

40 Manglar, „ „ 

41 Ma tar am, „ „ 

42 Seri kuning, „ „ 

43 Sikep, „ „ 

44 Sisit Naga, „ „ 

45 Soglsng, „ „ 

Now follows a list of Pare humah, which are more than three times as numerous as 
those growing on the sawahs: 

1 Ambon, white, bearded. 

2 Bad i gal, red, bearded, an early sort. 

3 Baduyut or LSubgut, white, bearded. 

4 Bagoan or Ujung Gunung, red, bearded. 

5 Bangban, white, beardless. 

6 Bantan or Siyat, white, bearded. 

7 Banting, white, bearded. 

8 Batu, white, beardless. 

9 Bentik, white, bearded. 

10 Beunteur, red, beardless. 

11 Beureum Banggala, red, bearded. 

12 „ Barudin, red, bearded. 

13 „ Gebang, red, bearded. 

14 „ Jalani or Par<S Maringgui, red, beardlesr 

15 „ Kancha-na, red, beardless. 

16 „ Ka pun dung, red, beardless. 

17 „ Karudin, B. Bidur, B- Bgdui ox B. Karang, all four are the 

same kind. lied, bearded. 



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AND ENGLISH. 

18 Bear£um KSsur, red, beardlesi. 

19 „ Lopang or Pulung, red, beardless. 

20 „ Li mar, red, beardless, much planted. 

21 „ Loyor, red, bearded, much planted. 

22 „ Ma ng gal a, red, bearded. 

23 „ Ng^nge, red, beardless, much planted. 

24 „ Peutuui or Baduyut, red, bearded. 

25 „ Rachik or Tiwu, red, bearded. 

26 „ Ran da, red, bearded. 

27 „ Ranji, Warn a, Oja, red, beardless. 

28 „ Ron y ok or Gimbal, red, bearded. 

29 „ Salir or Riji, red, beardless. 

30 „ S^rrfh, red, bearded. 

31 „ SSungkek, red, beardless. 

32 Biluk, white, bearded. 

33 Birus, white, beardless. 

34 Bubuai or Bali, white, bearded. 

35 Bujang, white, beardless. 

36 Bunar, white, bearded. 

37 Buntut A jag, white, bearded. 

38 Champaka,. white, bearded. 

39 Chandana, white, beardless. 

40 Chauk, white, bearded. 

41 ChSr6 Beureum, red, beardless. 

42 „ Kalapa, white, beardless. 

43 ., Malati, white, beardless. 

44 „ PingpingKasir, white, beardless. 

45 „ Ratus, white, beardless. 

46 „ Satak, red, beardless. 

47 Chinde, white, bearded. 

48 Chokrom, white, beardless. 

49 Deltas, white, bearded. 

50 Dirah, white, bearded. 

51 Gadog or Gintung, black, bearded. 

52 Gajah Mtfnur. white, bearded. 

53 Gajah Pulen, white, bearded. 

54 Gandreng or Kol^l^t, white, beardless. 

55 Gimbal, white , bearded. 

56 Gumang, red, beardless. 

57 Gun dot, white, beardless. 



357 



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358 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

58 Hapit, red, beardless, grains grow together in twos and threes. 

59 Injuk, white, bearded. 

60 Jalawara, white, bearded. 

61 Jainbon, white, bearded. 
f>2 Jambu, white, bearded. 

63 J am pang, white, beardless. 

64 Jeruk, white, beardless. 

65 Kadaka, white, bearded. 

66 Katunchar, white, bearded. 

67 Kawalu, yellow, beardless, a peculiar kind planted by the Badui of Bantam. 

68 Kgtan Asmara, red, bearded. 

69 „ Bantdng or Smut Lutang, white, bearded. 

70 „ Beureum, red, bearded. 

71 „ Buntut Kuda, white, bearded. 

72 „ Buntut Ayiruan, white, bearded. 

73 „ Cheuri, white, beardless. 

74 „ Chikur or Nangka, red, beardless. 

75 „ Hideung, black, beardless. 

76 „ Huis, white, bearded. 

77 „ Jaldha or Salasi, white, bearded. 

78 „ Jalupang, white, bearded. 

79 „ KSrud, white, bearded. 

80 „ Kidang, white, bearded. 

81 „ Loyor, white, bearded. 

82 „ Padi laki or Poho di laki, white, bearded. 

83 „ PSndok, white, bearded. 

84 „ Kuyung, white, bearded. 

85 „ Saja, red, beardless. 

86 „ Salompdt, white, bearded. 

87 „ Tigaron or Kasumba, white, beardless. 

88 KSuyeup, white, bearded. 

89 Kidang, „ „ 

90 Koas, „ „ 

91 Kon^ng, „ „ 

92 Konyal, „ „ 

93 LSndi, „ „ 

94 Li li tan, „ „ 

95 Lopang, „ „ 

96 Lulut, white, beardless. 

97 Ma la man, „ „ 



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AND ENGLISH. 



359 



06 Man da la, white, bearded. 
99 Manjara, white, bearded. 
300 Marah, white, bearded. 

101 Marukan or Langkap, red, bearded. 

102 Mas or Golden, white, bearded, 

103 Mayan g, white, beardless. 

104 Mayangan, white, bearded. 

105 Mayor, white,, bearded. 

106 Ment^ng, white, beardless. 

107 Minyan, white, bearded. 

108 Mohong, white, bearded. 

109 Mo log, red, bearded. 

110 Munding; white, bearded. 

111 Naga wuling = Black Dragon, white, beardless. 

112 Nandi, white, beardless. 

113 Ngal^ng, white, beardless. 

114 Nurun, white, bearded. 

115 Od^ng or Marukan, white, beardless. 

116 Pandak, white, bearded. 

117 Pendok, Megai or Kokod, white, beardless. 

118 PSutSui, white, bearded. 

119 Peutgui leubSut, white, bearded. 

120 Pichung, white, beardless. 

121 Rachik, white, bearded. 

122 Rajah Pain una, all the Invocations, red, beardless. 

123 Raja Sana, white, bearded. 

124 Rogol or Munch an g, white, beardless. 

125 Rumbai, white, beardless. 

126 Ruyuk, white, beardless. 

127 Sabagi, white, bearded. 

128 Salak, white, bearded. 

129 Salak charang or Salak madur, white, bearded. 

130 Salak Gading, white, bearded. 

131 Samarang, white, bearded. 

132 Sampang hurang, white, bearded. 

133 Sancha, white, bearded. 

134 S<^r^h, white, bearded. 

135 Sdr^h PSndok, white, bearded. 

136 Sen pa, white, beardless. 

137 Sikulan, white, beardless. 



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360 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

138 Singgul, white, bearded. 

139 Sisit Naga, Dragon's Scales, white, beardless. 

140 Son do, white, beardless. 

141 Tambleg, red, beardless. 

142 Tanjung, white, beardless. 

143 Tanggai, white, beardless. 

144 Tanggai lopang, white, beardless. 

145 Tim bun, white, bearded. 

146 Tun dun, white, bearded. 

147 Tunggul, white, bearded. 

148 Wahangan, white, bearded. 

149 Walen, white, bearded. 

150 Wasiyat or Changkaruk, black, bearded. 

Pardksa, to examine, to investigate, to enquire, to search. Pre'ksha,C 450, from Pra , 
before Ifcsha, to see. Intellect, understanding; viewing, looking, observing, seeing. 
Parikshawa, C. 366, from Pari, intense, Iksha, to see. Searching, trying, examin- 
ation , investigation , test , trial , experiment. 

P r e k s a-a n , investigation , inquiry , examination. 

Pardmpeng, name of a small tree, Croton laevifolium. 

Par en dang, the rainy season, say from about Nov. till March. 

Par en g, agreeable, conceded; willing, granted. Lamun paring , hayang minta ngahutang , 
if it is agreeable, I would wish to buy on credit. 

Parengpe'ng, name of a tree in young jungle, Croton laevifolium. The same as Parimpeng. 

Parengrc'ngan , by mutual consent or general agreement. Said when several authori- 
ties agree upon a line of conduct or decision. 

Parentah, order, command, direction, injunction. Authority, government. Nj eke I pa- 
re niah , to be endowed with authority. To hold sway. 

Pare redan, a sledge. A conveyance consisting of a wooden or bambu frame dragged 
along the ground , on which anything can be loaded , as paddy or. the like. Derived 
from Sere'dy which see. 

Pareum, extinguished, put out. Blocked up, discontinued. Damar na pareum, his torch 
has gone out. Jalan na pareum, that road is blocked up; no longer used; impassable. 

Pari, the ray-fish; — its skin is very rough, and when dried is used for rasps. 

Pari, a variety of Manggah so called. 

Pari, viz Chandi Pari. The Pari temples in the delta of Sourabaya, three pauls W. N. 
W. from Porong. They are built of brick. Pari, C. 389, one not having known 
a woman; a quantity of water; a water jar. Pari, C. 365, homage, respect; orna- 
ment. If the first meaning be adopted, they might be temples of Buddhist priests, 
who are devoted to celebacy. Or they may be homage-temples, or temples which 
are an ornament of the land. 



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AND ENGLISH. 361 

Pari a, a cucufbitoas liatie giving a fruit with bitter taste, and covered with short stumpy 

knobs. Momordica Charantia. 
Paribasah, an expression; a method of expressing oneself. A maxim, a saying. Pari- 

bhasa, C. 368, play, sport, amusement; a grammatical maxim given as a summary 

explanation of certain rules of grammar: (in medicine) Prognosis. 
Pariggi, suitable, fit, proper, becoming, appropriate. 
ParigSlken, to put in order; to set to rights; to arrange matters. 
Parigi, a ditch, a trench, either deep or shallow. A fosse dug round a house, or round 

any enclosure, with a view to using it as a defence or means of defence. Parikha, 

C. 366, from Pari round, Kha t to dig, — a moat, a trench, a ditch round a fort. 
Parihatin, careful; paying proper attention to all requirements. 
Parit, to wind a running string round any fence work; to interlace pieces of wood or 

bambu, but not to knot each stick separately. 
Paro, part, portion. To divide. Kudu di paro lima, you must divide by five, only take 

on fifth. See Saparo and Paparon. 
Parol, to gather fruit by drawing the branch or stem through the hand, so that the fruit 

drops off. To strip off roughly. Kopi na ulah di parol, do not pull the coffee off 

roughly. 
Parrai, name of a small but plentiful fish, in stagnant water, in swamps or small streams, 

seldom above a couple of inches long. Leuciscus ArgyrotaCnia. Ki-parrai> name of 

a tree, Lepisanthes montana. 
Par si, Persian. Kuda Parsi, a Persian horse. 
Parud, to rasp, to reduee by filing. 
Parudan, a bit of plank set with fine spikes, on with cocoa nut is rubbed down to fine 

shreds. A fine rasp. 
Parung, a place in a river where the water has a long and gradual but rapid fall over 

a rough bottom. When over a smooth bottom it is called Bantar. 
Parungpung, the hollow in the stem of a tree. Any hollow in a growing tree. 
Parut, paid off, discharged in full — as a debt. 
Pas, a passport. The Dutch word Pat, a passport. 
Pas, occurs only in Jalan pas, said of a horse which is running at a peculiar pace, where 

by it moves both legs on one side, at same time. The word Pas is most likely of 

Portuguese origin. The „ Jalan pas" is a very easy pace for the rider, as the jolting 

of the usual European galop or canter is avoided, and the rider sits comfortably and 

moves quickly. 
Pasah, a plane; a carpenter's tool for smoothing wood. 

Pasal, the Arabic Fasal, article, section, paragraph, subdivision of a writing. 
Pasalisihan, missing each other, not meeting in consequence of travelling somewhat 

different routes. In Malay SVlisih, Marsden 178, to differ, to vary from, to beat 

variance. Difference (in quality or in opinion). 

4C 



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362 A DICTIONARY SUNDANESE 

Pasang, a pair, a couple. Sa pasang, one pair. Dua pasang, two pairs. 

Fa sang, the wild oaks or Querci, on the mountains, generally go by this name of Pasang. 
There are several varieties, but the Quercus Robur, or common oak of Europe is 
not among the number, and none of them have indented leaves like it, but bear a- 
corns in great abundance and variety of size and shape. 

Pasang, the flood tide, the advancing tide. Laut euktiur pasang , the tide of the sea is 
setting in. 

Pasang, to apply, to put in motion or in use. To join together ; to set up, as machinery 
or the like. To lay bricks , to build them up. Panggilingan tachan di pasang , he 
has not yet set up his mill. To yoke a buffaloe or horse. Kebo gerrah di pasang, 
look sharp and put to the buffaloe (to the cart or plough). Pasang bander a, to hoist 
a flag, Pasang omong, to join in conversation. 

Pasang Batu, name of a tree on the mountains, Lithocarpus Javensis. 

Pasangan, a yoke, a piece of wood laid over the necks of two buffaloes when yoked 
for use. The o